Endocrine Disrupters - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128000953, 9780128005859

Endocrine Disrupters, Volume 94

1st Edition

Serial Editors: Gerald Litwack
eBook ISBN: 9780128005859
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128000953
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 15th January 2014
Page Count: 472
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Table of Contents

Chapter One. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Human Growth and Maturation: A Focus on Early Critical Windows of Exposure


1 Introduction

2 Challenges in Evidencing Endocrine Disruption

3 Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Fetal Growth

4 EDCs and Sexual Differentiation

5 EDCs and Puberty

6 EDCs and Brain Development

7 EDC and Energy Balance

8 Epigenetic Perspective on the Developmental Effects of EDCs

9 Conclusion


Chapter Two. Agricultural Pesticides and Precocious Puberty


1 Introduction

2 Puberty

3 Precocious Puberty

4 The Effects of EDs on Puberty

5 Organochlorine Pesticides and Puberty

6 DDT and DDE

7 Methoxychlor

8 Endosulfans

9 Vinclozolin

10 Acetochlor

11 Conclusion


Chapter Three. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Elucidating Our Understanding of Their Role in Sex and Gender-Relevant End Points


1 Introduction

2 Endocrine Disruption May Underlie Negative Effects of Contaminants

3 Adverse Health Consequences of Lifelong EDC Exposure

4 Signficance of Investigating EDC Effects on Neurodevelopmental Processes

5 Hormones’ Effects to Organize Neural Systems and Behavioral Processes

6 Developmental EDC Exposure Alters Reproductive Development and Behavior

7 Exposure to EDCs in Adulthood Also Effects Reproductive Parameters

8 EDCs in Adulthood Influence Sexually Dimorphic Brain Morphology

9 Do EDCs Influence Sex Differences in Nonreproductive Behaviors?

10 Effects of EDCs on Sexually Dimorphic, Nonreproductive Behaviors

11 Potential Mechanisms by which EDCs May Produce Their Effects

12 Several Factors May Bear upon Estrogenicity of Compounds

13 Effects of EDCs on Uterotropic Activity

14 Importance of Examining EDC Effects on Whole-Animal Estrogenic Measures

15 Effects of EDCs on E2 Metabolism

16 Androgenic/Antiandrogenic Effects of EDCs

17 Effects of EDCs via Traditional Intracellular Steroid Receptors

18 Other Substrates to Consider for Actions of EDCs

19 Preliminary Studies

20 Organized Reproductive Parameters: Immature Rats

21 Organized and Activated Reproductive Parameters: Peripubertal and Maturation Measures

22 Organized and Activated Reproductive Parameters: Effects in Adults

23 Strategy: EDC Effects on Reproductive Parameters: A Biomarker of Effects

24 Organized and/or Activated Nonreproductive Sexually Dimorphic Behaviors

25 Suggested Experiments Moving Forward

26 Approach: The Importance of Integration of Reproductive and Nonreproductive Measures

27 Approach: Examining Effects of EDC Exposure Throughout Development

28 Suggestions for Future Work Examining Mechanisms of EDCs Effects

29 Logistical Factors for Experimental Control and Power

30 Summary

31 Conclusions



Chapter Four. Ovarian Toxicity from Reactive Oxygen Species


1 Ovarian Follicular Development and Its Hormonal Regulation

2 Reactive Oxygen Species and Oxidative Stress

3 Hormonal Regulation of and Effects of Depleting or Enhancing Ovarian Antioxidants

4 Oxidative Stress Occurs in the Ovarian Follicles When the Normal Hormonal Support for Follicular Survival is Removed

5 Effects of Exogenous H2O2 on Ovarian Follicles and Granulosa Cells

6 Involvement of ROS in Ovarian Toxicity Caused by Chemical Toxicants

7 Involvement of ROS in Ovarian Toxicity Caused by Ionizing Radiation

8 Summary and Conclusions


Chapter Five. Low-Dose Effects of Hormones and Endocrine Disruptors


1 Introduction

2 What is Meant by “Low Dose?”

3 Hormones Act at Low Doses

4 The “Rules” of Hormones are Obeyed by EDCs: Implications for Low-Dose Chemical Exposures

5 NTP Panel's Findings on Low-Dose Effects: 2000–2002

6 The NTP Panel's Assessment: Low-Dose Effects of Specific Chemicals

7 Updates to the NTP Panel Report on Low-Dose Effects

8 BPA and the Prostate: A Low-Dose Case Study

9 Additional Low-Dose Findings: Evidence from Laboratory Animals and Human Populations

10 Traditional Toxicology Studies are Not Designed to Detect Low-Dose Effects

11 Low-Dose Effects: Biological Changes are Not Necessarily Adverse

12 Real World EDC Exposures: Mixture Effects

13 Nonmonotonic Dose Responses

14 Conclusions


Chapter Six. Contamination from Endocrine Disrupters of the General Population at Low and High Concentrations


1 Introduction

2 How to Implement the Indicator? An Example

3 Results of the Implementation of the Indicator

4 Discussion


Chapter Seven. Reproductive Toxicities of Methoxychlor Based on Estrogenic Properties of the Compound and Its Estrogenic Metabolite, Hydroxyphenyltrichloroethane


1 Introduction

2 Estrogenicity of Methoxychlor and Its Active Metabolite, HPTE

3 Reproductive and Developmental Toxicities of Methoxychlor

4 Conclusion



Chapter Eight. Epigenetic Effects of Methoxychlor and Vinclozolin on Male Gametes


