Economy and Prospective

First published on January 1, 1981

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  • Author: André Gardel
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483147277

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Energy: Economy and Prospective emerged from the course taught by the author at the Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne. It focuses on the economics and future prospects of energy. Having as much an analytical as well as a synthetic approach, the author has been struck by the confusion and superficiality reigning in this vital, complex area, and has recognized the need to link theory with practice and the present with the future. The book begins by defining the actual situation and the basic factors which will determine the evolution of energy consumption. From it will come an estimate of probable needs for the decades to come. Separate chapters discuss topics such as primary energy resources; the use that is made of them in useful energy; the transformation chains between the primary form and the useful form and the corresponding flows; and methods applied to produce this energy. This work is aimed at anyone wishing to acquire general information on the economics of energy. The author's intention is that it should correspond to that which any university student should know of the matter, and especially to that which should not be unknown to any engineer aware that he should not be just a specialist but must take his share of responsibility in the economic evolution of that part of society to which he belongs.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. Probable Evolution of World Consumption of Energy

    § a. Background

    § b. Some Essential Data

    § c. Stabilization of Growth

    § d. Current Consumption of Primary Energy

    § e. Probable Increase in Population

    § f. Stabilization of the Consumption of Energy

    § g. Energy Consumption following Its Current Trend

    § h. Scenarios for the Possible Evolution of Energy Consumption

    h1. General Framework

    h2. Financial and Human Aspects

    h3. Fundamental Relationship and Alternative of Choice

    h4. Scenario 3a

    h5. Scenario 3b

    h6. Scenario 3c

    § i. Comparison of the Various Forecasts

    § j. Relationship "Standard of Living — Consumption of Energy"

    j1. Quality of the Correlation

    j2. Form of the R(H) Law

    j3. Evolution in Time

    § k. Investments Necessary

    k1. Specific Investments

    k2. Renewal and New Installations

    k3. Comparison with Gross Incomes

    k4. Final Remarks

    § l. Cyclic Evolution of the Economic Situation

    § m. Causes of Distortion of the Forecasts

    m1. Effect of Climatic Conditions on the Forecast

    m2. Effect of Technological Changes

    § n. Conclusions

    Annex 1A Relationships Linking the Numbers of the Populations, the Consumption of Energy per Inhabitant, the Total Consumption of Energy, and the Annual Growth Rates of These Different Quantities

    Annex 1B Population, Income and Energy Consumed of the Countries Used as Basis for the Correlation "Income—Energy" and the Formation of Groups A, B and C 58

    Chapter 2. Definitions and Sources of Energy

    Part 1. Definitions

    § a. Units

    § b. Types of Energy

    § c. Relative Roles of Different Energies

    § d. Concept of Primary Energy

    § e. The Idea of Useful Energy

    § f. The Idea of Intermediate Energy

    § g. Losses

    Part 2. Sources

    § h. Enumeration

    § i. Energy Values of Primary Energies

    § j . Generalities on the Reserves

    § k. Nonrenewable Reserves and Resources

    § l. Renewable Resources

    § m. General Recapitulation of Reserves and Resources

    Annex 2A The "System International" of Units (SI)

    Annex 2B Metric Systems

    Annex 2C Anglo-Saxon Units

    Annex 2D Example of the Determination of the Primary Hydraulic Energy: The Case of the Val D'Anniviers in Switzerland

    Annex 2E Thermal Energy and the Energy Utility Factor

    Chapter 3. Distribution of the Consumption of Energy

    § a. Introduction

    § b. Distribution of the World Consumption of Primary Energy

    b1. Consumption of the Different Primary Energies

    b2. Relative Roles of the Various Primary Energies

    b3. Consumption per Inhabitant

    § c. Primary Energy Consumption of Three Large Societies

    c1. Evolution of the Total Consumption

    c2. Shares of Different Primary Energies

    c3. Case of Western Europe

    c4. Consumption per Inhabitant

    § d. Primary Energy Consumption of Three Industrialized Countries

    d1. Total Consumption

    d2. The Shares of the Different Primary Energies

    d3. Consumption per Inhabitant

    § e. Consumption of Primary Energy in Japan, Spain and Switzerland

    e1. Total Consumption

    e2. Shares of the Different Primary Energies

    e3. Consumption per Inhabitant

    § f. Remarks about Switzerland

    f1. The Nature of an Industrialized Country

    f2. Distribution of the Consumption of Usable Primary Energy

    f3. Shares of Various Primary Energies Since 1910

    f4. Dependence of the Energy Supply

    § g. Summary of Comparisons

    § h. Total Useful Energy

    § i. Distribution of the Consumption of Useful Energy

    i1. According to Type

    i2. According to User

    § j. Useful Energy in Usable Energy, or Useful Exergy

    Chapter 4. Transformation of Energy

    § a. General Comments

    § b. Energy Chains

    b1. Coal

    b2. Petroleum

    b3. Hydraulic Energy

    b4. Nuclear Energy

    b5. Solar Energy

    § c. Qualitative Ensemble of Transformations

    c1. Case of Switzerland

    c2. Possibilities of Transfer

    § d. Quantitative Aspect

    d1. General Remarks

    d2. Production of Heat from Hydrocarbons

    d3. Graphical Representation and Hydraulic Analogy

    d4. Comparison

    § e. Energy Balance Sheets and Flows

    e1. Principle of the Balance Sheet

    e2. A Particular Example

    e3. Energy Flow

    e4. Energy Flow in Switzerland

    § f. Energy Balance Sheets and Flows for Some Industrialized Countries

    § g. Distributed Energies

    g1. By Type

    g2. By User

    § h. Upgrading of Electricity

    § i. Production Chains of Useful Energy

    i1. Production of Useful Heat

    i2. Production of Mechanical Work

    i3. Conclusions

    Annex 4A Energy Flow in 1972 for Western and Eastern Europe

    Annex 4B Primary Energy and Distributed Energy in Some Industrialized Countries (Switzerland, France, U.K., F.R.G., U.S.A.) and the Determination of the Reducing Factors for Fuels and Electricity

