Energy Aspects of Acoustic Cavitation and Sonochemistry

Energy Aspects of Acoustic Cavitation and Sonochemistry

Fundamentals and Engineering

1st Edition - August 6, 2022

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  • Editors: Oualid Hamdaoui, Kaouther Kerboua
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323919371
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323984904

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Energy Aspects of Acoustic Cavitation and Sonochemistry: Fundamentals and Engineering covers topics ranging from fundamental modeling to up-scaled experiments. The book relates acoustic cavitation and its intrinsic energy balance to macroscopic physical and chemical events that are analyzed from an energetic perspective. Outcomes are directly projected into practical applications and technological assessments covering energy consumption, thermal dissipation, and energy efficiency of a diverse set of applications in mixed phase synthesis, environmental remediation and materials chemistry. Special interest is dedicated to the sonochemical production of hydrogen and its energetic dimensions. Due to the sensitive energy balance that governs this process, this is seen as a "green process" for the production of future energy carriers.

Key Features

  • Provides a concise and detailed description of energy conversion and exchange within the single acoustic cavitation bubble and bubble population, accompanying physical and chemical effects
  • Features a comprehensive approach that is supported by experiments and the modeling of energy concentration within the sonochemical reactor, jointly with energy dissipation and damping phenomenon
  • Gives a clear definition of energy efficiency metrics of industrial sono-processes and their application to the main emergent industrial fields harnessing acoustic cavitation and sonochemistry, notably for the production of hydrogen


Researchers in academia in process / chemical / environmental as well as materials and design engineering, physics and chemistry; Professionals in industry in process engineering, especially in terms of hydrogen production, wastewater treatment, agri-food, materials synthesis and nanotechnology

