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Encyclopedia of the Human Brain - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122272103, 9780080548036

Encyclopedia of the Human Brain

1st Edition

Editor in Chief: V. S. Ramachandran
eBook ISBN: 9780080548036
Hardcover ISBN: 9780122272103
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 26th June 2002
Page Count: 3454
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In the past decade, enormous strides have been made in understanding the human brain. The advent of sophisticated new imaging techniques (e.g. PET, MRI, MEG, etc.) and new behavioral testing procedures have revolutionized our understanding of the brain, and we now know more about the anatomy, functions, and development of this organ than ever before. However, much of this knowledge is scattered across scientific journals and books in a diverse group of specialties: psychology, neuroscience, medicine, etc. The Encyclopedia of the Human Brain places all information in a single source and contains clearly written summaries on what is known of the human brain.

Covering anatomy, physiology, neuropsychology, clinical neurology, neuropharmacology, evolutionary biology, genetics, and behavioral science, this four-volume encyclopedia contains over 200 peer reviewed signed articles from experts around the world. The Encyclopedia articles range in size from 5-30 printed pages each, and contain a definition paragraph, glossary, outline, and suggested readings, in addition to the body of the article. Lavishly illustrated, the Encyclopedia includes over 1000 figures, many in full color. Managing both breadth and depth, the Encyclopedia is a must-have reference work for life science libraries and researchers investigating the human brain.


Major college and university library systems of the world; individuals, corporations, laboratories, and groups interested in the human brain

