Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123485304, 9780080547954

Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment

1st Edition

Editor-in-Chiefs: Daniel Hillel
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123485304
eBook ISBN: 9780080547954
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 23rd October 2004
Page Count: 2200


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More than ever before, a compelling need exists for an encyclopedic resource about soil — the rich mix of mineral particles, organic matter, gases, and soluble compounds that foster both plant and animal growth. Civilization depends more on the soil as human populations continue to grow and increasing demands are placed upon available resources. The Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment is a comprehensive and integrated consideration of a topic of vital importance to human societies in the past, present, and future.

This important work encompasses the present knowledge of the world's variegated soils, their origins, properties, classification, and roles in the biosphere. A team of outstanding, international contributors has written over 250 entries that cover a broad range of issues facing today's soil scientists, ecologists, and environmental scientists. This four-volume set features thorough articles that survey specific aspects of soil biology, ecology, chemistry and physics. Rounding out the encyclopedia's excellent coverage, contributions cover cross-disciplinary subjects, such as the history of soil utilization for agricultural and engineering purposes and soils in relation to the remediation of pollution and the mitigation of global climate change.

This comprehensive, yet accessible source is a valuable addition to the library of scientists, researchers, students, and policy makers involved in soil science, ecology, and environmental science.

Also available online via ScienceDirect – featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit www.info.sciencedirect.com.

Key Features

  • A distinguished international group of editors and contributors
  • Well-organized encyclopedic format providing concise, readable entries, easy searches, and thorough cross-references
  • Abundant visual resources — photographs, figures, tables, and graphs — in every entry
  • Complete up-to-date coverage of many important topics — essential information for scientists, students and professionals alike


Researchers, scientists and professionals in the soil sciences, earth sciences, agronomy, and ecology

Table of Contents


Alluvium and Alluvial Soils Classification Systems: Australian Classification Systems: FAO Classification of Soils: General Principles Classification Systems: Russian Cold Region Soils Color as a Soil Property Dynamic Pedology Factors of Soil Formation: Biota Factors of Soil Formation: Climate Factors of Soil Formation: Human Impacts on Soil Formation Factors of Soil Formation: Parent Material Factors of Soil Formation: Time Factors of Soil Formation: Topography Forest Soils Grassland Soils Hydric Soils Inceptisols Loess Mediterranean Soils Morphology of Soil Organic Soils Paleosols Pedology: Definition and Overview Pedometrics Polar Soils Taxonomy of Soils Temperate Region Soils Tropical Soils: Arid and Semiarid Soils Tropical Soils: Humid Tropical Soil Volcanic Soils World Soil Map

SOIL AND THE ENVIRONMENT Acid Rain and Soil Acidification Carbon Emissions and Sequestration Climate Change Impacts Climate Models: The Role of Soil Degradation of Soils Desertification Environmental Monitoring Eutrophication Greenhouse Gas Emissions Groundwater Pollution Heavy Metals in Soils Hydrocarbons in Soils Industrial Pollution Isotopic Methods in Soil and Plant Investigation Land Disposal of Wastes Land Use and Land-Use Change Nitrate Pollution in Soils and Groundwater Nitrogen Deposition Nuclear Waste Disposal Organic Pollutants Pesticides in Soils Remediation of Polluted Soils Septic Systems Wastewater Application to the Land Wetlands: Constructed and Managed Wetlands: Naturally Occurring

SOIL BIOLOGY, MICROBIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY Aggregation: Microbial Aspects Archaea Bacteria in Soils Biocontrol of Plant Pathogens Biodegradation of Pollutants and Pesticides Biodiversity in Soils Compost Decomposition of Organic Residues Denitrification Earthworms Enzymes in Soils Fauna in Soil Food Web Interactions Fungi Germination and Seeding Establishment Humification: The Role of Microorganisms Innoculation with Microorganisms Kinetics of Microbial Processes Metals and Metalloids: Transformation by Microorganisms Microbial Activity: The Regulation of Environmental Factors Microbial Community Analysis Mycorrhizal Fungi Nematodes Nitrification Nitrogen Fixation: Symbiotic Nitrogen Uptake by Plants Phosphorus: Biological Transformations Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria Plant-Water Relations Polymeric Substances and Microorganisms Protozoa Rhizosphere Root Architecture and Growth Root Exudates and Microorganisms Soil Biological Crusts Spatial Patterns Sulfur: Biological Transformations Toxins in Soils: Effects on Microorganisms Vadose Zone: Microbial Ecology Viruses

SOIL CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY Acidity of Soils Aluminum Speciation Ammonia in Soils Amorphous Materials in Soils Anaerobic Soils: Anaerobiosis Buffering Capacity Calcareous and Gypsum Containing Soils Carbon Cycle in Soils Cation Exchange Chemical Equilibria in Soils Clay Minerals Colloid Facilitated Sorption/Transport Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Fluorecence Spectroscopy Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Heavy Metals in Soils Kinetic Models Kinetics of Dissolution Kinetics of Redox Reactions Kinetics of Sorption/Desorption Metal Oxides in Soils Microbially-Mediated Redox Processes Mineral-Organic Matter: Microbe Interactions Nitrogen Cycle Organic Matter Organic Matter Genesis and Formation Oxidation-Reduction of Inorganic and Organic Contaminants pH of Soils Physical Effects of Soil Salinity Points of Zero Charge Precipitation-Dissolution Processes Primary Soil Minerals Reclamation of Salt-Affected Soils Redox Potential Salination Processes Sodic Soils Soil Organic Matter-Metal Interactions Sorption of Metals Sorption of Organic Chemicals Sorption of Oxyanions Sulfur in Soils Sulfur Nutrition Surface Complexation Modeling X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

