Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences

Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences

2nd Edition - July 22, 2014

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  • Editors: Carrick Devine, Michael Dikeman
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123847317
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123847348

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Description

The Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences, Second Edition, Three Volume Set prepared by an international team of experts, is a reference work that covers all important aspects of meat science from stable to table. Its topics range from muscle physiology, biochemistry (including post mortem biochemistry), and processing procedures to the processes of tenderization and flavor development, various processed meat products, animal production, microbiology and food safety, and carcass composition. It also considers animal welfare, animal genetics, genomics, consumer issues, ethnic meat products, nutrition, the history of each species, cooking procedures, human health and nutrition, and waste management. Fully up-to-date, this important reference work provides an invaluable source of information for both researchers and professional food scientists. It appeals to all those wanting a one-stop guide to the meat sciences.

Key Features

  • More than 200 articles covering all areas of meat sciences
  • Substantially revised and updated since the previous edition was published in 2004
  • Full color throughout

Readership

Academic and laboratory researchers, economic and nutritional policy makers, graduate and undergraduate meat science students

Table of Contents

  • Editors-in-Chief

    Section Editors

    Preface

    Introduction

    Permission Acknowledgments

    Article Titles

    A

    ADDITIVES | Extenders

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Functional Properties

    Extender Addition to Meat Products

    Functional Components of Extender Ingredients

    Ingredients Used as Meat Extenders

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    ADDITIVES | Functional

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Regulations

    Adding Functional Ingredients to Meat Products

    Functional Ingredients

    See also

    Further Reading

    ANIMAL BREEDING AND GENETICS | DNA Markers and Marker-Assisted Selection in the Genomic Era

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Role of Molecular Markers on Genetic Improvement of Carcass and Meat Quality Traits

    Markers and Quantitative Trait Loci

    QTL and Genes Affecting Carcass and Meat Quality

    Identification of QTL and Genes

    Genomic Selection

    Genome-Wide Association Studies and Functional Genomics

    See also

    Further Reading

    ANIMAL BREEDING AND GENETICS | Traditional Animal Breeding

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Differences among Breeds

    Carcass Composition

    Meat Quality

    Crossbreeding

    Differences within Breeds

    Genetic Parameters for Carcass Composition and Meat Quality Traits

    Selection Programs

    Major Genes

    Future Considerations

    See also

    Further Reading

    ANIMAL HEALTH RISK ANALYSIS

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Transparency

    Uncertainty and Variability

    Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

    International Obligations

    Hazard Identification

    Risk Assessment

    Risk Management

    Risk Communication

    See also

    Further Reading

    AUTOMATION IN THE MEAT INDUSTRY | Cutting and Boning

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Opportunities and Challenges

    Pork Cutting and Boning

    Automatic Cutting of Pork Middles

    Beef Carcass Cutting and Boning

    Ovine Cutting and Boning

    See also

    Further Reading

    AUTOMATION IN THE MEAT INDUSTRY | Slaughter Line Operation

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Opportunities and Challenges

    Automation of Pig Slaughter Lines

    Beef Slaughter Automation

    Ovine Slaughter Automation

    See also

    Further Reading

    B

    BACON PRODUCTION | Bacon

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Belly Bacon

    History of Bacon

    The Raw Material Used for Bacon Production

    Curing Methods

    Post-Cook Chilling

    Tempering

    Pressing/Forming

    Slicing and Packaging of Bacon

    Microbiology, Color, and Flavor Development

    See also

    Further Reading

    BACON PRODUCTION | Wiltshire Sides

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Bacon Pigs

    Wiltshire Bacon Processing

    Microbiology of Wiltshire Bacon

    Microbial Spoilage of Wiltshire Bacon

    Color and Color Problems in Bacon

    Flavor Development in Wiltshire Bacon

    Packaging and Transport of Bacon Sides

    Cutting of Sides and Smoking

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    BIOFILM FORMATION

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Formation of Biofilms

    Cellular Control of Biofilms – The Role of Cell-to-Cell Signaling Molecules and the Molecular Basis of Biofilm Formation

    Studying Biofilms

    Biofilms in the Food Industry

    See also

    Further Reading

    BIOMETHANE PRODUCTION AND CLEANUP

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Methane Production in Livestock

    Factors Related to Methane Production in Ruminants

    Manure Management to Reduce Methane Emission and Using Techniques to Generate Energy

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    BIOPRESERVATION

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Lactic Acid Bacteria and Their Antimicrobial Activities

    Bacteriocin Production

    The Application of Bacteriocins to Meats

    Fresh Meat

    Bacteriophage Control of Bacteria in Meats

    Consumer Acceptance of Biopreservation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    BIOTECHNOLOGY IN MEAT ANIMAL PRODUCTION | Cloning

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Methods of Cloning

    Nuclear Cloning Methodology

    Current Efficiency of Nuclear Transfer

    Complete Reprograming

    Incomplete Reprograming

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    BIOTECHNOLOGY IN MEAT ANIMAL PRODUCTION | Genetically Modified Organisms in Meat Animal Production

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Methods to Produce Transgenic Animal Production

    Use of Genetically Engineered Animals in Meat Production

    Current Examples of Genetic Engineering of Animals

    Future Direction of Genetic Engineering

    Food Safety/Approval of Genetically Engineered Animals

    See also

    Further Reading

    BOAR TAINT: BIOLOGICAL CAUSES AND PRACTICAL MEANS TO ALLEVIATE IT

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Boar Taint: Description and Causes

    Alternatives to Castration for Control of Boar Taint

    Strategies to Control Boar Taint

    Further Reading

    BY-PRODUCTS | Edible, for Human Consumption

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Products

    Mechanically Separated Meat

    See also

    Further Reading

    BY-PRODUCTS | Hides and Skins

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Trade in Hides and Leather

    Classification

    Hide Composition

    Hide Harvesting

    Hide Curing

    Fleshing

    Trimming

    Sorting

    Quality of Cure

    Tanning

    Soaking

    Dehairing

    Deliming

    Bating

    Pickling

    Tanning

    Wringing/Setting

    Splitting and Shaving

    Retanning

    Dyeing/Coloring

    Fatliquoring

    Setting Out

    Drying

    Conditioning

    Staking

    Buffing

    Finishing

    Planning

    Area Measurement

    Physical Properties of Leather

    Tanning Effluent and Waste

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    BY-PRODUCTS | Inedible

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Inedible By-Products

    Processing

    The Rendering Process

    Processing of Feathers and Pig Hair

    Statutory Requirements for Rendering

    Industrial Uses of Animal By-Products

    Animal By-Product Feed Ingredients

    Major Animal-Derived Fats

    Major Animal-Derived Proteins

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    C

    CANNING

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Microbial Population and Process Severity

    Thermal Resistance of Microorganisms

    Heat and Mass Transfer during Canning

    Meat Canning Operations

    Heat Treatment

    Implications for Meat Quality

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    CARCASS CHILLING AND BONING

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Carcass Boning and Hot Boning

    Other Options of Hot Boning

    Chilling

    See also

    Further Reading

    CARCASS COMPOSITION, MUSCLE STRUCTURE, AND CONTRACTION

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Meat Carcasses

    Carcass Muscle

    Muscle Connective Tissue

    Muscle Fiber Structure and Physiology

    Muscle Fiber Metabolism

    Muscle Contraction

    Carcass Fat

    Carcass Bone

    See also

    Further Reading

    CHEMICAL ANALYSIS | Analysis of Final Product Composition for Labeling

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Current Labeling Requirements

