Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences

Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences

A derivative of the Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences

3rd Edition - March 19, 2019

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  • Editors-in-Chief: J. Kirk Cochran, Henry Bokuniewicz, Patricia Yager
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128130827
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128130810

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The oceans cover 70% of the Earth’s surface, and are critical components of Earth’s climate system. This new edition of Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, Six Volume Set summarizes the breadth of knowledge about them, providing revised, up to date entries as well coverage of new topics in the field. New and expanded sections include microbial ecology, high latitude systems and the cryosphere, climate and climate change, hydrothermal and cold seep systems. The structure of the work provides a modern presentation of the field, reflecting the input and different perspective of chemical, physical and biological oceanography, the specialized area of expertise of each of the three Editors-in-Chief. In this framework maximum attention has been devoted to making this an organic and unified reference.

Key Features

  • Represents a one-stop. organic information resource on the breadth of ocean science research
  • Reflects the input and different perspective of chemical, physical and biological oceanography, the specialized area of expertise of each of the three Editors-in-Chief
  • New and expanded sections include microbial ecology, high latitude systems and climate change
  • Provides scientifically reliable information at a foundational level, making this work a resource for students as well as active researches


Researchers, university educators and students in ecology, biology and earth science; policy makers and managers of the marine environment.

Table of Contents

  • Abrupt Climate Change

    Absorbance Spectroscopy for Chemical Sensors

    Abyssal Currents

    Accretionary Prisms

    Acoustic Measurement of Near-Bed Sediment Transport Processes

    Acoustic Noise

    Acoustic Scattering by Marine Organisms

    Acoustic Scintillation Thermography

    Acoustics in Marine Sediments

    Acoustics, Arctic

    Acoustics, Deep Ocean

    Acoustics, Shallow Water

    Aeolian Inputs

    Agulhas Current

    Aircraft Remote Sensing

    Air-Sea Gas Exchange

    Air-sea gas transfer: Nitrous oxide and Methane

    Air-Sea Interaction: Heat And Momentum Fluxes

    Air-Sea Transfer: Dimethyl Sulfide, COS, CS2, NH4, Non-Methane Hydrocarbons, Organo-Halogens