SOIL FERTILITY Calcium and Magnesium in Soil Essential Elements Fertigation Fertility of Soils Fertilizers and Fertilization Foliar Applications of Nutrients Iron Nutrition Liming of Soils Manures and Manuring Micronutrients in Soils Nutrient Availability Nutrient Management Phosphorus in Soils Phytotoxic Substances in Soils Potassium in Soils Productivity of Soils

SOIL MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION Agroforestry Compaction Conservation Tillage Cover Crops Crop Residue Management Crop Rotations Crop Water Requirements Cultivation and Tillage Disinfestation of Soil Dryland Farming: Rainfed Agriculture Edaphology Erosion: Irrigation-Induced Erosion: Measurement and Quantification Erosion: Water Erosion Erosion: Wind Erosion Freeze-Thaw Cycles Irrigated Agriculture and Environmental Consequences Irrigation: Methods Land Use Classification Manure Management Mulches Nutrient Management: Macronutrients Nutrient Management: Micronutrients Organic Farming Paddy Soils Precipitation Quality of Soil Range Management Remote Sensing Salinity Management Shifting Cultivation Site-Specific Soil Management Subsoiling Sustainable Soil and Land Management Terraces and Terracing Testing of Soils Tilth Urban Soils Water Harvesting Watershed Management Weed Management Windbreaks and Shelterbelts Zone Tillage

SOIL PHYSICS AND HYDROLOGY Aeration of Soils Aggregation: Physical Aspects Capillarity Conditioners Crusts Darcy's Law Diffusion Drainage, Surface and Subsurface Energy Balance Evaporation of Water from Bare Soil Evapotranspiration Flocculation and Dispersion Freezing Processes Groundwater and Aquifers Heat and Moisture Transport Hydraulic Properties of Soils: Temperature Effects Hydrodynamics Hydrophobic Soils Hysteresis Immiscible Fluids in Soils Infiltration Isotropy and Anisotropy Leaching Processes Lysimetry Macropores and Macropore Flow Neutron Scattering: Soil Moisture Overland Flow Penman-Monteith Equation Plant-Soil-Water Relations Porosity and Pore Size Distribution Radiation Balance Sand Dunes Scaling of Soil Physical Properties and Processes Scaling of Transport Processes Soil Water Potential Soil Water Retention and Characteristic Curve Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum Soil-Water Content and Potential: Measurement Solute Transport Spatial Variation: Soil Properties Specific Surface Area of Soils Stochastic Analysis of Soil Processes Stress-Strain and Soil Strength Structure of Soils Swelling and Shrinking of Soils Tensiometry Texture Thermal Properties and Processes of Soil Thermodynamics of Soil Water Time-Domain Reflectometry Unstable Flow Vadose Zone: Hydrologic Processes Water Cycle Water: Properties Water-Use Efficiency

*Contents subject to change prior to publication.


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About the Editor-in-Chief

Daniel Hillel

Born in California and raised in Israel, Dr. Daniel Hillel acquired an early and lifelong love of the land and a commitment to understanding and protecting the natural environment. Through decades of work in some thirty countries, he has become an international authority on sustainable management of land and water resources. Dr. Hillel has served as professor of soil physics, hydrology and the environmental sciences at leading universities in the U.S. and abroad, and has been a consultant to the World Bank and the United Nations. Among the honors he has received are the Chancellor's Medal for Exemplary Service at the University of Massachusetts , a Guggenheim award, and Doctorates of Science honoris causa by Guelph University of Canada and Ohio State University . Dr. Hillel is an elected Fellow of the American Association for Advancement of Science, the American Geophysical Union, the Soil Science Society of America, and the American Society of Agronomy and was granted the Distinguished Service Award by the latter societies. He has published well over 300 scientific papers and research reports, and authored or edited twenty two books. His definitive textbooks on environmental physics have been use by universities and research institutions throughout the world and have been translated into twelve languages.

Affiliations and Expertise

Dept. of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Massachusetts, U.S.A.


"It has been talked about for a while but, now, it has been published: a new encyclopedia of soils...impressive and comprehensive...this encyclopedia is a blessing...well-written, and very useful to refresh knowledge or gain some new. It will be a standard reference book for years to come." --Alfred E. Hartemink, ISRIC- World Soil Information, for GEODERMA, May 2005

"Very well written as a whole, with appropriate illustrations and additional readings...an excellent resource for libraries supporting agriculture." --CHOICE, September 2005

"A check on publications by the authors shows an impressive list of articles and books...covers diverse subject areas from environmental issues, management, agro-forestry techniques, food production, climate change, nutrient depletion, microbial ecology, modeling, soil strength, and more. The illustrations and other graphics are well done and add visual guides to the diverse subjects...This encyclopedia is recommended for college and research libraries. Undergraduates will find this a great resource for coursework both on the environment and soil or agriculture courses." --E-STREAMS, June 2005