    Nutritional Databases

    Chemical Analysis

    Calculations

    See also

    Further Reading

    CHEMICAL ANALYSIS | Physicochemical Analysis Methods

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Classical Methods

    Electrochemical Methods

    Electronic Sensing; ‘Noses’ and ‘Tongues’

    Flow Injection Analysis

    Mass Spectrometric Techniques

    Miscellaneous Techniques

    Quality Assurance

    See also

    Further Reading

    CHEMICAL ANALYSIS | Raw Material Composition Analysis

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Composition of Meat as a Raw Material

    Performance of Analytical Methods

    Methods of Fat Analysis

    Methods for Protein Analysis

    Methods of Analysis for Moisture

    Multicomponent Methods

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    CHEMICAL ANALYSIS | Sampling and Statistical Requirements

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Statistical Requirements of Analysis Techniques

    Survey Sampling

    Acceptance Sampling

    See also

    Further Reading

    CHEMICAL ANALYSIS | Standard Methods

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Use of Standard Methods

    Standard Developing Organizations

    How a Method Becomes a Standard

    Performance Characteristics Examined

    Determination of Performance Characteristics

    The Codex Alimentarius' Guidelines for Numeric Values for Method Performance Criteria

    How Methods Come into Being

    Chemical Standards and Official Methods on Meat and Meat Products

    Collaboration

    See also

    Further Reading

    CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR SPECIFIC COMPONENTS | Curing Agents

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Definitions

    Legal Requirements

    Reasons for Addition

    Chemistry of Curing Agents

    Concentrations of Nitrite and Nitrate in Meat Products

    Changes of Nitrite during Storage

    Analysis of Nitrite and Nitrate

    Effects of Nitrite in Meat Products

    Nitrosamine Formation

    Toxicological Aspects

    See also

    Further Reading

    CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR SPECIFIC COMPONENTS | Major Meat Components

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Protein

    Amino Acids

    See also

    Further Reading

    CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR SPECIFIC COMPONENTS | Micronutrients and Other Minor Meat Components

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Fat-Soluble Vitamins

    Water-Soluble Vitamins

    Minerals

    Cholesterol

    Enzymes

    See also

    Further Reading

    CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR SPECIFIC COMPONENTS | Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Sample Preparation

    Analytical Methodologies

    Future Trends in Residue Analysis

    See also

    Further Reading

    CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEAT | Adipose Tissue

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Sources of Lipid in Meat

    Lipid Accumulation in Adipose Tissue

    Fatty Acid Composition of Subcutaneous, Intramuscular, and Muscle Lipids

    Lipid Accumulation in Meat

    Conjugated Linoleic Acid

    Desaturation of Fatty Acids

    Contribution of Intramuscular Adipose Tissue to the Concentration of Cholesterol in Meat

    Fatty Acid Composition and Melting Point of Lipids

    See also

    Further Reading

    CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEAT | Chemical Composition

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Major Chemical Components of Meat Tissues

    Specific Chemical Components

    See also

    Further Reading

    CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEAT | Color and Pigment

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Myoglobin

    Amino Acid Sequence of Myoglobin

    Pigments in Fresh Meats

    Lipid Oxidation-Induced Myoglobin Oxidation

    Pigments in Cooked Meats

    Premature Browning

    Pink Color Defect

    Pigments in Cured Meats

    See also

    Further Reading

    CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEAT | Palatability

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Fat or Lipids: Effects on Meat Palatability

    Four Theories of Marbling or Lipid Contribution to Meat Tenderness

    Use of Marbling or Intramuscular Fat to Segment Meat for Expected Palatability Differences

    Marbling or Intramuscular Fat as an Indirect Measure of Meat Tenderness

    Muscle Fiber or Lean Components Contribution to Meat Palatability

    Connective Tissue Influences on Meat Palatability

    Chemical Development and Reactions of Meat Flavor

    Cooked Meat Flavor Development

    Basic Tastes in Meat

    Species-Specific Flavor of Meat

    Lipids and Off-Flavor Development

    Measuring Meat Flavor

    See also

    Further Reading

    CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEAT | pH Measurement

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    What is pH?

    pH Changes from Muscle to Meat

    Buffering Capacity

    Importance of pH Changes and Ultimate pH in Meat

    Time of pH Measurement

    Measurement of pH in Meat

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEAT | Protein Functionality

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Water Binding

    Solubility

    Gelation

    Emulsification

    See also

    Further Reading

    CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEAT | Water-Holding Capacity

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Contractile Proteins – Actin and Myosin

    Effect of pH

    Effect of Rigor

    Postmortem Glycolysis Rate

    Effect of Temperature

    Effect of Ageing

    Effect of Salt (NaCl)

    Effect of Phosphates

    Effect of Ionic Strength

    Effect of High-Pressure Processing

    Effect of Ammonium Hydroxide

    Effect of Calpain

    See also

    Further Reading

    CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS OF COMMINUTED PRODUCTS | Emulsions and Batters

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Meat Proteins

    Meat Emulsion Matrix

    Emulsion/Batter Stability

    Emerging Trends

    See also

    Further Reading

    CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS OF COMMINUTED PRODUCTS | Nonmeat Proteins

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Functions of Nonmeat Proteins in Comminuted Meat Products

    Composition for Nutrition and Health Purposes

    Animal Proteins

    Plant Protein Sources

    Microbial Proteins

    See also

    Further Reading

    CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS OF COMMINUTED PRODUCTS | Other Ingredients

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Salt

    Nitrite or Nitrate

    Reducing Compounds

    Cure Accelerators

    Sodium (or Potassium) Lactate

    Phosphates

    Water or Ice

    Binders, Emulsifiers, Extenders, or Fillers

    Breading

    Flavoring Agents

    Nucleotides

    Spices

    Coloring

    Starter Cultures (Lactic Acid Bacteria) or Added Acids

    Antioxidants

    Enzymes

    Preservatives

    Miscellaneous

    See also

    Further Reading

    CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS OF COMMINUTED PRODUCTS | Spices and Flavorings

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Characteristics and Components of Spices and Flavoring Agents

    Applications of Spices

    Usage

    Labeling (United States)

    See also

    Further Reading

    CLASSIFICATION OF CARCASSES | Beef Carcass Classification and Grading

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Purpose of Beef Carcass Classification

    Beef Carcass Classification in Europe

    Grading in the United States

    Grading in Australia

    Grading in Japan

    Further Reading

    CLASSIFICATION OF CARCASSES | Pig Carcass Classification

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Reference

    Online Instruments

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    CONNECTIVE TISSUE: STRUCTURE, FUNCTION, AND INFLUENCE ON MEAT QUALITY

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Distribution, Composition, and Structure of Muscle Connective Tissue

    In vivo’ Function of Connective Tissue

    Connective Tissue Properties Related to Meat Texture

    Method of Measuring Meat Texture

    Biological Factors, Connective Tissue, and Meat Tenderness

    Postmortem Changes in Connective Tissue

    Changes in Connective Tissue with Cooking

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    CONVERSION OF MUSCLE TO MEAT | Aging

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Mechanism of Aging

    When Does Aging Start?

