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Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780128130810, 9780128130827

Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences

3rd Edition

A derivative of the Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences

Editors in Chief: J. Kirk Cochran Henry Bokuniewicz Patricia Yager
eBook ISBN: 9780128130827
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128130810
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 19th March 2019
Page Count: 4306
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The oceans cover 70% of the Earth’s surface, and are critical components of Earth’s climate system. This new edition of Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences summarizes the breadth of knowledge about them, providing revised, up to date entries as well coverage of new topics in the field.

New and expanded sections include microbial ecology, high latitude systems and the cryosphere, climate and climate change, hydrothermal and cold seep systems.

The structure of the work provides a modern presentation of the field, reflecting the input and different perspective of chemical, physical and biological oceanography, the specialized area of expertise of each of the three Editors-in-Chief. In this framework maximum attention has been devoted to making this an organic and unified reference.

Key Features

  • Represents a one-stop. organic information resource on the breadth of ocean science research
  • Reflects the input and different perspective of chemical, physical and biological oceanography, the specialized area of expertise of each of the three Editors-in-Chief
  • New and expanded sections include microbial ecology, high latitude systems and climate change
  • Provides scientifically reliable information at a foundational level, making this work a resource for students as well as active researches


Researchers, university educators and students in ecology, biology and earth science; policy makers and managers of the marine environment.

Table of Contents

Abrupt Climate Change

Absorbance Spectroscopy for Chemical Sensors

Abyssal Currents

Accretionary Prisms

Acoustic Measurement of Near-Bed Sediment Transport Processes

Acoustic Noise

Acoustic Scattering by Marine Organisms

Acoustic Scintillation Thermography

Acoustics in Marine Sediments

Acoustics, Arctic

Acoustics, Deep Ocean

Acoustics, Shallow Water

Aeolian Inputs

Agulhas Current

Aircraft Remote Sensing

Air-Sea Gas Exchange

Air-sea gas transfer: Nitrous oxide and Methane

Air-Sea Interaction: Heat And Momentum Fluxes

Air-Sea Transfer: Dimethyl Sulfide, COS, CS2, NH4, Non-Methane Hydrocarbons, Organo-Halogens