Table of Contents

  • Cover Image
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Table of Contents
  • Contributors
  • Part I The single acoustic cavitation bubble as an energetic system: qualitative and quantitative assessments
  • Chapter 1 Single acoustic cavitation bubble and energy concentration concept
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Single acoustic cavitation bubble: Thermodynamic aspects of inception and growth, and dynamics of bubble oscillation
  • 1.3 The hot spot theory
  • 1.4 Thermodynamics of acoustic cavitation bubble and energy balance
  • 1.5 Energy concentration concept
  • 1.6 Engineering outcomes
  • References
  • Chapter 2 The energy forms and energy conversion
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Theoretical background
  • 2.3 Energetic evolution of an oscillating bubble
  • 2.4 Influence of acoustical conditions
  • 2.5 Energy analysis as function of initial bubble size
  • 2.6 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 3 Physical effects and associated energy release
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 The theoretical approach of the propagation of an acoustic wave in a liquid medium, and acoustic streaming
  • 3.3 The theoretical approach of the oscillation of acoustic cavitation bubbles and its associated physical effects
  • 3.4 Energetic outcomes: Macroscopic dissipation of acoustic energy
  • 3.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 4 Sonochemical reactions, when, where and how: Modelling approach
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 The governing equations
  • 4.3 Numerical technique and the investigated parameter space
  • 4.4 Chemical yield of a single bubble
  • 4.5 Energy efficiency considerations
  • 4.6 Discussion and summary
  • References
  • Chapter 5 Sonochemical reactions, when, where and how: Experimental approach
  • 5.1 When do the sonochemical reactions take place?
  • 5.2 Where and how do sonochemical reactions take place?
  • 5.3 Techniques for ultrasonic cavitation observation and measurement
  • 5.4 Application of sonochemical reactions
  • 5.5 Conclusions and perspective
  • References
  • Part II The bubble population: an analytic view into mutual forces and allied energy exchange
  • Chapter 6 The Bjerknes forces and acoustic radiation energy
  • 6.1 Acoustic radiation force in a plane traveling wave field
  • 6.2 Bjerknes forces
  • 6.3 Experimental aspects of determining acoustic radiation energy
  • 6.4 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 7 Nonlinear oscillations and resonances of the acoustic bubble and the mechanisms of energy dissipation
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 The bubble model
  • 7.3 Scattered pressure by bubbles
  • 7.4 Various regimes of complex bubble oscillations
  • 7.5 Damping constants for the linear regime of oscillations
  • 7.6 Nonlinear resonances of the bubble oscillator
  • 7.7 Nonlinear bubble behavior analysis
  • 7.8 Nonlinear dissipation terms
  • 7.9 Bifurcation structure and the nonlinear dissipations of the bubble
  • 7.10 Summarizing points and discussion
  • 7.11 Concluding remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 8 Damping mechanisms of oscillating gas/vapor bubbles in liquids
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Bubble wall motion equation
  • 8.3 Linear oscillations of gas bubbles
  • 8.4 Thermal effects and thermal damping
  • 8.5 Effects of liquid compressibility and acoustic damping
  • 8.6 Total damping constants and comparisons of damping mechanisms
  • 8.7 Damping mechanisms of vapor bubbles
  • 8.8 Wave propagation in the liquids containing bubbles
  • 8.9 Nonlinear oscillations of bubbles
  • 8.10 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • Chapter 9 Energy controlling mechanisms: Relationship with operational conditions
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Model description
  • 9.3 Chemical activity in single bubble and multibubble systems
  • 9.4 Energy variation of a multibubble system
  • 9.5 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Part III Ultrasound assisted processes, sonochemical reactors and energy efficiency
  • Chapter 10 Efficiency assessment and mapping of cavitational activities in sonochemical reactors
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Types, classification and working principle of the sonochemical reactors
  • 10.3 Overview of cavitational activities in the sonochemical reactors
  • 10.4 Efficiency assessment and mapping of cavitational activities in sonochemical reactors
  • 10.5 Case study
  • 10.6 Outlook and path forward
  • References
  • Chapter 11 Sources of dissipation: An outlook into the effects of operational conditions
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Theoretical approaches
  • 11.3 Formation of extreme conditions in reactions
  • 11.4 Transducers
  • 11.5 Signals
  • 11.6 Effects of operational parameters
  • 11.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 12 Mechanistic issues of energy efficiency of an ultrasonic process: Role of free and dissolved gas
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Experimental summary
  • 12.3 The mathematical model
  • 12.4 Results and resasoning
  • 12.5 Overview
  • 12.6 Case studies of ultrasonic processes based on energy transformation analysis
  • 12.7 Intensification of wet textile treatment
  • 12.8 Case study 2: Weissler reaction
  • References
  • Chapter 13 Simulation of sonoreators accounting for dissipated power
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Linear acoustics
  • 13.3 Sound propagation accounting for cavitation
  • 13.4 Acoustics of solid parts and piezo-electrics
  • 13.5 Simulation examples
  • 13.6 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 14 Technological designs and energy efficiency: The optimal paths
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Ultrasound source
  • 14.3 Electric-acoustic energy conversion
  • 14.4 Performance of power transducers
  • 14.5 Mapping acoustic wave propagation
  • 14.6 Overall energy efficiency
  • 14.7 Designs and energy efficiency
  • 14.8 Conclusion
  • References
  • Part IV Green, sustainable and benign by design process? The place and perspective of ultrasound assisted processes and sonochemistry in industrial applications based on energy efficiency
  • Chapter 15 Acoustic cavitation and sonochemistry in industry: State of the art
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Power ultrasound and acoustic cavitation
  • 15.3 Sonochemistry
  • 15.4 Physical and chemical effect of power ultrasound
  • 15.5 Industrial applications
  • 15.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 16 Crystallization of pharmaceutical compounds: Process Intensification using ultrasonic irradiations - Experimental approach
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Theorical approach
  • 16.3 Physical effect of cavitation bubble on crystallization
  • 16.4 Sonocrystallization of pharmaceutical compounds: Effect of operating parameters
  • 16.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 17 Sonochemical degradation of fluoroquinolone and β-lactam antibiotics – A view on transformations, degradation efficiency, and consumed energy
  • 17.1 Principles of sonochemical treatment of organic pollutants in water
  • 17.2 Sonochemical degradation of β-lactam antibiotics
  • 17.3 Degradation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics using ultrasound
  • 17.4 Relationship between degradation efficiency and consumed power/energy
  • 17.5 Concluding remarks
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 18 The use of ultrasonic treatment in technological processes of complex processing of industrial waste: Energetic insights
  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.2. Characteristics of technogenic waste
  • 18.3 Experimental part
  • 18.4 Analysis of the kinetics of the reaction of alkaline treatment of borogypsum under conditions of ultrasonic exposure
  • 18.5. Application of the product of UST of borogypsum as a sorbent
  • 18.6 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 19 The sonochemical and ultrasound-assisted production of hydrogen: energy efficiency for the generation of an energy carrier
  • 19.1 Introduction: hydrogen and ultrasound
  • 19.2 The ultrasound-assisted pathway for hydrogen production: theoretical approach and outcomes
  • 19.3 Analysis and orientations on the future of the sonochemical hydrogen: insights into the main challenges
  • 19.4 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 20 Future trends and promising applications of industrial sonochemical processes
  • 20.1 Intensification of chemical process via cavitation
  • 20.2 Demonstrated applications in various fields
  • 20.3 Outlook and path forward
  • References
  • Chapter 21 Raising challenges of ultrasound-assisted processes and sonochemistry in industrial applications based on energy efficiency
  • 21.1 Introduction
  • 21.2 Theoretical aspects of ultrasound energy
  • 21.3 Industrial uses of ultrasound power
  • 21.4 Energy efficiency of ultrasound-assisted processes
  • 21.5 Factors affecting the application of ultrasound
  • 21.6 Energy efficiency and scale up issue for industrial application of ultrasound
  • 21.7 Recent developments in design and scale-up of sonoreactors for industrial processes
  • 21.8 Future prospects for the scale-up of sonochemistry
  • 21.9 Conclusion
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 388
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2022
  • Published: August 6, 2022
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323919371
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323984904

About the Editors

Oualid Hamdaoui

Oualid Hamdaoui is a full professor of chemical engineering at King Saud University, in Saudi Arabia. His main research interests are focused on sonochemistry, acoustic cavitation, advanced oxidation processes, separation processes, desalination, and water treatment. He has held several academic appointments as coordinator of Master and Doctorate programs in Chemical and Environmental Process Engineering. He has received many awards including the Thomson Reuters Award in Engineering, Scopus Award (Elsevier) in Chemical Engineering, Francophonie Award for young researchers, option Sciences and Medicine, ranked first on the list of suitable candidates to the title of full professor (technology section) of the twenty-sixth (26th) session of the National University Commission, Abdul-Hameed Shoman Award for Young Arab Researchers in Engineering Sciences, Jordan and the best scientific publication award of The National Agency for the Development of University Research.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Kaouther Kerboua

Kaouther Kerboua is an associate professor of process engineering at the Higher School of Industrial Technologies. Her research interests and activities are in the fields of acoustic cavitation, sonochemistry, advanced oxidation processes, water treatment, energy, separation processes, and modelling and simulation.

Affiliations and Expertise

Higher School of Industrial Technologies, Department of Second Cycle, and Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Process Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Badji Mokhtar, Annaba University, Annaba, Algeria

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