    Effects of Temperature on Aging

    Variability in Tenderness and Aging

    Physical Factors Influencing Aging

    Biochemical Factors Influencing Aging

    Other Factors Influencing Aging

    Hot Boning

    Electrical Stimulation

    Different Species and Breeds

    Factors That Reduce Aging

    Injection of Calcium and Other Agents

    Freezing and Thawing

    Measurement of Aging

    Packaging

    See also

    Further Reading

    CONVERSION OF MUSCLE TO MEAT | Color and Texture Deviations

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Effects of Rigor Mortis and Aging Conditions on Texture and Color

    Pale, Soft, and Exudative Meat

    Pork

    Other Species

    Dark, Firm, and Dry Meat

    Cold Shortening

    Double Muscling

    Callipyge Sheep

    Muscle Degeneration

    See also

    Further Reading

    CONVERSION OF MUSCLE TO MEAT | Glycogen

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Structure of Glycogen

    Metabolism of Glycogen

    Effect of Glycogen Content on Meat Quality

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    CONVERSION OF MUSCLE TO MEAT | Glycolysis

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Anabolism versus Catabolism

    Catabolism Postmortem

    Time Course of Glycolysis

    Consequences for Water Retention and Tenderness

    Consequences for Shelf Life and Flavor

    Abnormal Postmortem Changes

    Conditioning and Aging

    See also

    Further Reading

    CONVERSION OF MUSCLE TO MEAT | Rigor Mortis, Cold, and Rigor Shortening

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Relaxed State of Muscles

    Contraction

    Rigor Mortis

    Influence of Temperature

    Influence of Adenosine Triphosphate

    Influence on Tenderness

    Influence on Water-Holding Capacity

    See also

    Further Reading

    CONVERSION OF MUSCLE TO MEAT | Slaughter-Line Operation and Pig Meat Quality

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Stress and Meat Quality

    Transport from the Farm to the Abattoir

    On-Farm Handling and Loading

    Transportation

    Lairage at the Abattoir

    Slaughtering

    Carcass Dressing

    Chilling

    See also

    Further Reading

    COOKING OF MEAT | Cooking of Meat

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Changes in Meat during Heating

    The Heating Process in Meat

    Main Cooking Methods

    Other Cooking Methods

    Temperature Control and Timetable

    Resting Period after Cooking

    Effects of Cooking Methods on the Eating Quality of Meat

    Effect of Cooking on Color

    Effect of Cooking on Odor and Flavor

    Effect of Cooking on Texture

    Effect of Cooking on Weight Loss

    See also

    Further Reading

    COOKING OF MEAT | Flavor Development

    Abstract

    Introduction

    The Precursors of Meat Flavor

    Makeup of Meat Flavor: Taste and Odor

    Sources of Heat-Induced Meat Flavor

    Desirable Meaty Aromas of Cooked Meat

    Flavor of Nitrite-Cured Meat

    See also

    Further Reading

    COOKING OF MEAT | Heat Processing Methods

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Sterilization

    Cooking (Pasteurization)

    Hot Air

    Steam

    Hot Water

    Hot Fat or Oil Frying

    Radiant

    Extrusion

    Dielectric

    Ohmic Heating

    Thermal Surface Decontamination Processes

    Hot Water

    Steam

    Scalding

    Singeing

    See also

    Further Reading

    COOKING OF MEAT | Maillard Reaction and Browning

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Maillard Reaction

    Meat Flavor Compounds from Maillard Reaction

    Meat Flavor Compounds from Lipid-Maillard Interactions

    Maillard Browning

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    COOKING OF MEAT | Physics and Chemistry

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Chemical Changes in Meat Protein Systems

    Water-Holding Capacity

    Effects of Heating on Meat Microstructure

    Texture and Tenderness of Heated Meat

    See also

    Further Reading

    COOKING OF MEAT | Warmed-Over Flavor

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Warmed-Over Flavor as a Consequence of Lipid Oxidation

    Warmed-Over Flavor as a Consequence of Protein Oxidation

    Sensory and Chemical Analysis in Relation to Warmed-Over Flavor

    Preventive Strategies

    Meat Quality and Handling

    See also

    Further Reading

    CURING | Brine Curing of Meat

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Chemistry of Meat Curing

    Curing Ingredients and Their Role in Cured Meats

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    CURING | Dry

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Proteolysis

    Lipolysis

    Microbial Evolution

    Sensory Characteristics

    Processing Control

    Salt Reduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    CURING | Natural and Organic Cured Meat Products in the United States

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Conventional Curing

    Alternative Curing – Systems and Labeling

    Alternative Curing – Manufacturing Ingredients

    Alternative Curing – Manufacturing Procedures

    ‘Alternatively Cured’ Meat Product Challenges

    See also

    Further Reading

    CURING | Physiology of Nitric Oxide

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Nitric Oxide Biochemistry and Physiology

    Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Physiology

    Sources and Estimates of Exposure to Nitrite and Nitrate

    Human Nitrogen Cycle: Reductive Pathways to Produce NO from Nitrite and Nitrate

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    CURING | Production Procedures

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Regulations

    Basic Ingredients Needed for Curing

    Formulating Meat Products

    Brine Preparation

    Application of Cures

    Specific Cured Products

    Natural Nitrate- and Nitrite-Free Cured Meats

    See also

    Further Reading

    CUTTING AND BONING | Hot Boning of Meat

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Microbiology of Hot-Boned Meat

    Quality of Hot Boned Meat

    Hot and Warm Boning Operations

    Beef

    Lamb

    Pork

    Horse

    Poultry

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    CUTTING AND BONING | Traditional

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Terminology of Cutting and Boning

    Terms to Describe Wholesale Cuts of Meat

    Beef Carcass Cutting

    Forequarter Cutting

    Forequarter Boning

    Hindquarter Cutting

    Hindquarter Boning

    Pork Carcass Cutting

    General Pork Carcass Cutting

    Pork Shoulder Cutting

    Pork Leg (Fresh Ham) Cutting

    Pork Loin Cutting

    Lamb Carcass Cutting

    Carcass Primal Breaking

    Lamb Foresaddle Component Cutting

    Lamb Hindsaddle Component Cutting

    Cutting and Boning Trends for the Future

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    D

    DOUBLE-MUSCLED ANIMALS

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Genetic Background

    Physiology and Metabolism

    Reproduction, Growth, and Management

    Carcass and Meat Quality

    See also

    Further Reading

    DRYING

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Drying of Solid Foods

    Quality of Dried Products

    See also

    Further Reading

    E

    ECONOMICS | Meat Business and Public Policy

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Background

    Animal Welfare

    Environmental Stewardship and Regulation

    Antibiotics

    Dietary Guidelines

    International Trade

    Interaction with the Biofuel Industry

    Internal Business Regulation

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    ELECTRICAL STIMULATION

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    History

    Description

    Factors That Influence Effectiveness of Stimulation

    Scientific Basis for Tenderization Involving Electrical Stimulation

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Pesticides

    Dioxins and Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Legislation

    Concentrations in Meat and Fish

    Trace Elements

    Radionuclides

    Disclaimer

    See also

    Further Reading

    ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF MEAT PRODUCTION | Primary Production/Meat and the Environment

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Impacts Related to Land Use

    Biodiversity

    Impacts Related to Nutrient Use

    Nitrogen

    Phosphorus

    Eutrophication and Acidification

    GHG Emissions and Global Warming

    Methane

    Nitrous Oxide

    Carbon Dioxide

    Indicators of a Changing Climate

    Chemicals

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    EQUIPMENT CLEANING

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Soils, Surfaces, and Cleaning

    Surface Energy

    Composition of Soils

    Soil Removal

    Hygienic Design of Equipment and Facility

    Cleaning Compounds

    Biofilms

    Assessing the Effectiveness of a Cleaning Program

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | Biltong: A Major South African Ethnic Meat Product

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Traditional Method of Making Biltong

    Preservation, Storage, and Shelf Life of Biltong as an Intermediate Moisture Food