    Antarctic Circumpolar Current

    Antarctic Fishes

    Anthropogenic Trace Elements in the Ocean

    Antifouling Materials

    Aquatic Flow Cytometry

    Arctic Ocean Circulation

    Artificial radionuclides

    Artificial Reefs

    Atlantic Ocean Equatorial Currents

    Atmospheric Input of Pollutants

    Atmospheric Transport and Deposition of Particulate Matter to the Oceans

    Authigenic Deposits


    Baleen Whales

    Baltic Sea Circulation


    Benguela Current

    Benthic Organisms Overview

    Benthic-pelagic coupling



    Biological Pump and Particulate Flux


    Bio-optical Models


    Black Sea Circulation

    Bottom Water Formation

    Brazil and Falklands (Malvinas) Currents

    Breaking Waves and Near-Surface Turbulence


    Calcium Carbonates

    California and Alaska Currents

    Canary and Portugal Currents

    Carbon Cycle

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Cycle

    Carbon Sequestration via Direct Injection into the Ocean

    Cenozoic Climate - Oxygen Isotope Evidence


    CFCs and SF6 as Tracers of Ocean Processes

    Challenges For Future Salmonid Farming

    Chemical Processes in Estuarine Sediments

    Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

    Clay Mineralogy

    Coastal Circulation Models

    Coastal Ocean acidification: Carbonate Chemistry and Ecosystem Effects

    Coastal Trapped Waves

    Coastal Zone Management

    Cold Seep Ecosystems

    Cold-Water Coral Reefs

    Compound-specific Radiocarbon Measurements

    Conservative Elements

    Contamination of our oceans by plastics

    Continuous Plankton Recorders


    Coral Reef and Other Tropical Fisheries

    Coral Reef Fishes

    Corals and Human Disturbance

    Cosmogenic Isotopes

    Crustacean Fisheries

    CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, Depth) Profiler

    Current Systems in the Atlantic Ocean

    Current Systems in the Indian Ocean

    Current Systems in the Mediterranean Sea

    Current Systems in the Southern Ocean

    Data Assimilation in Models

    Deep Convection

    Deep Sea Sediment: Pore Water Chemistry

    Deep Submergence, Science of

    Deep-Sea Benthic Foraminifera

    Deep-Sea Bottom Currents: Their Nature And Distribution

    Deep-Sea Contourites Drifts, Erosional Features And Bedforms

    Deep-Sea Contourites: Sediments and Cycles

    Deep-Sea Fauna

    Deep-Sea Fishes

    Deep-Sea Mining and Environmental Management

    Deep-Sea Ridges, Microbiology

    Determination of Past Sea Surface Temperatures

    Determining Marine Sediment Chronologies with Radionuclides

    Differential Diffusion

    Dispersion and Diffusion in the Deep Ocean

    Dispersion from Hydrothermal Vents

    Diversity of Marine Species

    Dolphins and Porpoises

    Double-Diffusive Convection

    Drifters and Floats

    Dynamics of Exploited Marine Fish Populations

    East Australian Current

    Economics of Sea Level Rise

    Ecosystem Effects of Fishing


    Effects of Climate Change on Marine Mammals

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Models

    Electrical Properties of Sea Water: Theory and Applications

    Elemental Distribution: Overview

    Energetics of Ocean Mixing

    Equatorial Waves

    Estimates of Mixing

    Estuarine Circulation


    Evaporation and Humidity

    Exotic Species, Introduction of

    Expendable Sensors

    Fiord Circulation

    Fish Ecophysiology

    Fish Feeding and Foraging

    Fish Larvae

    Fish Locomotion

    Fish Migration, Horizontal

    Fish Migration, Vertical

    Fish Predation and Mortality

    Fish Reproduction

    Fish Vision

    Fish: Demersal Fish (Life Histories, Behavior, Adaptations)

    Fish: General Review

    Fish: Hearing, Lateral Lines (Mechanisms, Role in Behavior, Adaptations to Life Underwater)

