Energy - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080254272, 9781483147277

Energy

1st Edition

Economy and Prospective

Authors: André Gardel
eBook ISBN: 9781483147277
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1981
Page Count: 584
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Description

Energy: Economy and Prospective emerged from the course taught by the author at the Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne. It focuses on the economics and future prospects of energy. Having as much an analytical as well as a synthetic approach, the author has been struck by the confusion and superficiality reigning in this vital, complex area, and has recognized the need to link theory with practice and the present with the future. The book begins by defining the actual situation and the basic factors which will determine the evolution of energy consumption. From it will come an estimate of probable needs for the decades to come. Separate chapters discuss topics such as primary energy resources; the use that is made of them in useful energy; the transformation chains between the primary form and the useful form and the corresponding flows; and methods applied to produce this energy. This work is aimed at anyone wishing to acquire general information on the economics of energy. The author's intention is that it should correspond to that which any university student should know of the matter, and especially to that which should not be unknown to any engineer aware that he should not be just a specialist but must take his share of responsibility in the economic evolution of that part of society to which he belongs.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Probable Evolution of World Consumption of Energy

§ a. Background

§ b. Some Essential Data

§ c. Stabilization of Growth

§ d. Current Consumption of Primary Energy

§ e. Probable Increase in Population

§ f. Stabilization of the Consumption of Energy

§ g. Energy Consumption following Its Current Trend

§ h. Scenarios for the Possible Evolution of Energy Consumption

h1. General Framework

h2. Financial and Human Aspects

h3. Fundamental Relationship and Alternative of Choice

h4. Scenario 3a

h5. Scenario 3b

h6. Scenario 3c

§ i. Comparison of the Various Forecasts

§ j. Relationship "Standard of Living — Consumption of Energy"

j1. Quality of the Correlation

j2. Form of the R(H) Law

j3. Evolution in Time

§ k. Investments Necessary

k1. Specific Investments

k2. Renewal and New Installations

k3. Comparison with Gross Incomes

k4. Final Remarks

§ l. Cyclic Evolution of the Economic Situation

§ m. Causes of Distortion of the Forecasts

m1. Effect of Climatic Conditions on the Forecast

m2. Effect of Technological Changes

§ n. Conclusions

Annex 1A Relationships Linking the Numbers of the Populations, the Consumption of Energy per Inhabitant, the Total Consumption of Energy, and the Annual Growth Rates of These Different Quantities

Annex 1B Population, Income and Energy Consumed of the Countries Used as Basis for the Correlation "Income—Energy" and the Formation of Groups A, B and C 58

Chapter 2. Definitions and Sources of Energy

Part 1. Definitions

§ a. Units

§ b. Types of Energy

§ c. Relative Roles of Different Energies

§ d. Concept of Primary Energy

§ e. The Idea of Useful Energy

§ f. The Idea of Intermediate Energy

§ g. Losses

Part 2. Sources

§ h. Enumeration

§ i. Energy Values of Primary Energies

§ j . Generalities on the Reserves

§ k. Nonrenewable Reserves and Resources

§ l. Renewable Resources

§ m. General Recapitulation of Reserves and Resources

Annex 2A The "System International" of Units (SI)

Annex 2B Metric Systems

Annex 2C Anglo-Saxon Units

Annex 2D Example of the Determination of the Primary Hydraulic Energy: The Case of the Val D'Anniviers in Switzerland

Annex 2E Thermal Energy and the Energy Utility Factor

Chapter 3. Distribution of the Consumption of Energy

§ a. Introduction

§ b. Distribution of the World Consumption of Primary Energy

b1. Consumption of the Different Primary Energies

b2. Relative Roles of the Various Primary Energies

b3. Consumption per Inhabitant

§ c. Primary Energy Consumption of Three Large Societies

c1. Evolution of the Total Consumption

c2. Shares of Different Primary Energies

c3. Case of Western Europe

c4. Consumption per Inhabitant

§ d. Primary Energy Consumption of Three Industrialized Countries

d1. Total Consumption

d2. The Shares of the Different Primary Energies

d3. Consumption per Inhabitant

§ e. Consumption of Primary Energy in Japan, Spain and Switzerland

e1. Total Consumption

e2. Shares of the Different Primary Energies

e3. Consumption per Inhabitant

§ f. Remarks about Switzerland

f1. The Nature of an Industrialized Country

f2. Distribution of the Consumption of Usable Primary Energy

f3. Shares of Various Primary Energies Since 1910

f4. Dependence of the Energy Supply

§ g. Summary of Comparisons

§ h. Total Useful Energy

§ i. Distribution of the Consumption of Useful Energy

i1. According to Type

i2. According to User

§ j. Useful Energy in Usable Energy, or Useful Exergy

Chapter 4. Transformation of Energy

§ a. General Comments

§ b. Energy Chains

b1. Coal

b2. Petroleum

b3. Hydraulic Energy

b4. Nuclear Energy

b5. Solar Energy

§ c. Qualitative Ensemble of Transformations

c1. Case of Switzerland

c2. Possibilities of Transfer

§ d. Quantitative Aspect

d1. General Remarks

d2. Production of Heat from Hydrocarbons

d3. Graphical Representation and Hydraulic Analogy

d4. Comparison

§ e. Energy Balance Sheets and Flows

e1. Principle of the Balance Sheet

e2. A Particular Example

e3. Energy Flow

e4. Energy Flow in Switzerland

§ f. Energy Balance Sheets and Flows for Some Industrialized Countries

§ g. Distributed Energies

g1. By Type

g2. By User

§ h. Upgrading of Electricity

§ i. Production Chains of Useful Energy

i1. Production of Useful Heat

i2. Production of Mechanical Work

i3. Conclusions

Annex 4A Energy Flow in 1972 for Western and Eastern Europe

Annex 4B Primary Energy and Distributed Energy in Some Industrialized Countries (Switzerland, France, U.K., F.R.G., U.S.A.) and the Determination of the Reducing Factors for Fuels and Electricity