    Commercialization of Biltong

    See also

    Further Reading

    ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | Brazil and South America

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Regional Products

    Sausages

    Miscellaneous

    See also

    Further Reading

    ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | China and Southeast Asia

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Product Characteristics

    Classification of Traditional Chinese Meat Products

    Chinese and Related Cuisines

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | France

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Braised Meat Courses

    Charcuterie (Delicatessen)

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | Germany

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | India and Pakistan

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Tandoori

    Tikka

    Wazwan Meats

    Kabab

    Biryani

    Haleem

    Kolhapuri Mutton

    Goan Vindaloo

    Meat Pickles

    Momo/Dumpling

    Rapka

    Pish Pash and Khicheri

    Keema

    Dry salted Meat

    Kargyong

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | Japan and Korea

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Japanese Meat-Based Cuisine in General

    Korean Meat-Based Cuisine in General

    See also

    Further Reading

    ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | Mediterranean

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Mediterranean Meat Products

    See also

    Further Reading

    ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | Middle East

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Middle Eastern Meat Products

    Sausages

    Pastrami

    Other Meat Products

    Traditional Meat Dishes

    See also

    Further Reading

    ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | North America

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Pemmican

    Whole-Muscle Jerky

    Restructured Jerky

    Summer Sausage

    See also

    Further Reading

    ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | Poland

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Polish Meat Products

    See also

    Further Reading

    EXSANGUINATION

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    EXTRUSION TECHNOLOGY

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Cold Extrusion

    Extrusion Cooking

    Coextrusion

    Meat Analogs

    Thermoplastic Starch

    Quality of Extruded Food

    Economics of Extrusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    F

    FERMENTATION

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Processing of Fermented Sausages

    Microorganisms Involved and the Use of Starter Cultures

    Sausage Metabolism and pH

    Development of Sensory Quality

    Microbial Stability and Safety

    Modeling the Nature and Dynamics of Ripening

    Fermented Sausages as ‘Functional Meat Products’

    See also

    Further Reading

    FISH INSPECTION

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Freshness Assessment and its Evaluation

    See also

    Further Reading

    FOODBORNE ZOONOSES

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Emerging Foodborne Pathogens

    See also

    Further Reading

    FOREIGN BODIES

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Definition and Implications of Foreign Bodies in Meat – Intrinsic Foreign Bodies

    Definition and Implications of Foreign Bodies in Meat – Extrinsic Foreign Bodies

    How to Assess the Risk of Foreign Bodies in a Production

    Legislation and Customer Demands

    Technologies for Detection of Foreign Bodies in Meat

    X-Ray Contrast

    Electromagnetic Contrast

    Determination of the Specific Detection Limit

    Emerging Technologies

    See also

    Further Reading

    FUNCTIONAL FOODS

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Overview of Functional Foods

    Functional Meat Products

    Meat-Based Bioactive Compounds

    Development of Novel Functional Meat Products

    Conclusions and Future Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    G

    GENOME PROJECTS | Modern Genetics and Genomic Technologies and Their Application in the Meat Industry – Red Meat Animals, Poultry

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Meat Tenderness

    Beef

    Pork

    Poultry

    Marbling

    Muscle Fiber Biochemistry

    Candidate Genes

    Genome-Wide Association Studies

    Gene Expression Analysis

    Linkage Disequilibrium

    Proteomics

    Traceability

    See also

    Further Reading

    GROWTH OF MEAT ANIMALS | Adipose Tissue Development

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Brown Adipose Tissue

    White Adipose Tissue

    Anabolic Lipid Metabolism

    Catabolic Lipid Metabolism

    See also

    Further Reading

    GROWTH OF MEAT ANIMALS | Endocrinology

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Embryonic and Fetal Growth

    Postnatal Growth

    Recently Identified Factors Controlling Growth

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    GROWTH OF MEAT ANIMALS | Growth Patterns

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Measuring Patterns of Growth

    Organ and Tissue Growth Patterns

    Patterns of Carcass Growth

    Patterns of Bone Growth

    Patterns of Muscle Growth

    Patterns of Fat Depot Deposition

    Gender Differences in Growth Patterns of Body Constituents

    Genetic Variation in Growth Patterns of Carcass Components

    Nutrition Effects on Growth Patterns

    See also

    Further Reading

    GROWTH OF MEAT ANIMALS | Metabolic Modifiers

    Abstract

    Glossary

    General Effects of Metabolic Modifiers

    Beta-Adrenergic Agonists in Animal Production

    Practical Considerations for Beta-Adrenergic Agonists Use

    Comparative Efficacy of Steroids and Beta-Adrenergic Agonists

    Effects of Growth Promotants on Palatability

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    GROWTH OF MEAT ANIMALS | Muscle

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Allometry

    Myogenesis in Embryonic Development

    Postnatal Development

    Endocrinology

    Further Reading

    GROWTH OF MEAT ANIMALS | Physiology

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Physiology of Skeletal Muscle Growth

    Physiology of Adipose Tissue Growth

    Physiology of Bone Growth

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    H

    HAM PRODUCTION | Cooked Ham

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Selection and Preparation of the Raw Material

    Brine Preparation and Injection

    Tenderization

    Tumbling-Massaging

    Stuffing and Molding

    Cooking

    Cooling

    Preparation for Marketing

    See also

    Further Reading

    HAM PRODUCTION | Dry-Cured Ham

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Raw Material

    Classification Methods

    Salting

    The Development of New Quick-Maturation Products

    Commercial Presentation

    See also

    Further Reading

    HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINT AND SELF-REGULATION

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Self-Regulation

    See also

    Further Reading

    HUMAN NUTRITION | Cancer Health Concerns

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Diet and Cancer

    Cancer Sites

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    HUMAN NUTRITION | Cardiovascular and Obesity Health Concerns

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Cardiovascular Disease

    Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    Diet Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    Red Meat and Cardiovascular Disease

    The Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet Study

    The Role of Lean Beef in a Healthy Diet

    Understanding Meat Labeling

    Can the Composition of Meat be Modified?

    Obesity and Weight-Reducing Diets

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    HUMAN NUTRITION | Macronutrients in Meat

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Macronutrient Content of Meat

    Meat Consumption and Macronutrients in Meat from Various Countries

    Meat Proteins

    Meat Lipids

    Fatty Acid Composition of Meat

    Macronutrients and Oxidation

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    HUMAN NUTRITION | Meat and Human Diet: Facts and Myths

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Proteins

    Micronutrients

    Fat

    Meat Intake and Cancer

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    HUMAN NUTRITION | Micronutrients in Meat

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Minerals

    Vitamins

    B Vitamins

    Summary

    Acknowledgement

    See also

    Further Reading

    HUMAN NUTRITION | Nutraceuticals

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Government Regulations

    Examples of Animal-Derived Nutraceuticals

    See also

    Further Reading

    HUMAN NUTRITION | Vegetarianism

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Definitions of and Motivations for Vegetarianism

    Attitudes toward Meat

    Values and Vegetarianism

    Perceptions of Vegetarians

    Vegetarianism and Health

    Gender and Vegetarianism

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    I

    IRRADIATION

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiation

    Irradiation Compared to Pasteurization

    Regulation of Food Irradiation

    The Food Irradiation Process

    Irradiation of Muscle Foods

    Four Areas in Which Irradiation Is Most Useful

    Nutritional Quality of Irradiated Foods

    Effects of Irradiation on Biological Organisms

    Microbiology Effects

    Approved Uses for Food Irradiation

    Applications for Food Irradiation

    Industry Adoption of Meat Irradiation

    See also

    Further Reading

    L

    LABORATORY ACCREDITATION

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Accreditation and Notification System