    Fisheries and Climate

    Fisheries Economics

    Fisheries Overview

    Fisheries: Pacific Salmon Fisheries

    Fisheries: Multispecies Dynamics

    Fishery Management

    Fishery Management, Human Dimension

    Fishery Manipulation Through Stock Enhancement or Restoration

    Fishing Methods and Fishing Fleets

    Floc Layers

    Florida Current, Gulf Stream, and Labrador Current

    Flow through Deep Ocean Passages

    Flows in Straits and Channels

    Fluorometry for Biological Sensing

    Fluorometry for Chemical Sensing

    Food Webs

    Forward Problem in Numerical Models

    Fossil Turbulence

    Gas Exchange in Estuaries

    General Circulation Models

    Geochemistry of Mercury in the Marine Environment

    Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale

    Geophysical Heat Flow

    Glacial Crustal Rebound, Sea Levels and Shorelines


    Global Marine Pollution—A Brief History



    Harmful Algal Blooms

    Heat Transport and Climate

    History of Ocean Sciences

    Holocene Climate Variability

    Hydrothermal Vent Biota

    Hydrothermal Vent Ecology

    Hydrothermal vent fauna

    Hydrothermal Vent Fauna, Physiology of

    Hydrothermal Vent Fluids, Chemistry of

    Ice shelf Stability


    Ice-Induced Plowing of the Seafloor

    Ice-Ocean Boundary Layer. Part 1: Structure

    Ice-Ocean Boundary Layer. Part 2: Variability

    In Situ Planar Optical Sensors For Sediment Diagenesis Study

    Indian Ocean Equatorial Currents

    Indonesian Throughflow

    Inherent Optical Properties and Irradiance

    Internal Gravity Waves

    Internal Solitary Waves and Mixing

    Internal Tidal Mixing

    Internal Tides

    Internal wave breaking dynamics and associated mixing in the coastal ocean

    International Organizations

    Intertidal Fishes

    Intra-Americas Sea


    Inverse Modeling of Tracers and Nutrients

    Inverse Problems, Inverse Methods, and Inverse Models

    IR Radiometers

    Island Wakes


    Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents

    Laboratory Studies of Turbulent Mixing

    Lagrangian Biological Analysis

    Land–Sea Global Transfers

    Langmuir Circulation and Instability

    Large Igneous Provinces

    Large Marine Ecosystems

    Laridae: Gulls, Terns, Noddies, Skimmers

    Law of the Sea

    Leeuwin Current

    Long-term Tracer Changes

    Loss of coral reefs

    Luxury Seafood Trade: Extinction vs Lavishness



    Manganese Nodules

    Mariculture Diseases and Health

    Mariculture of Aquarium Fishes

    Mariculture Overview

    Mariculture, Economic and Social Impacts

    Marine Algal Genomics and Evolution

    Marine Biogeochemical Data Assimilation

    Marine Bioinvasions

    Marine Biotechnology

    Marine Chemical and Medicine Resources

    Marine Cyanobacteria: Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus

    Marine Fishery Resources, Global State of

    Marine Mammal Diving Physiology

    Marine Mammal Evolution and Taxonomy

    Marine Mammal Migrations and Movement Patterns

    Marine Mammal Overview

    Marine Mammal Social Organization and Communication

    Marine Mammal Trophic Levels and Interactions

    Marine Mammals and Ocean Noise

    Marine Mammals, History of Exploitation

    Marine Mammals: At the intersection of ice, climate change and human interactions

    Marine Mammals: Sperm Whales and Beaked Whales

    Marine Mats

    Marine Plankton Communities

    Marine Policy Overview

    Marine Protected Areas

    Marine Shallow-water Hydrothermal Vents: Geochemistry

    Marine Shallow-Water Hydrothermal Vents: Microbiology

    Marine Snow

    Maritime Archaeology

    Meddies and Sub-Surface Eddies

    Mediterranean Mariculture



    Mesocosms: Enclosed Experimental Ecosystems in Ocean Science

    Mesopelagic Fish

    Mesoscale Eddies

    Metal micronutrient stable isotopes

    Metal Pollution

    Metalloids and Oxyanions

    Methane Hydrate and Submarine Slides

    Methane Hydrates and Climatic Effects

    Microbial Loops


    Mid-Ocean Ridge Geochemistry and Petrology

    Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Vent Deposits

    Mid-Ocean Ridge Seismicity

    Mid-Ocean Ridge Tectonics, Volcanism, and Geomorphology

    Mid-Ocean Ridges: Mantle Convection and Formation of the Lithosphere

    Millennial-Scale Ocean Climate Variability

    Mineral Extraction, Authigenic Minerals

    Mixing associated with submesoscale processes

    Modelling the combined effects of physiological flexibility and micro-scale variability for plankton ecosystem dynamics

    Molluskan Fisheries

    Monsoons, History of



    Nepheloid Layers

    Network Analysis of Food Webs

    Neutral Surfaces and the Equation of State

    Nitrogen Cycle

    Nitrogen Isotopes in the Ocean

    Noble Gases and the Cryosphere

    Non-Rotating Gravity Currents

    North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)

    North Sea Circulation

    Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing and Related Discharges

    Ocean Biogeochemistry and Ecology, Modeling of

    Ocean Carbon System, Modeling of

    Ocean Circulation

    Ocean Circulation: Meridional Overturning Circulation

    Ocean Gyre Ecosystems

    Ocean Iron Fertilization

    Ocean Margin Sediments

    Ocean Ranching

    Ocean Subduction

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

    Ocean Wave-Energy Conversion

    Ocean Zoning

    Oceanic Particle Flux

    Oceanographic Sampling and Measurements

    Offshore Sand and Gravel Mining

    Oil Pollution

    Okhotsk Sea Circulation

    Omics techniques in marine microbial ecology

    One-Dimensional Models

    Open Ocean Convection

    Open Ocean Distribution and Applications of Natural and Bomb-Produced (uppercaseDelta)14C