Antarctic Circumpolar Current

Antarctic Fishes

Anthropogenic Trace Elements in the Ocean

Antifouling Materials

Aquatic Flow Cytometry

Arctic Ocean Circulation

Artificial radionuclides

Artificial Reefs

Atlantic Ocean Equatorial Currents

Atmospheric Input of Pollutants

Atmospheric Transport and Deposition of Particulate Matter to the Oceans

Authigenic Deposits


Baleen Whales

Baltic Sea Circulation


Benguela Current

Benthic Organisms Overview

Benthic-pelagic coupling



Biological Pump and Particulate Flux


Bio-optical Models


Black Sea Circulation

Bottom Water Formation

Brazil and Falklands (Malvinas) Currents

Breaking Waves and Near-Surface Turbulence


Calcium Carbonates

California and Alaska Currents

Canary and Portugal Currents

Carbon Cycle

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Cycle

Carbon Sequestration via Direct Injection into the Ocean

Cenozoic Climate - Oxygen Isotope Evidence


CFCs and SF6 as Tracers of Ocean Processes

Challenges For Future Salmonid Farming

Chemical Processes in Estuarine Sediments

Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

Clay Mineralogy

Coastal Circulation Models

Coastal Ocean acidification: Carbonate Chemistry and Ecosystem Effects

Coastal Trapped Waves

Coastal Zone Management

Cold Seep Ecosystems

Cold-Water Coral Reefs

Compound-specific Radiocarbon Measurements

Conservative Elements

Contamination of our oceans by plastics

Continuous Plankton Recorders


Coral Reef and Other Tropical Fisheries

Coral Reef Fishes

Corals and Human Disturbance

Cosmogenic Isotopes

Crustacean Fisheries

CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, Depth) Profiler

Current Systems in the Atlantic Ocean

Current Systems in the Indian Ocean

Current Systems in the Mediterranean Sea

Current Systems in the Southern Ocean

Data Assimilation in Models

Deep Convection

Deep Sea Sediment: Pore Water Chemistry

Deep Submergence, Science of

Deep-Sea Benthic Foraminifera

Deep-Sea Bottom Currents: Their Nature And Distribution

Deep-Sea Contourites Drifts, Erosional Features And Bedforms

Deep-Sea Contourites: Sediments and Cycles

Deep-Sea Fauna

Deep-Sea Fishes

Deep-Sea Mining and Environmental Management

Deep-Sea Ridges, Microbiology

Determination of Past Sea Surface Temperatures

Determining Marine Sediment Chronologies with Radionuclides

Differential Diffusion

Dispersion and Diffusion in the Deep Ocean

Dispersion from Hydrothermal Vents

Diversity of Marine Species

Dolphins and Porpoises

Double-Diffusive Convection

Drifters and Floats

Dynamics of Exploited Marine Fish Populations

East Australian Current

Economics of Sea Level Rise

Ecosystem Effects of Fishing


Effects of Climate Change on Marine Mammals

El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Models

Electrical Properties of Sea Water: Theory and Applications

Elemental Distribution: Overview

Energetics of Ocean Mixing

Equatorial Waves

Estimates of Mixing

Estuarine Circulation


Evaporation and Humidity

Exotic Species, Introduction of

Expendable Sensors

Fiord Circulation

Fish Ecophysiology

Fish Feeding and Foraging

Fish Larvae

Fish Locomotion

Fish Migration, Horizontal

Fish Migration, Vertical

Fish Predation and Mortality

Fish Reproduction

Fish Vision

Fish: Demersal Fish (Life Histories, Behavior, Adaptations)

Fish: General Review

Fish: Hearing, Lateral Lines (Mechanisms, Role in Behavior, Adaptations to Life Underwater)

Fisheries and Climate

Fisheries Economics

Fisheries Overview

Fisheries: Pacific Salmon Fisheries

Fisheries: Multispecies Dynamics

Fishery Management

Fishery Management, Human Dimension

Fishery Manipulation Through Stock Enhancement or Restoration

Fishing Methods and Fishing Fleets

Floc Layers

Florida Current, Gulf Stream, and Labrador Current

Flow through Deep Ocean Passages

Flows in Straits and Channels

Fluorometry for Biological Sensing

Fluorometry for Chemical Sensing

Food Webs

Forward Problem in Numerical Models

Fossil Turbulence

Gas Exchange in Estuaries

General Circulation Models

Geochemistry of Mercury in the Marine Environment

Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale

Geophysical Heat Flow

Glacial Crustal Rebound, Sea Levels and Shorelines


Global Marine Pollution—A Brief History



Harmful Algal Blooms

Heat Transport and Climate

History of Ocean Sciences

Holocene Climate Variability

Hydrothermal Vent Biota

Hydrothermal Vent Ecology

Hydrothermal vent fauna

Hydrothermal Vent Fauna, Physiology of

Hydrothermal Vent Fluids, Chemistry of

Ice shelf Stability


Ice-Induced Plowing of the Seafloor

Ice-Ocean Boundary Layer. Part 1: Structure

Ice-Ocean Boundary Layer. Part 2: Variability

In Situ Planar Optical Sensors For Sediment Diagenesis Study

Indian Ocean Equatorial Currents

Indonesian Throughflow

Inherent Optical Properties and Irradiance

Internal Gravity Waves

Internal Solitary Waves and Mixing

Internal Tidal Mixing

Internal Tides

Internal wave breaking dynamics and associated mixing in the coastal ocean

International Organizations

Intertidal Fishes

Intra-Americas Sea


Inverse Modeling of Tracers and Nutrients

Inverse Problems, Inverse Methods, and Inverse Models

IR Radiometers

Island Wakes


Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents

Laboratory Studies of Turbulent Mixing

Lagrangian Biological Analysis

Land–Sea Global Transfers

Langmuir Circulation and Instability

Large Igneous Provinces

Large Marine Ecosystems

Laridae: Gulls, Terns, Noddies, Skimmers

Law of the Sea

Leeuwin Current

Long-term Tracer Changes

Loss of coral reefs

Luxury Seafood Trade: Extinction vs Lavishness



Manganese Nodules

Mariculture Diseases and Health

Mariculture of Aquarium Fishes

Mariculture Overview

Mariculture, Economic and Social Impacts

Marine Algal Genomics and Evolution

Marine Biogeochemical Data Assimilation

Marine Bioinvasions

Marine Biotechnology

Marine Chemical and Medicine Resources

Marine Cyanobacteria: Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus

Marine Fishery Resources, Global State of

Marine Mammal Diving Physiology

Marine Mammal Evolution and Taxonomy

Marine Mammal Migrations and Movement Patterns

Marine Mammal Overview

Marine Mammal Social Organization and Communication

Marine Mammal Trophic Levels and Interactions

Marine Mammals and Ocean Noise

Marine Mammals, History of Exploitation

Marine Mammals: At the intersection of ice, climate change and human interactions