    Laboratory Requirements

    Prospects

    See also

    Further Reading

    M

    MANURE/WASTE MANAGEMENT | Manure Management

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Manure Nutrients

    Farm Nutrient Balance

    Feed Influences Manure Nutrients

    Manure Treatment

    Land Application

    See also

    Further Reading

    MANURE/WASTE MANAGEMENT | Waste Management in Europe

    Abstract

    Legal Background

    Municipal Solid Waste

    Biowaste

    Sewage Sludge

    Animal By-Products

    Waste Treatment

    Waste Management and Hygiene

    Summary

    Further Reading

    MEASUREMENT OF MEAT QUALITY | Measurements of Water-holding Capacity and Color: Objective and Subjective

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Water-holding Capacity Measurement

    Color Measurement

    See also

    Further Reading

    MEAT, ANIMAL, POULTRY AND FISH PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT | Antibiotic Growth Promotants

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Efficacy of Antibiotic Growth Promotants

    The Mechanism of Action of Antibiotic Growth Promotants

    Antibiotic Growth Promotants and Their Role in Resistance Development

    Antibiotics Allowed as Antibiotic Growth Promotants

    Ionophore Antibiotics (Coccidiostats)

    Impact on Resistance of Termination of the Use of Antibiotic Growth Promotants

    Managing without Antibiotic Growth Promotants

    See also

    Further Reading

    MEAT, ANIMAL, POULTRY AND FISH PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT | Beta-Agonists

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Nature of Beta-Agonists

    Beta-Agonists as Feed Additives

    Mode of Action of Beta-Agonists

    Safety of Feeding Beta-Agonists to Meat Animals

    See also

    Further Reading

    MEAT, ANIMAL, POULTRY AND FISH PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT | Bovine and Porcine Somatotropin

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Somatotropin

    Performance, Carcass Quality, and Health

    Muscle Characteristics and Meat Quality

    Final Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    MEAT, ANIMAL, POULTRY AND FISH PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT | Disease Control and Specific Pathogen Free Pig Production

    Abstract

    Infectious and Noninfectious Diseases

    Methods for Reduction of Infectious Diseases

    Infectious Disease Control

    Infectious Disease Elimination

    Specific Pathogen Free Production

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    MEAT, ANIMAL, POULTRY AND FISH PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT | Exotic and other Species

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Birds

    Buffalo

    Camelids

    Deer

    Game Animals

    Goats

    Rabbits

    Rodents

    Reptiles

    Kangaroos

    Yaks

    Various Other Species

    See also

    Further Reading

    MEAT, ANIMAL, POULTRY AND FISH PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT | Meat Production in Organic Farming

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Guidelines and Regulations in Organic Production

    Pork Production

    Cattle and Sheep Production

    Broiler Production

    Product Quality

    Conclusion and Perspectives

    See also

    Further Reading

    MEAT, ANIMAL, POULTRY AND FISH PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT | Poultry

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Chicken Meat Production Systems

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    MEAT, ANIMAL, POULTRY AND FISH PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT | Red Meat Animals

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Cattle Production Systems

    Sheep and Goats Production Systems

    Pig Production Systems

    See also

    Further Reading

    MEAT-BORNE HAZARDS, CONCEPTS AND METHODS FOR MITIGATING RISKS RELATED TO

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Concepts of Hazard Mitigation

    Surveillance Systems

    Interventions for Hazard Reduction

    Economics of Hazard Mitigation

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    MEAT MARKETING | Cold Chain

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Elements of The Cold Chain

    Transport

    Retail Display

    Chilled Wrapped Meat

    Chilled Unwrapped Meat

    Frozen Display

    Domestic Handling

    See also

    Further Reading

    MEAT MARKETING | Market Requirements and Specifications

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Reasons for Specifications

    Specification Attributes

    Assessment of Adherence to Product Specifications

    Recent Developments

    See also

    Further Reading

    MEAT MARKETING | Transport of Meat and Meat Products

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Sea Transport

    Air Transport

    Overland Transport

    Types of Refrigeration System

    Mechanical Units

    Eutectic Plates

    Liquid Nitrogen

    Problems Particular to Local Delivery Vehicles

    Design and Operation of Local Distribution Vehicles

    Van Insulation

    Infiltration

    Door Openings

    Initial Food Temperature

    Length of Journey

    Combination of Factors

    See also

    Further Reading

    MEAT MARKETING | Wet Markets

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Meat Stalls

    Poultry Stalls

    Wet Market Strengths

    Wet Market Weaknesses

    Market Forces

    Public Health Hazards

    Modern Wet Markets

    The Future

    See also

    Further Reading

    MEAT PRICING SYSTEMS

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Price Discovery

    Pricing Efficiency

    Meat Pricing Systems in Transition

    Public Policy Issues in Meat Pricing Systems

    Meat Pricing Systems of the Future

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    MEAT RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Further Reading

    MEAT SPECIES DETERMINATION

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Protein-Based Methods

    Deoxyribonucleic Acid-Based Methods

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    MECHANICALLY RECOVERED MEAT

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Machines that Remove Meat from Bone

    Names for Mechanically Recovered Meat and Pertaining Legislation

    Uses for Mechanically Recovered Meat

    Composition

    Safety

    Palatability

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION | Decontamination of Fresh Meat

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Temperature-Based Treatments

    Chemical Treatments

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION | Decontamination of Processed Meat

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Thermal Technologies

    Infrared Heating

    Nonthermal Technologies

    Chemical Antimicrobials

    Clean Label Alternatives

    Probiotic Bacteria and Bacteriocins

    Bacteriophage

    Plant Extracts

    Active Packaging

    High-Pressure Processing

    Validation

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION | Microbial Contamination of Fresh Meat

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Sources of Microbial Contaminants in Fresh Meat

    Detection of Microbial Contaminants

    Indicator Tests for Pathogen Contamination in Meat

    Total Viable Counts

    Generic E. coli

    Coliforms

    Microbiological Criteria

    Processes to Reduce Microbial Contamination on Meat Carcasses and Cuts

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION | Microbial Contamination of Processed Meat

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Sources of Microbial Contaminants in Meat Products

    Some Microbial Contaminants of Processed Meat

    Intervention against Microbial Contaminants of Processed Meat

    Microbial Contamination Intervention and Processed Meat Quality

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS | DNA Methods

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Molecular Detection of Foodborne Pathogens

    DNA Subtyping of Foodborne Pathogens

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS | Indicator Organisms in Meat

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Historical Perspective

    Objectives of Indicators

    Qualities of a Good Indicator Organism

    Common Uses of Indicator Organisms

    Microbial Indicators and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control

    Regulatory Issues

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS | Standard Methods

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Types of Culture Media

    Spoilage Bacteria

    Meat-Borne Pathogens

    Considerations for Specific Pathogens

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Aeromonas spp.