Table of Contents

J.A. White, Action Potential.
J.N. Giedd, E.A. Molloy, and J. Blumenthal, Adolescent Brain Maturation.
J.L. Saver, Aggression.
L.L. Beason-Held and B. Horwitz, Aging Brain.
J.J. Marotta and M. Behrmann, Agnosia.
S.Z. Rapcsak and P.M. Beeson, Agraphia.
J.W. Olney, Alcohol Damage to the Brain.
V.J. Brown and E.M. Bowman, Alertness.
R.B. Friedman, Alexia.
R.G. Morris and C.L. Worsley, Neuropschology of Alzheimer's Disease.
C.R. Long and J.R. Averill, Anger.
L. Tabo Connor and L.K. Obler, Anomia.
B.J. Casey, N. Yeung, and J. Fossella, Anterior Cingulate Cortex, Role of.
E. Vermetten, D.S. Charney, and J.D. Bremner, Anxiety.
M.T. Sarno, Aphasia.
K.M. Heilman and L.J. Gonzalez-Rothi, Apraxia.
D.J. Fellerman, Area V2.
R.T. Marrocco and B.A. Field, Arousal.
D. Partridge, Artificial Intelligence.
N.A. Baumann and D. Pham-Dinh, Astrocytes.
S.P. Vecera and S.J. Luck, Attention.
H.A. Buchtel, Auditory Agnosia.
R.J. Zatorre, Auditory Cortex.
W.A. Yost, Auditory Perception.
E. Courchesne and K. Pierce, Autism.
F. Mor and I.R. Cohen, Autoimmune Diseases.
K.S. Rockland, Axon.
B. Crosson, L. Maron, A.B. Moore, and L. Grande, Basal Ganglia.
F. Sluyter, G. van Luijtelaar, E. de Geus, and W.E. Crusio, Behavioral Neurogenetics.
D.L. Delahanty and J.K. Cremeans, Behavioral Neuroimmunology.
P.B. Dews, Behavioral Pharmacology.
J. Vaid, Bilingualism.
R. Gevirtz, Biofeedback.
G. Goldenberg, Body Perception Disorders.
W.I. Lipkin, T. Briese, and M. Hornig, Borna Disease Virus.
M-M. Mesulam, Brain Anatomy and Networks.
P. Bach-y-Rita, Brain Damage, Recovery from.
H.K.M. Yusuf and K. Islam, Brain Development.
K. Maiese, Brain Disease, Organic.
M. Keidel and P. Stude, Brain Lesions.
W.W. Blessing, Brainstem.
M. Crank and P.T. Fox, Broca's Area.
C.A. Meyers, Cancer Patients, Cognitive Function.
A.J. Friedhoff and R. Silva, Catecholamines.
B.J. Knowlton, Categorization.
M. Molinari, Cerebellum.
J.A. Jane, Jr., A.S. Dumont, D.E. Couture, K.M. Webb, D.B. Ellegala, H. Dayoub, and N.F. Kassell, Cerebral Circulation.
D.F. Cechetto and J.C. Topolovec, Cerebral Cortex.
D.S. Liebeskind, Cerebral Edema.
S. Watkins and A. Rosenberg, Cerebral Palsy.
C.M. Filley, Cerebral White Matter Disorders.
J.R. Absher, Cerebrovascular Disease.
Y. Koutcherov, K.W.S. Ashwell, and G. Paxinos, Chemical Neuroanatomy.
M. Gabriel, L. Burhans, A. Talk, and P. Scalf, Cingulate Cortex.
C.A. Fuller and P.M. Fuller, Circadian Rhythms.
R.E. Clark, Classical Conditioning.
N. Raz, Cognitive Aging.
J.F. Kihlstrom and L. Park, Cognitive Psychology, Overview.
S.A. Kolakowsky-Hayner and J.S. Kreutzer, Cognitive Rehabilitation.
P. Gouras, Color Processing and Color Processing Disorders.
G.H. Jacobs, Color Vision.
M.S. Gazzaniga, Consciousness.
R.J. Brown and M.A. Ron, Conversion.
K. Baynes, Corpus Callosum.
A.B. Butler, Cranial Nerves.
M.A. Runco, Creativity.
A.W. Kaszniak, Dementia.
E.V. Cardemil, Depression.
L.A. Taylor and I. Creese, Dopamine.
M. Bertini, Dreaming.
H.B. Coslett, Dyslexia.
P.L. Nunez, EEG.
F.H. Lopes da Silva, Electrical Potentials.
R. Adolphs and A.S. Heberlein, Emotion.
C. Abbadie and G.W. Pasternak, Endorphins and Their Receptors.
B. Schmitz, Epilepsy.
J.S. George, Event Related Potentials.
H.J. Jerison, Evolution of the Brain.