    Chapter 5. Methods of Production


    Part 1. Large-Scale Methods in Current Use

    § a. Extraction and Preparation of Fuels

    § b. Production of Heat and Electricity

    Part 2. Future or Supplementary Possibilities

    § c. Major Possibilities

    § d. Limited Possibilities

    § e. Direct Conversion Possibilities

    § f. Other Intermediate Forms

    Chapter 6. Transport and Storage

    Part 1. Transport

    § a. General Remarks

    § b. Ships

    § c. Pipelines

    § d. Rail and Road

    § e. Electric Lines

    Part 2. Storage

    § f. Need for Storage

    § g. Chemical and Nuclear Energy

    § h. Mechanical Energy

    § i. Heat

    § j. Size of the Storage

    § k. Some General Remarks

    Chapter 7. Electricity and Hydrocarbons

    Part 1. Electricity

    § a. General Comments

    § b. Comparisons of Production and Consumption in the World and in Europe

    § c. Production of Some Collectivities or Countries

    § d. Situation in Switzerland

    § e. Periodical Variations in Consumption

    § f. Periodical Variations in Production in Switzerland

    § g. Adaptation of Production to Consumption

    § h. Large Networks and Interconnection

    § i. Consumption of Electricity and Gross National Income

    § j. Probable Evolution of Electricity Consumption

    Part 2. Hydrocarbons

    § k. Petroleum and Derivatives

    § l. Natural Gas

    Annex 7A Consumption of Electricity of 77 Countries in 1975

    Chapter 8. The Cost of Energy

    § a. Introduction

    Part 1. Calculation of the Cost of Energy and Determination of Profitability

    § b. Investments

    § c. Annual Charges

    § d. Cost and Value of the Production

    Part 2. Numerical Examples

    § e. Investments for the Production of Primary Energy

    § f. Other Installations for the Capture and Transformation of Primary Energy

    § g. Specific Investments for the Production of Electricity

    § h. Investments for the Installations for Transporting and Storing Energy

    § i. World or National Investments

    § j. Cost of Energy

    § k. Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    § l. Uranium

    § m. Electricity

    § n. Cost of the transport of Energy

    Chapter 9. Environment and Losses

    § a. Background

    § b. Safety and Accident Risk

    b1. Some Distinctions

    b2. Reminder of Some Definitions and Principles

    b3. Methodology

    b4. General Comparison of the Risks of Serious Accidents

    b5. Conclusions

    § c. Attacks by Withdrawals from the Environment

    § d. Attacks Concomitant with Withdrawals

    d1. Coal

    d2. Petroleum

    d3. Gas

    d4. Hydraulic Energy

    d5. Nuclear Energy

    d6. Solar Energy

    d7. Energy from the Seas and Winds and Geothermal Energy

    § e. Attacks Due to Effluents

    § f. Atmospheric Pollution

    f1. Consumption of Air and Production of CO2

    f2. Carbon Monoxide and Oxides of Nitrogen

    f3. Oxides of Sulphur

    f4. Unburned Matter and Particles

    f5. Water Vapor

    f6. Radioactive Effluents

    f7. Heat

    f8. Climate

    f9. Important Final Remark

    § g. Water Pollution

    g1. Rejected Heat

    g2. Hydrocarbons

    g3. Chemical and Radioactive Rejections

    § h. Wastes

    § i. Struggle against Losses

    § j. Fuel Heating Losses

    j1. Reasons for this Discussion

    j2. Systems Considered

    j3. Entropy Cycles and Diagram

    j4. Other operating temperatures

    Annex 9A Examples of Rejections from an Electric Station

    Annex 9B Psychological Reasons that May Arouse Irrational Fears in Public Opinion about the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy

    Chapter 10. Evolution and Perspectives

    § a. Reminder of the Causes of Growth In the World Consumption of Energy

    § b. Method of Assessment of Energy Needs

    § c. The Extent of the Resources and the Energy Crisis

    § d. Technological Evolution

    § e. Possible Instability of the Evolution

    § f. Bases of an Estimation of the Possible Evolution of Energy Consumption during the

    Twenty-First Century

    f1. Methodology

    f2. Possible Evolution of the World Population

    f3. Possible Evolution of Consumption per Inhabitant

    § g. Possible Evolution of the Total Consumption

    g1. Extreme and Mean Cases

    g2. Probable Hypotheses

    § h. Possibilities of Fulfilling the Needs of the Twenty-First Century

    § i. Possibilities Offered by Solar Energy

    i1. Space for Solar Energy

    i2. Investments Required

    i3. Possible Rate of Development

    i4. Economic Significance

    i5. The Contribution of Solar Energy

    § j. Role of Fossil Fuels

    § k. Role of Nuclear Energy

    § l. Fulfillment of Needs in the Twenty-First Century on the Low Hypothesis

    § m. Conditions for Not Resorting to Nuclear Energy

    § n. Conclusions

    Annex 10A Nuclear Energy. The Role of Breeder Reactors

    Annex 10B Plutonium and the Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons



Product details

  • No. of pages: 584
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1981
  • Published: January 1, 1981
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483147277

About the Author

André Gardel

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