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Habitats

    Occurrence of Aeromonas in Raw Meat and Poultry

    Phenotypic Characteristics

    Virulence Factors

    Human and Veterinary Clinical Infections

    Controlling the Numbers of Aeromonas in Foods

    Antibiotic Sensitivity and Resistance

    Isolation of Aeromonads

    Molecular Characterization of Aeromonas Isolates

    Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Aeromonas

    Distribution of Aeromonas Virulence Genes

    Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Studies

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Bacillus cereus

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Characteristics of Bacillus cereus

    Isolation and Identification

    Characteristics of Foodborne/Meatborne Disease

    Mechanism of Pathogenicity

    Epidemiology

    Control and Preventive Measures

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Clostridium botulinum and Botulism

    Abstract

    Botulism

    Isolation and Characterization of C. botulinum

    Botulinum Neurotoxin

    Incidence of C. botulinum in Meats

    Botulism Incidents Involving Meat Products

    Control of C. botulinum in Meats

    Refrigeration

    Thermal Processing

    Redox Potential and Atmosphere

    pH

    Water Activity

    Preservatives

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Clostridium perfringens

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Characteristics of C. Perfringens

    Isolation and Identification

    Characteristics of C. Perfringens Foodborne Disease

    Mechanism of Pathogenicity

    Epidemiology

    Control and Preventive Measures

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Emerging Pathogens

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Hurdle Technology

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Aspects of Hurdle Technology

    Hurdle Technology and Food Quality

    Application of Hurdle Technology in the Meat Industry

    Design of Effective Hurdle Technology for Meats

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Listeria monocytogenes

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    General Characteristics of Listeria

    Isolation and Identification

    Listeriosis

    Mechanism of Pathogenicity

    Epidemiology of Meatborne Listeriosis

    Control and Preventive Measures

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Clinical Significance

    Molecular Aspects of Pathogenicity

    Ecology

    Presence and Survival on Meat

    Detection

    Control

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Prions

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Biochemical and Biophysical Properties

    Pathogenesis of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

    Animal Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathiess

    Human Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Salmonella spp.

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Characteristics of Salmonella

    Isolation and Identification of Salmonella

    Characteristics of Salmonellosis

    Mechanisms of Pathogenicity

    Epidemiology

    Control and Preventive Measures

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Staphylococcus aureus

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Characteristics of the Organism and its Toxin

    Isolation and Identification

    Characteristics of Foodborne Illness

    Epidemiology

    Control and Preventative Measures

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Thermotolerant Campylobacter

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Characteristics of Thermotolerant Campylobacter

    Isolation and Identification

    Mechanism of Pathogenicity

    Epidemiology

    Control and Preventative Measures

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Viruses

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Hepatitis E Virus

    Caliciviruses

    Rotavirus

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Yeasts and Molds

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Identification and Enumeration of Yeasts and Molds in Foods

    Importance and Occurrence of Yeasts in Meats

    Importance and Occurrence of Molds in Meats

    Beneficial Aspects of Yeasts and Molds in Meat Systems

    Spoilage and Food Safety Issues of Yeasts and Molds

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgment

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Yersinia enterocolitica

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Characteristics of the Organism

    Clinical Presentation

    Mechanism of Pathogenicity

    Isolation and Identification

    Epidemiology

    Control Measures

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROORGANISMS AND RESISTANCE TO ANTIBIOTICS, THE UBIQUITY OF | Antibiotic Resistance by Microorganisms

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Zoonotic Bacteria

    Aquaculture

    Commensal Bacteria

    Other Bacteria Associated with Food Animals

    Other Factors to Consider

    Conclusions and Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    MICROORGANISMS AND RESISTANCE TO ANTIBIOTICS, THE UBIQUITY OF | Potential Environmental and Wildlife Sources of Microorganisms in Meat

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Role of Wildlife

    Environmental Exposure to Antimicrobial-Resistant Organisms

    Transmission of Antimicrobial-Resistant Organisms from Terrestrial Animals

    Transmission of Antimicrobial-Resistant Organisms from Avian Species

    Research Needs

    Acknowledgment

    See also

    Further Reading

    MINCED MEATS

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Advantages of Mincing

    Disadvantages of Mincing

    Oxidative Changes

    Microbial Spoilage

    See also

    Further Reading

    MODELING IN MEAT SCIENCE | Meat Quality

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    An Example Causal Model Framework

    Component Models of Meat Quality Attributes

    An Example Statistical Modeling Framework

    The Future of Meat Quality Modeling

    See also

    Further Reading

    MODELING IN MEAT SCIENCE | Microbiology

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Need for Control of Microbial Activity in Meat and Meat Products

    Preventive Measures and Intervention Strategies

    Understanding of Microbial Dynamics in Muscle Foods

    Limitations and Challenges

    Databases and User-Friendly Predictive Software Packages

    See also

    Further Reading

    MODELING IN MEAT SCIENCE | Refrigeration

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Model Boundaries

    Meat Product Chilling and Freezing Times

    Meat Product Chilling and Freezing Heat Loads

    See also

    Further Reading

    MUSCLE FIBER TYPES AND MEAT QUALITY

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Muscle Fiber – General Structure and Composition

    Muscle Fibers – Characteristics

    Muscle Fibers – Methods of Identifying Fiber Type

    Muscle Fiber Types – Factors of Variation

    Influence of Fiber Type on Meat Quality Properties

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    N

    NUTRIENT CLAIMS ON PACKAGING

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Concern Over Fat

    Role of Fat in Meat Products

    Strategies for Fat Reduction

    Nutritional Composition

    Nutritional Enhancement of Meat Products

    Labeling of Meat Products with Nutrient Claims

    Summary

    Further Reading

    NUTRITION OF MEAT ANIMALS | Pigs

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Retention of Protein and Lipid in Pigs

    Response to Nutrient Supply

    Feed Intake

    Influence of Nutrition on the Eating Quality of Pig Meat

    Dietary Energy in Pig Feeds

    Dietary Amino Acids in Pig Feeds

    Diet Ingredients

    Mineral and Vitamin Requirements of pigs

    Water Requirement of Pigs

    Energy Requirement of Pigs

    Protein Requirement of Pigs

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    See also

    Further Reading

    NUTRITION OF MEAT ANIMALS | Poultry

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Nutrient Requirements

    Ingredients Used in Poultry Feed Formulations

    Feed Additives Used in Poultry Feed Formulations

    Feeding for Leaner Carcass Production

    Nutrition and Carcass Quality

    See also

    Further Reading

    NUTRITION OF MEAT ANIMALS | Ruminants

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Anatomical Distinction

    Feed Digestion in Ruminants

    Classes of Meat-Producing Ruminants

    General Aspects of Feeding Ruminants

    See also

    Further Reading

    O

    ON-LINE MEASUREMENT OF MEAT COMPOSITION

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Performance of In-Line Methods

    Optical Systems

    Ultrasound

    Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Total Body Electromagnetic Conductivity

    Radioactive Isotopes

    X-Ray Systems

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    ON-LINE MEASUREMENT OF MEAT QUALITY

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Optical Measurements

    Measuring Fat Softness in Pork

    Electrical Measurements

    Microwaves

    Dual-Energy X-Rays

    Mechanical Measurements of Toughness in Beef and Lamb

    Chemical Analysis of Odors

    See also

    Further Reading

    P

    PACKAGING | Equipment

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Nonpreservative Packaging

    Preservative Packaging

    See also

    Further Reading

    PACKAGING | Modified and Controlled Atmosphere

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Purposes of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Controlled Atmosphere Packaging

    Role of Gases in Packaging

    Gas Effects on Bone Marrow

    Gas Effects on Cooked Color

    Film Composition and Gas Permeability

    Enhancement of Meat

    Key Factors for Success in Product Quality Using Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Controlled Atmosphere Packaging