    Open Ocean Fisheries for Deep-Water Species

    Open Ocean Fisheries for Large Pelagic Species

    Optical Particle Characterization

    Optical remote sensing of coastal waters

    Origin of the Oceans

    Overflows and Cascades


    Oxygen Isotopes in the Ocean

    Oysters – Shellfish Farming

    Pacific Ocean Equatorial Currents


    Paleoceanography, Climate Models in

    Paleo-oceanography: Orbitally Tuned Timescales

    Particle Aggregation Dynamics

    Past Climate from Corals

    Patch Dynamics

    Pelagic Biogeography

    Pelagic Fishes

    Penetrating Shortwave Radiation

    Peru–Chile Current System


    Phosphorous Fluxes from Marine Sediments –Implications for the Near and Far-Future of Ocean “Dead-Zones"

    Phosphorus Cycle

    Photochemical Processes

    Phytoplankton Size Structure

    Phytoplankton, calcareous nanoplankton – The Coccolithophores

    Phytoplankton-Bacteria Interactions


    Plankton and Climate

    Plankton Viruses

    Plankton: Gelatinous Zooplankton

    Platforms: Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Platforms: Benthic Flux Landers

    Platinum Group Elements and their Isotopes in the Ocean

    Plio-Pleistocene Glacial Cycles and Milankovitch Variability

    Polar Ecosystems

    Pollution, Solids

    Pollution: Approaches to Pollution Control

    Pollution: Effects on Marine Communities


    Population Dynamics Models

    Population Genetics of Marine Organisms

    Primary Production Distribution

    Primary Production Methods

    Primary Production Processes


    Propagating Rifts and Microplates

    Protozoa, Planktonic Foraminifera

    Protozoa, Radiolarians

    Radiative Transfer in the Ocean

    Radioactive Wastes

    Radiocarbon as tracer of DOC/POC

    Rare Earth Elements and their Isotopes in the Ocean

    Red Sea Circulation

    Redfield Ratio

    Redox-sensitive metals

    Refractory Metals

    Regime Shifts, Ecological Aspects

    Regime Shifts, Physical Forcing

    Regime Shifts: Methods of Analysis

    Regional and Shelf Sea Models

    Remote Sensing of Coral Reefs

    Reverse Weathering Reactions in Marine Sediments

    River Inputs

    Rogue/Freak Waves

    Rossby Waves

    Rotating Gravity Currents


    Sampling Techniques for the Marine Benthos

    Satellite Altimetry

    Satellite Oceanography – History and Introductory Concepts

    Satellite Passive Microwave Measurements of Sea Ice

    Satellite Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Temperatures

    Satellite Remote Sensing SAR

    Satellite Remote Sensing: Ocean Color

    Satellite Remote Sensing: Salinity Measurements

    Science of Ocean Climate Models

    Scientific Ocean Drilling

    Sea Ice

    Sea Ice Dynamics

    Sea ice in coupled climate models

    Sea Ice: Overview

    Sea Level Change

    Sea Level Variations Over Geologic Time

    Sea Otters

    Sea Surface Exchanges of Momentum, Heat, and Fresh Water Determined by Satellite Remote Sensing

    Sea Turtles

    Seabird Conservation

    Seabird Foraging Ecology

    Seabird Migration

    Seabird Population Dynamics

    Seabird Reproductive Ecology

    Seabird Responses to Climate Change

    Seabirds and Fisheries Interactions

    Seabirds as Indicators of Ocean Pollution

    Seabirds: An Overview


    Seamounts and Off-ridge Volcanism

    Seas of Southeast Asia

    Seaweed and Seagrasses

    Seaweeds and their Mariculture

    Sedimentary Record, Reconstruction of Productivity from the


    Seismic Reflection methods for study of the water column

    Seismic Structure

    Sensors for Mean Meteorology

    Sensors for Micrometeorological and Flux Measurements

    Shelf Sea and Shelf Slope Fronts

    Shipping and Ports


    Single Point Current Meters


    Slides, slumps, debris flows, turbidity currents, hyperpycnal flows and bottom currents

