Engaging Boys and Men in Sexual Assault Prevention

Engaging Boys and Men in Sexual Assault Prevention

Theory, Research, and Practice

1st Edition - March 18, 2022

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  • Editors: Lindsay Orchowski, Alan Berkowitz
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128192023
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128192887

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Engaging Boys and Men in Sexual Assault Prevention: Theory, Research and Practice explores sexual assault prevention programs for boys and men. Following an ecosystemic perspective, the book examines individual risk and protective factors, discusses initiatives to prevent sexual aggression (i.e., bystander intervention programs, given their use among men), covers programs that specifically seek to engage boys and men in sexual assault prevention, presents key risk and protective factors for sexual aggression (i.e., healthy masculinity, rape myth acceptance), and describes the need and rationale for sexual assault prevention efforts.

Key Features

  • Addresses current challenges and controversies in the field of sexual assault prevention
  • Explores existing individual-level workshops and media-based interventions that address men’s violence against women
  • Reviews the association between traditional masculine norms and sexual violence perpetration
  • Discusses international sexual assault prevention programs that engage boys and men
  • Highlight how aspects of hypermasculinity strongly correlate with sexual aggression
  • Provides an overview of research that examines risk factors for sexual aggression
  • Synthesizes the conceptualization of rape myths, current assessments of rape myths, and examines how rape myths function as a risk factor for perpetration


Intended for researchers who explore sexual assault risk reduction efforts, practitioners in sexual assault prevention work. It may also be used by those in women’s or gender studies, sociology, or in violence and/or criminal justice