    See also

    Further Reading

    PACKAGING | Overwrapping

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Meat Pigment Chemistry

    Requirements for Overwrapped Packages

    Microbial Effects

    Management Practices and Systems to Enhance Overwrapping

    See also

    Further Reading

    PACKAGING | Technology and Films

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Functions of the Package

    Film Chemistry

    Multilayer Films

    Quality Assurance in Film Production and in Packaging

    Active Packaging

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    PACKAGING | Vacuum

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Measurement of Vacuum

    Myoglobin Chemistry

    Essential Film and Package Traits

    Vacuum Packaging Operations

    See also

    Further Reading

    PARASITES PRESENT IN MEAT AND VISCERA OF LAND FARMED ANIMALS

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Ecological Patterns of Meatborne Parasite Transmission and Maintenance of Life Cycle in Farmed Animals

    Farmed Animals as Intermediate Hosts

    Detection at Slaughter: New Approaches

    Drivers for Transmission of Meatborne Parasites among Farmed Animals and to Humans

    Public Health Impact of Zoonotic Meatborne Parasites from Domestic Animals

    Disclaimer

    See also

    Further Reading

    PATENTING PRODUCTS, PROCESSES, AND APPARATUSES

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Legal Requirements for Patentability of Inventions

    Patent – An Exclusive Right

    The Patenting Process

    Patent Strategy

    Patents as a Source of Information

    Patenting in the Meat Technology Field

    Examples of Patents

    How to Prepare a Patent Application

    The Patent Subsequent to Publication

    See also

    Further Reading

    PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS | Other Physical Measurements

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Measurement of Humidity and Water Activity

    Measurement of Product Moisture Content

    Measurement of Air Velocity

    See also

    Further Reading

    PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS | Temperature Measurement

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Types of Thermometers

    Temperature Logging

    Calibration and Use of Thermometers

    See also

    Further Reading

    POTENTIAL CHEMICAL HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH MEAT

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Veterinary Drug Residues

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Other Chemical Risks

    See also

    Further Reading

    PREDICTION OF MEAT ATTRIBUTES FROM INTACT MUSCLE USING NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Near Infrared

    Meat Microstructure and Near Infrared

    Pre- and Postrigor Changes

    Prerigor Changes

    Postrigor Changes

    Use of Near Infrared to Predict Meat Quality in Commercial Situations

    See also

    Further Reading

    PRESERVATION METHODS OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Individual Techniques Utilized

    Refrigeration

    Freezing

    Vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    Salt

    Sweeteners

    Smoking

    Additives

    Reducing Compounds

    Binders

    Spices

    Color

    Other Additives

    Pickling

    Canning

    Irradiation

    Pulsed Electric Fields Processing

    High-Pressure Food Preservation

    Biopreservation

    Hurdle Technology

    See also

    Further Reading

    PRESLAUGHTER HANDLING | Behavior of Cattle, Pigs, Sheep, Bison, and Deer during Handling and Transport

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Behavior Is Important

    Behavioral Indicators of Stress

    Stress during Slaughter

    Animal Perception

    Behavioral Methods for Moving Livestock

    Species Differences in Behavior between Sheep and Other Livestock

    The Need and Impact of Understanding Animal Behavior

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    PRESLAUGHTER HANDLING | Design of Stockyards, Lairages, Corrals, Races, Chutes, and Loading Ramps

    Abstract

    Introduction

    A Case Study of A Beef Plant

    Stun Box and Restrainer Design for Cattle, Pigs, and Sheep

    Layout Principles for Races, Chutes, and Crowd Pens

    Design of Stockyards and Lairages

    Design of Unloading Ramps

    See also

    Further Reading

    PRESLAUGHTER HANDLING | Preslaughter Handling

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Methods of Measuring Preslaughter Stress

    Preparation for Transport

    Loading and Unloading

    Transportation

    Lairaging at the Abattoir

    Movement from Lairage to Stunning Pen

    Effects of Preslaughter Handling on Meat Quality

    See also

    Further Reading

    PRESLAUGHTER HANDLING | Welfare Including Housing Conditions

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    What Is Animal Welfare?

    The Importance of Animal Welfare to Consumers

    Threats to Animal Welfare

    Assessing Animal Welfare

    See also

    Further reading

    PRESLAUGHTER HANDLING | Welfare of Animals

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Evolution of Philosophical Thinking about the Human–Animal Bond

    Jeremy Bentham and Modern Utilitarianism

    The Animal Rights Movement

    The Definition of Animal Welfare

    The Five Freedoms

    Animal Welfare Science

    Understanding Animal Welfare

    The ‘Nature’ of Animals

    Welfare Is about Biological Functioning

    The Subjective Experience of Animals

    The Welfare Continuum

    Pain and Suffering

    Abnormal Behaviors as Indicators of Poor Welfare

    What Is Good Welfare

    Using Animal Behavior to Explore Animal Welfare

    Animal Welfare Legislation and Standards

    Practical Assessment of Animal Welfare

    See also

    Further Reading

    PROCESSING EQUIPMENT | Battering and Breading Equipment

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Common Line Configurations

    Types of Coating Equipment

    Measures of Coating Line Performance

    Key Control Points in the Performance of a Coating Line

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    PROCESSING EQUIPMENT | Brine Injectors

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Continuous Injectors

    Solution Uptake Targets

    Pump Pressure

    Injection Time

    Needle Design

    Pumps

    Accumulator Tanks

    Product Temperatures

    Maintenance and Sanitation

    See also

    Relevant Website

    PROCESSING EQUIPMENT | Mixing and Cutting Equipment

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Mixing Equipment

    Paddle Mixers

    Ribbon Blenders

    Cooking and Cooling

    Vacuum

    Other Types of Mixer/Blenders

    Mincers/Grinders

    Bone Separators

    In-Line or Pump Mincer/Grinder

    Bowl Choppers

    Other Features

    Vertical Cutter/Mixers

    Emulsion Mills

    Flaking Equipment

    Frozen Meat Breakers

    Slicers

    Dicers

    See also

    Relevant Website

    PROCESSING EQUIPMENT | Smoking and Cooking Equipment

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Cooking Equipment

    Cooking Processes

    Cooking and Smoking Processes

    Smoking Equipment

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    PROCESSING EQUIPMENT | Tumblers and Massagers

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Mechanical Conditioning Cycles

    Advantages of Mechanical Conditioning

    Disadvantages of Mechanical Conditioning

    See also

    Further Reading

    PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Abstract

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    PROTEOMIC TECHNOLOGIES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN THE MEAT INDUSTRY

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Tools in Proteomics

    Role of Proteome in the Properties of Muscle as Food

    Conversion of Muscle to Meat

    Meat Tenderization

    Meat Color Stability

    Dry-Cured Meats

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Q

    QUALITY MANAGEMENT | Abattoirs and Processing Plants

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Quality Attributes of Meat and Meat Products

    Quality Strategies in the Meat Production Chain

    Standardized Quality Management and Certification

    Quality Management in the Meat Production Chain

    Prospect

    See also

    Further Reading

    QUALITY MANAGEMENT | Farm Level: Pork Quality

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Pork Quality

    Pork Quality Assurance

    Production Factors Affecting Pork Quality

    Animal Welfare

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    QUALITY MANAGEMENT | Farm Level: Safety and Quality of Beef

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Definition of Beef Quality

    Structure and Impact of Beef Quality Assurance Programs on Product Safety and Quality