    Small Pelagic Species Fisheries

    Small-scale Patchiness, Models of

    Small-Scale Physical Processes and Plankton Biology

    Somali Current

    Sonar Systems

    Southern Ocean Fisheries


    Storm Surges

    Sub Ice-Shelf Circulation and Processes

    Submarine groundwater discharge

    Submesoscale Variability in the Upper Ocean

    Sub-sea Permafrost

    Surface Films

    Surface Gravity and Capillary Waves

    TECTONICS | Seismic Structure At Mid-Ocean Ridges

    The Global Marine Silica Budget: Sources and Sinks

    The Pelecaniform Birds

    The Role of Surfactants in Air-Sea Exchange

    The role of waves in ocean surface boundary |layer processes

    The Sedimentary Deep Subseafloor Biosphere

    The stable carbon isotopic composition of the oceans

    Thermal Discharges and Pollution

    Three-Dimensional (3D) Turbulence

    Tidal Energy



    Topographic Eddies

    Trace Element Nutrients

    Tracer Release Experiments

    Tracers of Ocean Productivity

    Transition Metals and Heavy Metal Speciation

    Transmissometry and Nephelometry

    Tritium–Helium Dating


    Turbulence in the Benthic Boundary Layer

    Turbulence Sensors

    Upper Ocean Heat and Freshwater Budgets

    Upper Ocean Mean Horizontal Structure

    Upper Ocean Mixing

    Upper Ocean Structure: Ekman Transport and Pumping

    Upper Ocean Structure: Responses to Strong Atmospheric Forcing Events

    Upper Ocean Vertical Structure

    Upwelling Ecosystems

    Uranium-Thorium Decay Series in the Oceans: Overview

    Uranium-Thorium Radionuclides in Ocean Profiles

    Vehicles for Deep Sea Exploration

    Viral and Bacterial Contamination of Beaches

    Volcanic Helium

    Vortical Motion

    Water Types and Water Masses

    Wave Generation by Wind

    Wave-driven upper ocean processes

    Waves on Beaches

    Weddell Sea Circulation

    Wet Chemical Analyzers

    Whitecaps and Foam

    Wind- and Buoyancy-Forced Upper Ocean

    Wind Driven Circulation

    Wind-driven mixing under Earth rotation

    Zooplankton Sampling with Nets and Trawls


Product details

  • No. of pages: 4306
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2019
  • Published: March 19, 2019
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128130827
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128130810

About the Editors in Chief

J. Kirk Cochran

Professor J. Kirk Cochran received his PhD in geochemistry from Yale University. Following two years on the scientific staff of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, he joined the faculty of Stony Brook University's Marine Sciences Research Center (now the School of Marine & Atmospheric Sciences) in 1983. He attained the rank of Professor in 1990 and served as Dean from September 1994 to January 1998. Professor Cochran's research interests include the use of naturally occurring radionuclides as tracers for oceanic processes and the fate of contaminants in the marine environment. He has studied biogeochemical processes in both the water column and bottom sediments, and has worked in coastal and open ocean environments as well as in lakes, rivers and groundwater. Professor Cochran has served as a consultant to the International Atomic Energy Agency and on numerous regional, national and international committees and advisory groups.

Affiliations and Expertise

Marine Sciences Research Center, Stony Brook University, USA

Henry Bokuniewicz

Henry Bokuniewicz is an internationally recognized expert on beach erosion, dredging, coastal groundwater issues, and pollution in the coastal ocean. He is involved with monitoring programs for ocean beaches to investigate shoreline changes, beach dynamics, and responses to storms. He also applies his research to practical problems of groundwater seepage at the sea floor, the dispersion of contaminants, dredging, and the disposal of the dredged sediments and marine mining.

Affiliations and Expertise

Stony Brook University, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences

Patricia Yager

Patricia Yager currently works at the Department of Marine Sciences, University of Georgia. She explores how climate change impacts the marine biosphere. Her more recent work involves understanding the influence of glacial meltwater from ice sheets.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Marine Sciences, The University of Georgia

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