Chapter 5. Methods of Production

Introduction

Part 1. Large-Scale Methods in Current Use

§ a. Extraction and Preparation of Fuels

§ b. Production of Heat and Electricity

Part 2. Future or Supplementary Possibilities

§ c. Major Possibilities

§ d. Limited Possibilities

§ e. Direct Conversion Possibilities

§ f. Other Intermediate Forms

Chapter 6. Transport and Storage

Part 1. Transport

§ a. General Remarks

§ b. Ships

§ c. Pipelines

§ d. Rail and Road

§ e. Electric Lines

Part 2. Storage

§ f. Need for Storage

§ g. Chemical and Nuclear Energy

§ h. Mechanical Energy

§ i. Heat

§ j. Size of the Storage

§ k. Some General Remarks

Chapter 7. Electricity and Hydrocarbons

Part 1. Electricity

§ a. General Comments

§ b. Comparisons of Production and Consumption in the World and in Europe

§ c. Production of Some Collectivities or Countries

§ d. Situation in Switzerland

§ e. Periodical Variations in Consumption

§ f. Periodical Variations in Production in Switzerland

§ g. Adaptation of Production to Consumption

§ h. Large Networks and Interconnection

§ i. Consumption of Electricity and Gross National Income

§ j. Probable Evolution of Electricity Consumption

Part 2. Hydrocarbons

§ k. Petroleum and Derivatives

§ l. Natural Gas

Annex 7A Consumption of Electricity of 77 Countries in 1975

Chapter 8. The Cost of Energy

§ a. Introduction

Part 1. Calculation of the Cost of Energy and Determination of Profitability

§ b. Investments

§ c. Annual Charges

§ d. Cost and Value of the Production

Part 2. Numerical Examples

§ e. Investments for the Production of Primary Energy

§ f. Other Installations for the Capture and Transformation of Primary Energy

§ g. Specific Investments for the Production of Electricity

§ h. Investments for the Installations for Transporting and Storing Energy

§ i. World or National Investments

§ j. Cost of Energy

§ k. Petroleum and Petroleum Products

§ l. Uranium

§ m. Electricity

§ n. Cost of the transport of Energy

Chapter 9. Environment and Losses

§ a. Background

§ b. Safety and Accident Risk

b1. Some Distinctions

b2. Reminder of Some Definitions and Principles

b3. Methodology

b4. General Comparison of the Risks of Serious Accidents

b5. Conclusions

§ c. Attacks by Withdrawals from the Environment

§ d. Attacks Concomitant with Withdrawals

d1. Coal

d2. Petroleum

d3. Gas

d4. Hydraulic Energy

d5. Nuclear Energy

d6. Solar Energy

d7. Energy from the Seas and Winds and Geothermal Energy

§ e. Attacks Due to Effluents

§ f. Atmospheric Pollution

f1. Consumption of Air and Production of CO2

f2. Carbon Monoxide and Oxides of Nitrogen

f3. Oxides of Sulphur

f4. Unburned Matter and Particles

f5. Water Vapor

f6. Radioactive Effluents

f7. Heat

f8. Climate

f9. Important Final Remark

§ g. Water Pollution

g1. Rejected Heat

g2. Hydrocarbons

g3. Chemical and Radioactive Rejections

§ h. Wastes

§ i. Struggle against Losses

§ j. Fuel Heating Losses

j1. Reasons for this Discussion

j2. Systems Considered

j3. Entropy Cycles and Diagram

j4. Other operating temperatures

Annex 9A Examples of Rejections from an Electric Station

Annex 9B Psychological Reasons that May Arouse Irrational Fears in Public Opinion about the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy

Chapter 10. Evolution and Perspectives

§ a. Reminder of the Causes of Growth In the World Consumption of Energy

§ b. Method of Assessment of Energy Needs

§ c. The Extent of the Resources and the Energy Crisis

§ d. Technological Evolution

§ e. Possible Instability of the Evolution

§ f. Bases of an Estimation of the Possible Evolution of Energy Consumption during the



Twenty-First Century

f1. Methodology

f2. Possible Evolution of the World Population

f3. Possible Evolution of Consumption per Inhabitant

§ g. Possible Evolution of the Total Consumption

g1. Extreme and Mean Cases

g2. Probable Hypotheses

§ h. Possibilities of Fulfilling the Needs of the Twenty-First Century

§ i. Possibilities Offered by Solar Energy

i1. Space for Solar Energy

i2. Investments Required

i3. Possible Rate of Development

i4. Economic Significance

i5. The Contribution of Solar Energy

§ j. Role of Fossil Fuels

§ k. Role of Nuclear Energy

§ l. Fulfillment of Needs in the Twenty-First Century on the Low Hypothesis

§ m. Conditions for Not Resorting to Nuclear Energy

§ n. Conclusions

Annex 10A Nuclear Energy. The Role of Breeder Reactors

Annex 10B Plutonium and the Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

Bibliography

Index


Details

No. of pages:
584
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1981
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483147277

About the Author

André Gardel