Marine Mammals: Sperm Whales and Beaked Whales

Marine Mats

Marine Plankton Communities

Marine Policy Overview

Marine Protected Areas

Marine Shallow-water Hydrothermal Vents: Geochemistry

Marine Shallow-Water Hydrothermal Vents: Microbiology

Marine Snow

Maritime Archaeology

Meddies and Sub-Surface Eddies

Mediterranean Mariculture



Mesocosms: Enclosed Experimental Ecosystems in Ocean Science

Mesopelagic Fish

Mesoscale Eddies

Metal micronutrient stable isotopes

Metal Pollution

Metalloids and Oxyanions

Methane Hydrate and Submarine Slides

Methane Hydrates and Climatic Effects

Microbial Loops


Mid-Ocean Ridge Geochemistry and Petrology

Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Vent Deposits

Mid-Ocean Ridge Seismicity

Mid-Ocean Ridge Tectonics, Volcanism, and Geomorphology

Mid-Ocean Ridges: Mantle Convection and Formation of the Lithosphere

Millennial-Scale Ocean Climate Variability

Mineral Extraction, Authigenic Minerals

Mixing associated with submesoscale processes

Modelling the combined effects of physiological flexibility and micro-scale variability for plankton ecosystem dynamics

Molluskan Fisheries

Monsoons, History of



Nepheloid Layers

Network Analysis of Food Webs

Neutral Surfaces and the Equation of State

Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen Isotopes in the Ocean

Noble Gases and the Cryosphere

Non-Rotating Gravity Currents

North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)

North Sea Circulation

Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing and Related Discharges

Ocean Biogeochemistry and Ecology, Modeling of

Ocean Carbon System, Modeling of

Ocean Circulation

Ocean Circulation: Meridional Overturning Circulation

Ocean Gyre Ecosystems

Ocean Iron Fertilization

Ocean Margin Sediments

Ocean Ranching

Ocean Subduction

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

Ocean Wave-Energy Conversion

Ocean Zoning

Oceanic Particle Flux

Oceanographic Sampling and Measurements

Offshore Sand and Gravel Mining

Oil Pollution

Okhotsk Sea Circulation

Omics techniques in marine microbial ecology

One-Dimensional Models

Open Ocean Convection

Open Ocean Distribution and Applications of Natural and Bomb-Produced (uppercaseDelta)14C

Open Ocean Fisheries for Deep-Water Species

Open Ocean Fisheries for Large Pelagic Species

Optical Particle Characterization

Optical remote sensing of coastal waters

Origin of the Oceans

Overflows and Cascades


Oxygen Isotopes in the Ocean

Oysters – Shellfish Farming

Pacific Ocean Equatorial Currents


Paleoceanography, Climate Models in

Paleo-oceanography: Orbitally Tuned Timescales

Particle Aggregation Dynamics

Past Climate from Corals

Patch Dynamics

Pelagic Biogeography

Pelagic Fishes

Penetrating Shortwave Radiation

Peru–Chile Current System


Phosphorous Fluxes from Marine Sediments –Implications for the Near and Far-Future of Ocean “Dead-Zones"

Phosphorus Cycle

Photochemical Processes

Phytoplankton Size Structure

Phytoplankton, calcareous nanoplankton – The Coccolithophores

Phytoplankton-Bacteria Interactions


Plankton and Climate

Plankton Viruses

Plankton: Gelatinous Zooplankton

Platforms: Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

Platforms: Benthic Flux Landers

Platinum Group Elements and their Isotopes in the Ocean

Plio-Pleistocene Glacial Cycles and Milankovitch Variability

Polar Ecosystems

Pollution, Solids

Pollution: Approaches to Pollution Control

Pollution: Effects on Marine Communities


Population Dynamics Models

Population Genetics of Marine Organisms

Primary Production Distribution

Primary Production Methods

Primary Production Processes


Propagating Rifts and Microplates

Protozoa, Planktonic Foraminifera

Protozoa, Radiolarians

Radiative Transfer in the Ocean

Radioactive Wastes

Radiocarbon as tracer of DOC/POC

Rare Earth Elements and their Isotopes in the Ocean

Red Sea Circulation

Redfield Ratio

Redox-sensitive metals

Refractory Metals

Regime Shifts, Ecological Aspects

Regime Shifts, Physical Forcing

Regime Shifts: Methods of Analysis

Regional and Shelf Sea Models

Remote Sensing of Coral Reefs

Reverse Weathering Reactions in Marine Sediments

River Inputs

Rogue/Freak Waves

Rossby Waves

Rotating Gravity Currents


Sampling Techniques for the Marine Benthos

Satellite Altimetry

Satellite Oceanography – History and Introductory Concepts

Satellite Passive Microwave Measurements of Sea Ice

Satellite Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Temperatures

Satellite Remote Sensing SAR

Satellite Remote Sensing: Ocean Color

Satellite Remote Sensing: Salinity Measurements

Science of Ocean Climate Models

Scientific Ocean Drilling

Sea Ice

Sea Ice Dynamics

Sea ice in coupled climate models

Sea Ice: Overview

Sea Level Change

Sea Level Variations Over Geologic Time

Sea Otters

Sea Surface Exchanges of Momentum, Heat, and Fresh Water Determined by Satellite Remote Sensing

