Energy Optimization in Process Systems and Fuel Cells

Energy Optimization in Process Systems and Fuel Cells

2nd Edition - February 12, 2013

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  • Authors: Stanislaw Sieniutycz, Jacek Jezowski
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080982274

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Energy Optimization in Process Systems and Fuel Cells, Second Edition covers the optimization and integration of energy systems, with a particular focus on fuel cell technology. With rising energy prices, imminent energy shortages, and increasing environmental impacts of energy production, energy optimization and systems integration is critically important. The book applies thermodynamics, kinetics and economics to study the effect of equipment size, environmental parameters, and economic factors on optimal power production and heat integration. Author Stanislaw Sieniutycz, highly recognized for his expertise and teaching, shows how costs can be substantially reduced, particularly in utilities common in the chemical industry. This second edition contains substantial revisions, with particular focus on the rapid progress in the field of fuel cells, related energy theory, and recent advances in the optimization and control of fuel cell systems.

Key Features

  • New information on fuel cell theory, combined with the theory of flow energy systems, broadens the scope and usefulness of the book
  • Discusses engineering applications including power generation, resource upgrading, radiation conversion, and chemical transformation in static and dynamic systems
  • Contains practical applications of optimization methods that help solve the problems of power maximization and optimal use of energy and resources in chemical, mechanical, and environmental engineering


Graduate students and researchers in chemical, mechanical, materials and environmental engineering, as well as those engaged in system theory, operation research, chemistry, applied physics, applied mathematics

Table of Contents

  • 1. Brief review of static optimization methods

    1.1 Introduction: significance of mathematical models

    1.2 Unconstrained problems

    1.3 Equality constraints and lagrange multipliers

    1.4 Methods of mathematical programming

    1.5 Iterative search methods

    1.6 On some stochastic optimization techniques

    2. Dynamic optimization problems

    2.1 Discrete representations and dynamic programming algorithms

    2.2 Recurrence equations

    2.3 Discrete processes linear with respect to the time interval

    2.4 Discrete algorithm of Pontryagin’s type for processes linear in θN

    2.5 Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equations for continuous systems

    2.6 Continuous Maximum Principle

    2.7 Calculus of variations

    2.8 Viscosity solutions and nonsmooth analyses

    2.9 Stochastic control and stochastic Maximum Principle

    3. Energy limits for thermal engines and heat pumps at steady states

    3.1 Introduction: role of optimization in determining thermodynamic limits

    3.2 Classical problem of thermal engine driven by heat flux

    3.3 Toward work limits in sequential systems

    3.4 Energy utilization and heat pumps

    3.5 Thermal separation processes

    3.6 Steady chemical, electrochemical, and other systems

    3.7 Limits in living systems

    3.8 Final remarks

    4. Hamiltonian optimization of imperfect cascades

    4.1 Basic properties of irreversible cascade operations with a work flux

    4.2 Description of imperfect units in terms of carnot temperature control

    4.3 Single-stage formulae in a model of cascade operation

    4.4 Work optimization in cascade by discrete maximum principle

    4.5 Example

    4.6 Continuous imperfect system with two finite reservoirs

    4.7 Final remarks

    5. Maximum power from solar energy

    5.1 Introducing Carnot controls for modeling solar-assisted operations

    5.2 Thermodynamics of radiation

    5.3 Classical exergy of radiation

    5.4 Flux of classical exergy

    5.5 Efficiencies of energy conversion

    5.6 Towards a dissipative exergy of radiation at flow

    5.7 Basic analytical formulae of steady pseudo-Newtonian model

    5.8 Steady nonlinear models applying Stefan–Boltzmann equation

    5.9 Dynamical theory for pseudo-Newtonian models

    5.10 Dynamical models using the Stefan–Boltzmann equation

    5.11 Towards the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman approaches

    5.12 Final remarks

    6. Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman theory of energy systems

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Dynamic optimization of power in a finite-resource process

    6.3 Two different works and finite-rate exergies

    6.4 Some aspects of classical analytical HJB theory for continuous systems

    6.5 HJB equations for nonlinear power generation systems

    6.6 Analytical solutions in systems with linear kinetics

    6.7 Extensions for systems with nonlinear kinetics and internal dissipation

    6.8 Generalized exergies for nonlinear systems with minimum dissipation

    6.9 Final remarks

    7. Numerical optimization in allocation, storage and recovery of thermal energy and resources

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 A discrete model for a nonlinear problem of maximum power from radiation

    7.3 Nonconstant Hamiltonians and convergence of discrete DP algorithms to viscosity solutions of HJB equations

    7.4 Dynamic programming equation for maximum power from radiation

    7.5 Discrete approximations and time adjoint as a Lagrange multiplier

    7.6 Mean and local intensities in discrete processes

    7.7 Legendre transform and original work function

    7.8 Numerical approaches applying dynamic programming

    7.9 Dimensionality reduction in dynamic programming algorithms

    7.10 Concluding remarks

    8. Optimal control of separation processes

    8.1 General thermokinetic issues

    8.2 Thermodynamic balances toward minimum heat or work

    8.3 Results for irreversible separations driven by work or heat

    8.4 Thermoeconomic optimization of thermal drying with fluidizing solids

    8.5 Solar energy application to work-assisted drying

    8.6 Concluding Remarks

    9. Optimal decisions for chemical reactors

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Driving forces in transport processes and chemical reactions