C.J. Bruce and H.R. Friedman, Eye Movements.
L. Puelles and J.L.R. Rubenstein, Forebrain.
L.A. Kemenoff, B.L. Miller, and J.H. Kramer, Frontal Lobe.
R.L. Savoy, Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI).
S.R. Kleppner and A.J. Tobin, GABA.
C.A. Messam, J. Hou, N. Janabi, M.C. Monaco, M. Gravell, and E.O. Major, Glia.
J. Epstein, E. Stern, and D. Silbersweig, Hallucinations.
J.R. Flanagan and R.S. Johansson, Hand Movements.
S. Diamond and G.J. Urban, Headaches.
J.F. Brugge and M.A. Howard III, Hearing.
R. Hertwig and P.M. Todd, Heuristics.
J.C. Glover, Hindbrain.
I. Grant, HIV Infection, Neurocognitive Complications of.
P.M. Lledo, Homeostatic Mechanisms.
J. Vaid, Humor and Laughter.
P. Black and C. Ohaegbulam, Hydrocephalus.
J.P. Card and L. Rinaman, Hypothalamus.
J.C. Mazziotta and R.S.J. Frackowiak, Imaging: Brain Mapping Methods.
J.L. Martinez, Jr., S.A.K. Harvey, A. Martinez, and E. Barea-Rodriguez, Information Processing.
A. Henik and T.H. Carr, Inhibition.
R.J. Sternberg and J.C. Kaufman, Intelligence.
B.A. Yi and L.Y. Jan, Ion Channels.
H. Tager-Flusberg, Language Acquisition.
R.C. Martin, M.R. Newsome, and H. Vu, Language and Lexical Processing.
D. Kaplan, Language Disorders.
D. Kaplan, Language, Neural Basis of.
J.B. Hellige, Laterality.
S. Coren, Left-Handedness.
J.L. Price, Limbic System.
P.N. Johnson-Laird, Logic and Reasoning.
R.F. Kaplan, Lyme Encephalopathy.
E.H. Taylor, Manic Depressive Illness.
A.R. Mayes, Memory Disorders, Organic.
K.B. McDermott, Memory, Explicit and Implicit.
R.P. Kesner, Memory Neurobiology.
J. Jonides, D.T. Badre, and T.D. Wager, Memory, Neuroimaging.
J.A. Lucas, Memory, Overview.
S.C. Redden, S.R. Hooper, and M. Pope, Mental Retardation.
R. Parasuraman and D. Caggiano, Mental Workload.
G. Stoll, S. Jander, and M. Schroeter, Microglia.
D.L. Oliver and D. Waitzman, Midbrain.
M. Sanchez del Rio and S. Silberstein, Migraine.
J.T. Barth, J.R. Freeman, and D.K. Broshek, Mild Head Injury.
H.L. Laurer, D.F. Meaney, S.S. Margulies, and T.K. McIntosh, Modeling Brain Injury/Trauma.
E. Chemerinski and R.G. Robinson, Mood Disorders.
P. Verghese and B.R. Beutter, Motion Processing.
S.P. Wise and R. Shadmehr, Motor Control.
J.H. Kaas and I. Stepniewska, Motor Cortex.
P.C. Wong, D.L. Price, and J. Rothstein, Motor Neuron Disease.
E. Hazeltine and R. Ivry, Motor Skill.
J.F. Soechting and M. Flanders, Movement Regulation.
J.R. Alger, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging).
L.J. Lobeck, Multiple Sclerosis.
B.E. Stein, P. Laurienti, M.T. Wallace, and T.R. Stanford, Multisensory Integration.
J.M. Groh and U. Werner-Reiss, Multisensory Integration, Neural Basis of.
D.W. Perry, Music and the Brain.
R.J. Naylor, Nausea and Vomiting.
J.H. Kaas, Neocortex.
P.S. Eriksson, Nerve Cells and Memory.
J.B. Angevine, Jr., Nervous System, Organization of.
P. Sajda, Neural Networks.
D. Kondziolka, E. Tyler-Kabara, and C. Achim, Neural Transplantation.
C.M> Filley, Neuroanatomy.
M.H. Ratner, R.G. Feldman, and R.F. White, Neurobehavioral Toxicology.
L.J. Martin, Neurodegenerative Disorders.
J.R. Evans, Neurofeedback.
B.R. Ransom and A.M. Brown, Neuroglia.
G. Ganis and S.M. Kosslyn, Neuroimaging.
M.E. Martone and M.H. Ellisman, Neuron.