Sea Turtles

Seabird Conservation

Seabird Foraging Ecology

Seabird Migration

Seabird Population Dynamics

Seabird Reproductive Ecology

Seabird Responses to Climate Change

Seabirds and Fisheries Interactions

Seabirds as Indicators of Ocean Pollution

Seabirds: An Overview


Seamounts and Off-ridge Volcanism

Seas of Southeast Asia

Seaweed and Seagrasses

Seaweeds and their Mariculture

Sedimentary Record, Reconstruction of Productivity from the


Seismic Reflection methods for study of the water column

Seismic Structure

Sensors for Mean Meteorology

Sensors for Micrometeorological and Flux Measurements

Shelf Sea and Shelf Slope Fronts

Shipping and Ports


Single Point Current Meters


Slides, slumps, debris flows, turbidity currents, hyperpycnal flows and bottom currents

Small Pelagic Species Fisheries

Small-scale Patchiness, Models of

Small-Scale Physical Processes and Plankton Biology

Somali Current

Sonar Systems

Southern Ocean Fisheries


Storm Surges

Sub Ice-Shelf Circulation and Processes

Submarine groundwater discharge

Submesoscale Variability in the Upper Ocean

Sub-sea Permafrost

Surface Films

Surface Gravity and Capillary Waves

TECTONICS | Seismic Structure At Mid-Ocean Ridges

The Global Marine Silica Budget: Sources and Sinks

The Pelecaniform Birds

The Role of Surfactants in Air-Sea Exchange

The role of waves in ocean surface boundary |layer processes

The Sedimentary Deep Subseafloor Biosphere

The stable carbon isotopic composition of the oceans

Thermal Discharges and Pollution

Three-Dimensional (3D) Turbulence

Tidal Energy



Topographic Eddies

Trace Element Nutrients

Tracer Release Experiments

Tracers of Ocean Productivity

Transition Metals and Heavy Metal Speciation

Transmissometry and Nephelometry

Tritium–Helium Dating


Turbulence in the Benthic Boundary Layer

Turbulence Sensors

Upper Ocean Heat and Freshwater Budgets

Upper Ocean Mean Horizontal Structure

Upper Ocean Mixing

Upper Ocean Structure: Ekman Transport and Pumping

Upper Ocean Structure: Responses to Strong Atmospheric Forcing Events

Upper Ocean Vertical Structure

Upwelling Ecosystems

Uranium-Thorium Decay Series in the Oceans: Overview

Uranium-Thorium Radionuclides in Ocean Profiles

Vehicles for Deep Sea Exploration

Viral and Bacterial Contamination of Beaches

Volcanic Helium

Vortical Motion

Water Types and Water Masses

Wave Generation by Wind

Wave-driven upper ocean processes

Waves on Beaches

Weddell Sea Circulation

Wet Chemical Analyzers

Whitecaps and Foam

Wind- and Buoyancy-Forced Upper Ocean

Wind Driven Circulation

Wind-driven mixing under Earth rotation

Zooplankton Sampling with Nets and Trawls


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© Academic Press 2019
19th March 2019
Academic Press
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About the Editors in Chief

J. Kirk Cochran

Professor J. Kirk Cochran received his PhD in geochemistry from Yale University. Following two years on the scientific staff of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, he joined the faculty of Stony Brook University's Marine Sciences Research Center (now the School of Marine & Atmospheric Sciences) in 1983. He attained the rank of Professor in 1990 and served as Dean from September 1994 to January 1998. Professor Cochran's research interests include the use of naturally occurring radionuclides as tracers for oceanic processes and the fate of contaminants in the marine environment. He has studied biogeochemical processes in both the water column and bottom sediments, and has worked in coastal and open ocean environments as well as in lakes, rivers and groundwater. Professor Cochran has served as a consultant to the International Atomic Energy Agency and on numerous regional, national and international committees and advisory groups.

Affiliations and Expertise

Marine Sciences Research Center, Stony Brook University, USA

Henry Bokuniewicz

Henry Bokuniewicz is an internationally recognized expert on beach erosion, dredging, coastal groundwater issues, and pollution in the coastal ocean. He is involved with monitoring programs for ocean beaches to investigate shoreline changes, beach dynamics, and responses to storms. He also applies his research to practical problems of groundwater seepage at the sea floor, the dispersion of contaminants, dredging, and the disposal of the dredged sediments and marine mining.

Affiliations and Expertise

Stony Brook University, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences

Patricia Yager

Patricia Yager currently works at the Department of Marine Sciences, University of Georgia. She explores how climate change impacts the marine biosphere. Her more recent work involves understanding the influence of glacial meltwater from ice sheets.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Marine Sciences, The University of Georgia

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