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contributors
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction to the volume
  • References to other volumes and chapters cited above
  • Chapter 1: A brief history of the science and practice of engaging boys and men in sexual assault prevention
  • Abstract
  • The scope of sexual aggression among boys and men
  • Fundamental principles guiding prevention with boys and men
  • The evolution of efforts to engage men and boys in sexual violence prevention
  • What does it mean to “engage” boys and men in prevention of sexual assault?
  • Barriers to engaging men in violence prevention
  • Guiding prevention frameworks
  • Limitations and future directions
  • Summary and conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 2: A review of theories describing the etiology of sexual aggression among boys and men and implications for prevention
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Etiological theories of sexual aggression
  • Implications for Prevention
  • Summary, next steps, and conclusion
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 3: Sexual violence prevention with men and boys as a social justice issue
  • Abstract
  • Sexual violence prevention with men and boys as a social justice issue
  • Rationale for engaging men and boys in prevention of sexual violence
  • Features of sexual assault prevention work with men and boys
  • Sexual violence prevention as a social justice project
  • Violence prevention for social justice?
  • Next steps
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Risk and protective factors for sexual aggression across the ecosystem: An overview
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Societal and community factors
  • Relationship factors
  • Individual factors
  • Situational factors
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 5: The role of rape myths in contributing to sexual aggression: Theory, research, and implications for prevention
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The definition and significance of rape myths
  • Theoretical frameworks for understanding rape myths
  • Historical development of the concept
  • Measurement
  • Correlates of rape myth beliefs
  • Rape myth beliefs and perpetration of sexual aggression
  • Prevention programming and rape myths
  • Rape myths as predictors of other prevention outcomes
  • Rape myths as a part of comprehensive prevention
  • Critiques and limitations of rape myths
  • Areas in need of further research
  • References
  • Chapter 6: The culture of masculinity and sexual violence: Raising boys to be nonviolent men
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Conceptualizing masculinity
  • The way we measure: It matters
  • How masculine norms are learned
  • Evidence for the link between masculinity and sexual violence
  • Extant interventions addressing masculinity and sexual violence
  • Concluding thoughts and next steps
  • Summary and conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 7: The social norms approach as a strategy to prevent violence perpetrated by men and boys: A review of the literature
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Overview of the social norms approach
  • The social norms approach and gender transformational approaches
  • Purpose of the present chapter
  • Summary of existing research
  • Misperception of peer support for rape myths as a facilitator for violence-prone men to perpetrate sexual assault and domestic violence
  • The influence of misperceptions on bystander intervention among nonperpetrators
  • Evaluations of norms correction interventions to prevent men’s violence
  • Conclusions and future directions
  • Recommendations regarding audience composition and format
  • Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Alcohol and men’s sexual aggression: Review of research and implications for prevention
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Literature review
  • What have we learned from cross-sectional surveys which examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual aggression within a single timepoint?
  • What have we learned from prospective surveys which examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual aggression across multiple timepoints?
  • What have we learned from surveys that assess alcohol consumption during a sexual assault incident?
  • What have we learned from experiments that randomly assign participants to drink an alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverage?
  • Suggestions for future research
  • Prevention and policy implications
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Sexual consent and the prevention of sexual aggression
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Part 1: Operationalizing sexual consent: How do people conceptualize, define, and communicate sexual consent?
  • Part 2: Addressing sexual consent in the context of sexual assault prevention
  • Part 3: Recommendations for sexual consent and sexual violence prevention
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Social marketing approaches to raising awareness about men’s violence against women: Theory, research, and practice
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • History of social marketing as a prevention tool
  • Social norms marketing: A specific type of social marking
  • Theoretical considerations pertaining to social marketing campaigns
  • The evidence base for social marketing campaigns to address violence
  • Future directions
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Efficacy of sexual assault prevention with men and boys
  • Abstract
  • Review approach for this chapter
  • Review of SV prevention programs with boys and men
  • Review of programs that engage boys in mixed gender contexts
  • Programs to watch: Important directions in men’s engagement programming
  • Discussion and implications
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Engaging boys and men as allies in prevention: The efficacy of bystander program approaches for boys and men
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • History and definition of the bystander intervention model
  • Theoretical and conceptual influences on bystander behavior
  • Discussion of bystander intervention programs
  • Considerations for programming
  • References
  • Chapter 13: The integrated model of sexual aggression: A synthesis of 30 years of research and practice
  • Abstract
  • Components of the integrated model of sexual assault and acquaintance rape
  • Updating the integrated model of sexual assault to acknowledge the synergistic nature of social norms and bystander intervention
  • Applications of the integrated model of sexual assault to prevention programming with boys and men
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 14: Using technology to engage boys and men in the prevention of sexual assault
  • Abstract
  • Strengths of eHealth sexual assault prevention
  • Weaknesses of eHealth sexual assault prevention
  • Technological frameworks for designing eHealth programs
  • Theoretical frameworks for sexual assault perpetration prevention utilized in eHealth programs
  • Overview of eHealth programs to prevent sexual assault that include boys and men
  • Conceptualizing existing eHealth programs
  • Future directions of technology in the prevention of sexual assault
  • Summary and conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 15: Sexual aggression in a global perspective: Theory and intervention efficacy
  • Abstract
  • The global burden of prevalence of male-perpetrated violence
  • How drivers of perpetration inform prevention approaches
  • Engaging boys and men in gender-transformative violence prevention programs
  • Lessons learned and future directions
  • Challenges of scaling up
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 16: False accusations of sexual assault: Prevalence, misperceptions, and implications for prevention work with men and boys
  • Abstract
  • Reporting sexual victimization
  • Defining a false report, unfounded report, unsubstantiated report, and baseless report
  • Study methodology
  • Overestimation of false reports by law enforcement and the public
  • Consequences of overestimating false allegations
  • When reports are false
  • Negative consequences of overestimations of false reports for prevention work with men and boys
  • Recommendations for facilitators
  • Addressing the real rapist stereotype
  • Creating a hospitable environment for discussing the fear of false accusation
  • Focus on the victim
  • Highlight misperceptions of social norms regarding sexual assault
  • Facilitator experiences with discussing false accusations
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 17: The importance of addressing male sexual victimization in the context of sexual assault prevention programming
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Recognizing men’s victimization in prevention efforts challenges deeply ingrained beliefs about masculinity and affirms men as human beings
  • The intersection of sexual victimization among men and men’s involvement in prevention efforts
  • Challenges in facilitating sexual assault prevention programming addressing men’s sexual victimization
  • Conclusions and future directions
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 18: A cross-disciplinary review of empirical studies addressing repeat versus time-limited sexual violence perpetration
  • Abstract
  • Definitions
  • Nonincarcerated perpetrators
  • Incarcerated perpetrators
  • Implications for future research
  • Implications for prevention and policy
  • Limitations and future directions
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 19: Perpetrator characteristics: Implications for programming, policy, and sanctioning on college campuses
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Modus Operandi
  • Modus Operandi inspired prevention recommendations
  • Individual offender characteristics
  • Prevention strategies to address individual risk
  • Offender perceptions of peers and norms
  • Social norms prevention suggestions
  • Situational risk factors and the campus situational prevention approach
  • Prevention recommendation: Utilize the Campus Situational Prevention Approach (CSPA)
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 20: What we can learn about effective prevention from the treatment of individuals convicted of sex crimes
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Purpose of this chapter
  • A note on language
  • A note on generalizing findings from research on convicted sexual offenders to other populations
  • How strategies for assessing sexual offenders can inform intervention and prevention efforts
  • Approaches to sanctioning sexual misconduct
  • What we know about treatment of sexual offenders can inform prevention and intervention efforts
  • The challenges treatment providers face can inform intervention and prevention
  • What we know about community reentry to inform prevention and institutional responses to sexual misconduct
  • Summary and overarching implications for prevention
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 21: Aspiring to be an ally to end men’s violence against women and other social injustices: Lessons learned along the journey
  • Abstract
  • Lesson One—Acknowledge our own biases
  • Lesson Two: Notice and embrace uncomfortable situations
  • Lesson Three—Our liberation depends on the liberation of others
  • Lesson Four—Aspiring to be an ally is an active process
  • Lesson Five—Listen to and learn from the stories of others
  • Lesson Six—Acknowledge and make constructive use of privilege
  • Lesson Seven—Accountability to groups we want to an ally to
  • Lesson Eight—The need for acknowledgment and healing of personal hurts
  • Lesson Nine: Recognize and affirm “adversity strengths”
  • Lesson Ten—Difference is transcended when we can see each other as spiritual beings
  • Lesson Eleven—Practice nonviolence and nonharm as a way of life
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 510
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: March 18, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128192023
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128192887