B. Ahrén, Neuropeptides and Islet Function.
E.A. Workman, Neuropharmacology.
D. Bavelier and H. Neville, Neuro-Plasticity, Developmental.
A.P. Nelson and M.M. Searl, Neuropsychological Assessment.
L.C. Hartlage, Neuropsychological Assessment, Pediatric.
J.H. Schwartz, Neurotransmitters.
L.M. Mendell, Nociceptors.
C. Drouin and J.P. Tassin, Norepinephrine.
K. Wynn, Number Processing and Arithmetic.
P. Williams, Object Perception.
E.A. DeYoe, Occipital Lobe.
R.L. Doty, Olfaction.
C.M. Knapp, Opiates.
H.H. Zingg, Oxytocin.
A.D. Craig, Pain.
D. Fishbain, Pain and Psychopathology.
M.D. Yahr, Parkinson's Disease.
W.R. Uttal, Pattern Recognition.
L.J. Martin, Peptides, Hormones, and the Brain, and Spinal Cord.
A.V. Krassioukov, Peripheral Nervous System.
H. Flor, Phantom Limb Pain.
M. Macmillan, Phineas Gage.
A. Kertesz and D.G. Munoz, Pick's Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia.
R.J. Morecraft and E.H. Yeterian, Prefrontal Cortex.
A.D. Wagner and W. Koutstaal, Priming.
H.A. Kretzschmar, Prion Diseases.
R.E. Mayer, Problem Solving.
E.H.F. De Haan, Prosopagnosia.
D. Presti, Psychoactive Drugs.
S. Campeau, Psychoneuroendocrinology.
D.L. Felten and M.E. Maida, Psychoneuroimmunology.
D. Lykken, Psychophysiology.
V. Mann, Reading Disorders, Developmental.
R.P.N. Rao, Receptive Field.
H. Sivers, J. Schooler, and J.J. Freyd, Recovered Memories.
D.T. Cerutti, Reinforcement, Reward, and Punishment.
H. Kazemi and D.C. Johnson, Respiration.
J.E. Dowling, Retina.
L.H. Finkel and S.C. Yen, Salience.
D.V. Jeste and L.T.E. Zorrilla, Schizophrenia.
M. Grossman and P.L. Koenig, Semantic Memory.
J.P. Rauschecker, Sensory Deprivation.
L.S. Allen and R.A. Gorski, Sex Differences in the Human Brain.
J.D. Baldwin and J.I. Baldwin, Sexual Behavior.
S.L. Zup and N.G. Forger, Sexual Differentiation, Hormones and.
L. Regev, C. Avina, and W. O'Donohue, Sexual Dysfunction.
M.S. George and J.P. Lorberbaum, Sexual Function.
G. Vallar, Short-Term Memory.
C.A. Kushida, Sleep Disorders.
B. Landau, Spatial Cognition.
R.L. De Valois, K.K> De Valois, Spatial Vision.
K.R. Kluender, Speech.
D.J. Newport and C.B. Nemeroff, Stress.
B. McEwen and S. Lupien, Stress: Hormonal and Neural Aspects.
A.R. Zazulia, Stroke.
B.S. Brodsky and J.J. Mann, Suicide.
B.E. Stein, M.T. Wallace, and T.R. Stanford, Superior Colliculus.
M. Baudry, Synapses and Synaptic Transmission and Integration.
F. Varoqueaux and N. Brose, Synaptogenesis.
C.L. Reed, Tactile Perception.
M.A. Barry and M.E. Frank, Taste.
H.A. Buchtel, Temporal Lobes.
C. Ohye, Thalamus and Thalamic Damage.
D.L. Harrington and R.M. Rao, Time Passage, Neural Substrates.
V. Eapen and M.M. Robertson, Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.
T.J. Collier and J.R. Sladek, Jr., Transplantation.
J.F. Kihlstrom, Unconscious, The.
E. Wertman and K.M. Heilman, Unilateral Neglect.
D.E. Scott, Ventricular System.
M. Sarter and J.P. Bruno, Vigilance.
K.E. Anderson and J.M. Silver, Violence and the Brain.
R. Shapley and N. Rubin, Vision: Brain Mechanisms.
M.G.P. Rosa, Visual Cortex.
R.D. Jones and D. Tranel, Visual Disorders.
A.E. Wiencken-Barger and V.A. Casagrande, Visual System Development and Neural Activity.
E.M. Saffran, Wernicke's Area.
S. Della Sala and R.H. Logie, Working Memory.