    9.3 General nonlinear equations of macrokinetics

    9.4 Classical chemical and electrochemical kinetics

    9.5 Inclusion of nonlinear transport phenomena

    9.6 Continuous description of chemical (electrochemical) kinetics and transport phenomena

    9.7 Toward power production in chemical systems

    9.8 Thermodynamics of power generation in nonisothermal chemical engines

    9.9 Nonisothermal engines in terms of carnot variables

    9.10 Entropy production in steady systems

    9.11 Dissipative availabilities in dynamic systems

    9.12 Characteristics of steady isothermal engines

    9.13 Sequential models for dynamic power generators

    9.14 A computational algorithm for dynamic process with power maximization

    9.15 Results of computations

    9.16 Some additional comments

    9.17 Complex chemical power systems with internal dissipation

    10. Fuel cells and limiting performance of electrochemobiological systems

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Electrochemical engines

    10.3 Thermodynamics of entropy production and power limits in fuel cells

    10.4 Calculation of operational voltage

    10.5 Thermodynamic account of current-dependent and current-independent imperfections

    10.6 Evaluation of mass flows, power output, and efficiency

    10.7 Quality characteristics and feasibility criteria

    10.8 Some experimental results

    10.9 Assessing power limits in steady thermoelectrochemical engines

    10.10 Hybrid systems

    10.11 Unsteady states, dynamic units, and control problems

    10.12 Biological fuel cells and biological sources of hydrogen

    10.13 Energy and size limits for living organisms in biological systems

    10.14 A brief commentary on development and evolution of species

    11. Systems theory in thermal and chemical engineering

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 System energy analyses

    11.3 Mathematical modeling of industrial energy management

    11.4 Linear model of the energy balance for an industrial plant and its applications

    11.5 Nonlinear mathematical model of short-term balance of industrial energy system

    11.6 Mathematical optimization model for the preliminary design of industrial energy systems

    11.7 Remarks on diverse methodologies and link with ecological criteria

    11.8 Control thermodynamics for explicitly dynamical systems

    11.9 Interface of energy limits, structure design, thermoeconomics and ecology

    11.10 Towards the thermoeconomics and integration of heat energy

    12. Heat integration within process integration

    13. Maximum heat recovery and its consequences for process system design

    13.1 Introduction and problem formulation

    13.2 Composite curve (CC) plot

    13.3 Problem table (Pr-T) method

    13.4 Grand composite curve (GCC) plot

    13.5 Special topics in MER/MUC calculations

    13.6 Summary and further reading

    14. Targeting and supertargeting in heat exchanger network design

    14.1 Targeting stage in overall design process

    14.2 Basis of sequential approaches for HEN targeting

    14.3 Basis of simultaneous approaches for HEN targeting

    15. Minimum utility cost (MUC) target by optimization approaches

    15.1 Introduction and MER problem solution by mathematical programming

    15.2 MUC problem solution methods

    15.3 Dual matches

    15.4 Minimum utility cost under disturbances

    16. Minimum number of units (MNU) and minimum total surface area (MTA) targets

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Minimum number of matches (MNM) target

    16.3 Minimum total area for matches (MTA-m) target

    16.4 Minimum number of shells (MNS) target

    16.5 Minimum total area for shells (MTA-s) target

    17. Simultaneous HEN targeting for total annual cost

    TAC-Transp model

    18. Heat exchanger network synthesis

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Sequential approaches

    18.3 Simultaneous approaches to HEN synthesis

    19. Heat exchanger network retrofit

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Network pinch method

    19.3 Simultaneous approaches for HEN retrofit

    20. Approaches to water network design

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Mathematical models and data for water network problem

    20.3 Overview of approaches in the literature

Product details

  • No. of pages: 818
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2013
  • Published: February 12, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080982274

About the Authors

Stanislaw Sieniutycz

Stanislaw Sieniutycz is Professor of Chemical Engineering at the Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering at the Warsaw University of Technology in Poland. His research focuses on thermal and chemical engineering with special emphasis on the control, stability and optimization of chemical and electrochemical reaction systems. He published 10 books with international scientific publishers and 224 articles in international scientific journals, and 140 conference and invited papers. He is Associate Editor and Member of Editorial Board of the Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics, Associate Editor and Member of Editorial Board of the Journal: Open Systems and Information Dynamics, Associate Editor and Member of Editorial Board of the Journal: International Journal of Applied Thermodynamics, Member of Editorial Board of the Journal: Energy and Conversion Management, Associate Editor of Advances in Thermodynamics Series, Member of Committee of Chemical Engineering at Polish Academy of Sciences. He received 7 awards.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Chemical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Poland

Jacek Jezowski

Affiliations and Expertise

Deceased, Rzeszów University of Technology, Poland

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