About the Editors

Lindsay Orchowski

Associate Professor (Research) at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University, and a Staff Psychologist at Rhode Island Hospital. She completed her Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology at Ohio University, where she studied under the apprenticeship of Dr. Christine A. Gidycz in the Laboratory for the Study and Prevention of Sexual Assault. In concert with collaborators, she has published three prior evaluations of sexual assault prevention programs for college women (Gidycz et al., 2006; Orchowski et al., 2008; Gidycz et al., 2015), as well as prevention approaches for college men (Orchowski et al., 2018; Gidycz et al., 2011), and has authored work on the implementation of sexual assault prevention programs for men (Gidycz et al., 2011), and the supervision of such work (Orchowski et al., 2011). As a Principal Investigator, she completed a NIAAA-funded research examining sexual assault prevention with college men, and is currently the Principal Investigator of two CDC-funded evaluations of sexual assault prevention, risk reduction, and bystander intervention programming among high school and middle school students, and a Department of Defense Funded evaluation of sexual assault prevention for men in the military. She has previously published Sexual Assault Risk Reduction and Resistance: Theory, Research and Practice with Elsevier, as well as Engaging Boys and Men in Sexual Assault Prevention: Theory, Research and Practice with American Psychological Association.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA

Alan Berkowitz

Dr. Alan Berkowitz received his Ph.D. in Psychology from Cornell University in 1981 and is a New York State licensed Psychologist. At Hobart and William Smith Colleges he developed one of the first rape prevention programs for men in the United States for men, was co-director of the college's highly regarded Men and Masculinity Program and chaired the Prejudice Reduction Task Force. He edited or co-edited two of the first books on men’s responsibility for preventing sexual assault and is highly regarded for his extensive research, training, and theoretical contributions to this topic. He was the Editor and founder of The Report on Social Norms, and has over forty-five years of experience in higher education as a trainer, psychologist, faculty member, and Counseling Center Director. Dr. Berkowitz is currently an independent consultant who helps colleges, universities, public health agencies, military organizations, and communities design programs that address health and social justice issues. His lecture and workshop topics include: changing campus, community and military base culture, effective drug and sexual assault prevention strategies, reducing prejudice, racial identity theory, multicultural issues, alcohol and sexual assault, men's responsibility for preventing sexual assault, developing alliances across differences, and understanding today's youth. He is a Fellow of the American College Health Association, has been recognized by the American College Personnel Association for his "Outstanding Contributions to Men's Issues”, and is a sexual assault prevention Subject Matter Expert for the United States Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard and National Guard.

Affiliations and Expertise

Independent Researcher and Consultant, Mount Shasta CA, USA

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