1 Introduction

2 Epigenetics

3 Imprinting

4 Environmental Changes Affect Imprinting

5 Imprinting Defects and Male Infertility

6 Endocrine Disruptors and Male Infertility

7 Conclusion and Perspectives


Chapter Nine. Nuclear Receptor Profiling of Bisphenol-A and Its Halogenated Analogues


1 Introduction

2 Estrogen Receptors

3 Estrogen-Related Receptor γ

4 Androgen Receptor

5 Peroxysome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ

6 Thyroid Receptors

7 Pregnane X Receptor

8 Conclusions



Chapter Ten. Long-Lasting Effects of Neonatal Bisphenol A Exposure on the Implantation Process


1 Introduction

2 Uterine Implantation of the Embryo

3 Endocrine Disruptors and the Developmental Programming Hypothesis

4 Endocrine Disruption and Female Fertility

5 Conclusions



Chapter Eleven. The Obesogen Tributyltin


1 The Obesogen Hypothesis

2 Organotins Environmental Exposure

3 Mechanisms of Cellular Organotin Toxicity

4 Nuclear Hormone Receptors as Organotin Targets

5 TBT and Disrupted Adipose Biology

6 Epigenetic Perturbations in Adipogenesis and Metabolic Set Points

7 Conclusion and Perspective



Chapter Twelve. Human Testicular Insulin-Like Factor 3 and Endocrine Disrupters


1 Introduction

2 INSL3: Expression and Regulation

3 Functions of INSL3

4 INSL3 and Endocrine Disrupters

5 Conclusions and Future Directions


Chapter Thirteen. Environmental Pollutants and Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases


1 Introduction

2 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase/Isomerase

3 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase

4 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase

5 20α-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase

6 Summary and Conclusion



Chapter Fourteen. Cadmium Effects on the Thyroid Gland


1 Introduction

2 Cadmium

3 Structural and Functional Organization of the Thyroid Gland

4 Cadmium and the Thyroid Gland

5 Molecular Mechanism of Cadmium Influence

6 Conclusions and Future Directions


Chapter Fifteen. A Recombinant PPRE-Driven Luciferase Bioassay for Identification of Potential PPAR Agonists


1 Introduction

2 Materials

3 Methods

4 Notes





First published in 1943, Vitamins and Hormones is the longest-running serial published by Academic Press.

The Series provides up-to-date information on vitamin and hormone research spanning data from molecular biology to the clinic. A volume can focus on a single molecule or on a disease that is related to vitamins or hormones.  A hormone is interpreted broadly so that related substances, such as transmitters, cytokines, growth factors and others can be reviewed.

This volume focuses on endocrine disrupters.

Key Features

  • Expertise of the contributors
  • Coverage of a vast array of subjects
  • In depth current information at the molecular to the clinical levels
  • Three-dimensional structures in color
  • Elaborate signaling pathways


Researchers, faculty, and graduate students interested in cutting-edge review concerning the molecular and cellular biology of vitamins, hormones, and related factors and co-factors. Libraries and laboratories at institutes with strong programs in cell biology, biochemistry, molecular biology, gene regulation, hormone control, and signal transduction are likely to be interested.


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About the Serial Editors

Gerald Litwack Serial Editor

Following a liberal arts education with a major in chemistry and biology at Hobart College, Gerald (Gerry) Litwack earned M.S. and PhD degrees in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin, Madison where he served as a Lecturer in Enzymology before starting a postdoctoral fellowship from the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis at the Biochemical Institute of the Sorbonne in Paris. His first academic position was assistant professor of biochemistry at Rutgers University where he started his work on hormone action for six years. During this period, he did a sabbatical at the University of California, Berkeley, where he concentrated on rapid enzyme kinetics. In 1960 he accepted an offer of an associate professorship at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Medicine. In 1964, he was invited to be full professor of biochemistry at The Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology at Temple Medical School, simultaneously with a Career Development Award from the NIH, where he later was named Deputy Director of the Institute and the Laura H. Carnell Professor in biochemistry. Subsequently, he was given the Faculty Research Award. He co-discovered ligandin, later found to be in the family of glutathione S-transferases, enzymes that protect the body from carcinogens. In 1991, he moved to the Jefferson Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University as Professor of Biochemistry, Chair of the Department of Pharmacology and Deputy Director of the Kimmel Cancer Research Institute. Later, he became chair of the combined Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology and concurrently held the position of Vice Dean for Research. In 2003, he moved to Los Angeles and from 2004-2006 was a Visiting Scholar at the University of California, Los Angeles, in the Department of Biological Chemistry of the Geffen School of Medicine and, in this period, wrote “Human Biochemistry and Disease” a volume of 1254 pages. In 2007, he moved to Scranton, Pennsylvania, as Founding Chair of Basic Sciences and Acting Associate Dean for Research to start a new medical school, The Commonwealth Medical College. Having completing his mission in 2010, he moved to The Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Texas A & M Health Science Center, as Professor of Biochemistry and Associate Director. Currently, he is retired and lives in North Hollywood, California, where he continues as an author and as Series Editor of Vitamins and Hormones. He is involved in writing another textbook and has written a first novel, “One-Eighty”.

Affiliations and Expertise

Toluca Lake, North Hollywood, California, USA