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© Academic Press 2002
26th June 2002
Academic Press
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About the Editor in Chief

V. S. Ramachandran

V. S. Ramachandran

V. S. Ramachandran is Director of the Center for Brain and Cognition and Distinguished Professor with the Psychology Department and Neurosciences Program at the University of California, San Diego, and Adjunct Professor of Biology at the Salk Institute. Ramachandran initially trained as a doctor and subsequently obtained a Ph.D. from Trinity College at the University of Cambridge. Ramachandran's early work was on visual perception but he is best known for his experiments in behavioral neurology which, despite their apparent simplicity, have had a profound impact on the way we think about the brain. He has been called "The Marco Polo of neuroscience" by Richard Dawkins and "The modern Paul Broca" by Eric Kandel.

In 2005 he was awarded the Henry Dale Medal and elected to an honorary life membership by the Royal Institution of Great Britain, where he also gave a Friday evening discourse (joining the ranks of Michael Faraday, Thomas Huxley, Humphry Davy, and dozens of Nobel Laureates). His other honors and awards include fellowships from All Souls College, Oxford, and from Stanford University (Hilgard Visiting Professor); the Presidential Lecture Award from the American Academy of Neurology, two honorary doctorates, the annual Ramon Y Cajal award from the International Neuropsychiatry Society, and the Ariens-Kappers medal from the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences. In 2003 he gave the annual BBC Reith lectures and was the first physician/psychologist to give the lectures since they were begun by Bertrand Russel in 1949. In 1995 he gave the Decade of the Brain lecture at the 25th annual (Silver Jubilee) meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. In 2010 he delivered the annual Jawaharlal Nehru memorial lecture in New Delhi, India. Most recently the President of India conferred on him the second highest civilian award and honorific title in India, the Padma Bhushan. And TIME magazine named him on their list of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2011.

Ramachandran has published over 180 papers in scientific journals (including five invited review articles in the Scientific American). He is author of the acclaimed book "Phantoms in the Brain" that has been translated into nine languages and formed the basis for a two part series on Channel Four TV (UK) and a 1 hour PBS special in USA. NEWSWEEK magazine has named him a member of "The Century Club" one of the "hundred most prominent people to watch in the next century." He has been profiled in the New Yorker Magazine and appeared on the Charlie Rose Show. His book, "The Tell Tale Brain" is a New York Times best-seller.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Center for Brain and Cognition, and Professor, Psychology Department and Neurosciences Program, University of California, San Diego; Adjunct Professor of Biology, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, CA, USA


"Ramachandran, one of the world's leading brain researchers (Phantoms in the Brain, CH, March 1999; Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, CH, October 1994) has produced the most comprehensive, current, and authoritative reference in neuroscience. More than 350 experts contributed such chapters as "Visual and Auditory Integration," "Violence and the Brain," "Brain Anatomy and Networks," and "Neurodegenerative Disorders." Chapters are arranged alphabetically by topic, each beginning with an outline and glossary. Illustrations are excellent, and there are numerous tables and appendixes. A bibliography concludes each chapter. Essential for medical libraries, life science collections, and university libraries." --CHOICE

"This impressive set of volumes is a welcome, up-to-date summary of the rapidly expanding research done on the human brain over the past two decades... The style is accessible, rather than densely technical, and each article is intended to stand by itself... The stand-alone nature of the articles will clearly make the encyclopedia much more useful to a broad variety of people beyond the experts, as each article provides sufficient background information to represent individual topics in a cohesive way... The books are well printed and bound and should be useful as a major reference for many years to come." --Perceptual and Motor Skills

"An excellent and pithy distillation of the current knowledge in the field, presented without prejudice toward the view that the virus does or does not cause human psychiatric illness. Outstanding work!" --Michael Buchmeier, Scripps Research Institute (on the article Borna Disease Virus)

"Full coverage of the topic in a very well-organized, well-written article." --Ludmila S. Belayev, University of Miami School of Medicine (on the article Cerebral Edema)

"An article with excellent coverage by leading researchers in the field. Factual material is timely and accurate. Readable by the intelligent lay person." --Alan Wing, University of Birmingham, U.K. (on the article Hand Movements)

"... a fine article!" --Michael Kubovy, University of Virginia (on the article Pattern Recognition)

"Macmillan is a great scholar and the authority on Gage. Thankfully, he is also a very good writer. This is a superb article; you are lucky to have it!" --Stanley Finger, Washington University, St. Louis (on the article Phineas Gage)

"... well written and engaging." --Amy Learmonth, University of Arizona (on the article Spatial Cognition)

"An excellent comprehensive review by an acknowledged international expert." --Ronald R. Tasker, Toronto Hospital, Canada (on the article Thalamus and Thalamic Damage)

"This is an excellent article written clearly and at an appropriate level, in which coverage of the topic is complete. The author should be congratulated for a job extremely well done." --Bogdan Dreher, University of Sydney (on the article Visual Cortex)

"A clearly written article ... I especially like the case studies." --Russell M. Bauer, University of Florida (on the article Visual Disorders)

Ratings and Reviews