    Producers' Role in Beef Quality and Safety

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    R

    REFRIGERATION AND FREEZING TECHNOLOGY | Applications

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Chilling Process

    The Freezing Process

    Designing Refrigeration Applications

    See also

    Further Reading

    REFRIGERATION AND FREEZING TECHNOLOGY | Equipment

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Basic Refrigeration System

    Primary Chilling

    Red Meat

    Poultry Carcasses

    Primary Freezing Equipment

    Air Blast

    Plate Freezing

    Secondary Chilling and Freezing Systems

    Air

    Spray

    Vacuum

    Cryogenic

    High Pressure

    Storage

    Transportation

    Mechanical Units

    Eutectic Plates

    Liquid Nitrogen

    Retail Display

    Chilled Wrapped

    Chilled Unwrapped

    Frozen Wrapped

    Domestic Storage

    See also

    Further Reading

    REFRIGERATION AND FREEZING TECHNOLOGY | Freezing and Product Quality

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Packaging Before Freezing

    Freezing Process

    Frozen Storage

    Thawing

    Appearance

    Eating Quality

    Microbiological Quality and Safety

    Freezing of Other Flesh Foods

    Storage Life of Frozen Foods

    See also

    Further Reading

    REFRIGERATION AND FREEZING TECHNOLOGY | Principles

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Fundamentals of Heat Transfer

    Refrigeration Systems

    See also

    Further Reading

    REFRIGERATION AND FREEZING TECHNOLOGY | Thawing

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Physical Aspects of Thawing and Tempering

    Meat Quality Aspects

    Microbial Growth

    Water Loss

    Appearance and Eating Quality

    Common Thawing Methods

    External Heating Methods

    Internal Heating Methods

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    RELIGIOUS SLAUGHTER

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Kosher Slaughtering (Shechita)

    Halal Slaughtering (al-Dhabh)

    Restraint

    Stunned versus Conscious Slaughter

    The Future

    See also

    Further Reading

    RESIDUES IN MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS | Feed and Drug Residues

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Preamble

    Terms of Reference and Definitions

    Feed Residues

    Residues of Feed Additives and Veterinary Drugs

    Mandatory Residue Testing: National Residue Control Plans

    Risk Mitigation, Risk Management, and Risk Communication

    See also

    Further Reading

    RESIDUES IN MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS | Residues Associated with Meat Production

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Biogenic Amines

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Residual Additives

    Nitrosamines

    Heterocyclic Amines

    See also

    Further Reading

    RISK ANALYSIS AND QUANTITATIVE RISK MANAGEMENT

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Purpose and Role

    Hazards and Risks

    Risk Assessment

    Risk Assessment of Chemical Hazards

    Microbiological Risk Assessment

    Risk Management

    Quantitative Risk Management

    Risk Communication

    See also

    Further Reading

    S

    SAUSAGE CASINGS

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Animal Casings

    Laminated Casings

    Manufactured Collagen Casings

    Cellulose Casings

    Plastic Casings

    Fabric Casings

    Coextrusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    SAUSAGES, TYPES OF | Cooked

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    List of Sausages

    Cooked Sausage Production

    Cured Sausage Products

    Uncured Cooked Sausage Products

    See also

    Further Reading

    SAUSAGES, TYPES OF | Dry and Semidry

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Definitions of Dry and Semidry Fermented Sausages

    Technology of Dry and Semidry Sausages

    Processing Changes

    Flavor Development

    Color Development

    Texture Development

    Safety of Dry and Semidry Fermented Sausages

    See also

    Further Reading

    SAUSAGES, TYPES OF | Emulsion

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Comminution Methods

    Emulsification Procedures

    Types of Emulsified Sausages

    See also

    Further Reading

    SAUSAGES, TYPES OF | Fresh

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Definitions

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    SENSORY AND MEAT QUALITY, OPTIMIZATION OF

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Visual Impact at Point of Sale

    Species, Gender, and Genetics

    Genetics

    Production

    Preslaughter

    Processing

    Evaluation of Meat Quality Sensory Properties

    Cooking

    Guaranteed Tenderness

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    SENSORY ASSESSMENT OF MEAT

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Factors to Be Considered before Performing a Sensory Analysis of Meat

    Sensory Assessment of Pork, Beef, and Lamb

    Sensory Assessment of Flavor of Lamb and Beef

    Sensory Assessment of Meat Products

    Physical and Chemical Measurements of Sensory Related Properties

    See also

    Further Reading

    SLAUGHTER, ETHICS, AND THE LAW

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Applied Ethics and Decision-Making

    Stereotypes in Ethical Discussions on Animal Welfare and Slaughter

    Ethics of Stunning

    See also

    Further Reading

    SLAUGHTER-LINE OPERATION | Cattle

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Cattle Receiving and Animal Handling

    Antemortem Inspection

    Stunning

    Shackling and Hoisting

    Exsanguination (Sticking/Bleeding)

    Blood Collection

    Hide Washing/Dehairing

    Hide Removal

    Steam Vacuuming Stations

    Pre-evisceration Washing

    Tie and Separation of Weasand

    Dentition Check

    Head Removal

    Tongue Removal

    Head and Tongue Washing

    Head and Tongue Inspection

    Brisket Saw

    Bung Bagging, Tying, and Separation

    Oxtail Removal

    Evisceration

    Carcass Splitting

    Spinal Cord Removal

    Final Trimming

    Final Postmortem Inspection

    Measurement of Hot Carcass Weight

    Hot Fat Trimming

    Final Carcass Decontamination Interventions

    Carcass Chilling

    See also

    Further Reading

    SLAUGHTER-LINE OPERATION | Other Species

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Deer

    Camel

    Buffalo

    North American Bison

    Horse

    Various Other Species

    See also

    Further Reading

    SLAUGHTER-LINE OPERATION | Pigs

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    A Description of Current Pig Slaughter Practices

    On-Farm Pig Quality Assurance Systems

    Feed Withdrawal

    Animal Transport, Receiving, and Antemortem Inspection

    Holding

    Weighing and Recording

    Stunning and Shackling

    Sticking and Bleeding

    Dehiding

    Scalding

    Dehairing

    Gambrelling

    Singeing

    Black Scraping, Carcass Brushing, White Scraping, and Polishing

    Lean Meat Yield Estimation

    Preevisceration Wash

    Evisceration

    Fin Cutting

    Carcass Splitting

    Head Removal

    Spinal Cord Removal

    Leaf Fat Removal and Exposure of the Kidneys

    Final Trim

    Carcass Grading, Weighing, and Stamping

    Final Wash

    Thermal Treatments

    Chilling

    See also

    Further Reading

    SLAUGHTER-LINE OPERATION | Poultry

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Poultry

    Receiving and Weighing

    Unloading

    Stunning

    Bleeding

    Scalding

    Feather Removal

    Electrical Stimulation

    Feet Removal

    Rehanging

    Evisceration

    Inspection

    Giblet Salvage

    Lung, Head, and Crop Removal

    Inside/Outside Bird Wash

    Chilling

    Grading, Weighing, and Packaging

    See also

    Further Reading

    SLAUGHTER-LINE OPERATION | Sheep and Goats

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Stunning

    Bleeding

    Pelt Removal

    Evisceration

    Head Processing

    Mechanization

    Sheep and Lamb Carcass Grading

    Electrical Stimulation, Chilling, and Freezing

    Future Trends

    See also

    Further Reading

    SMOKING | Liquid Smoke (Smoke Condensate) Application

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Methods for Smoke Condensate Production

    Chemical Composition of Liquid Smoke Preparations

    Smoke Condensate Application Methods

    Use of Smoke Condensates

    Properties of Smoke Condensates

    Health Aspects Relating to the Use of Smoke Condensates

    See also

    Further Reading

    SMOKING | Traditional

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Wood Smoke

    Deposition on Smoked Goods

    Diffusion and Interactions in the Smoked Meats

    The Effect of Smoking on the Shelf Life of Meat Products

    Health Hazards Induced by Smoking of Foods

    The Equipment

    See also

    Further Reading

    SPECIES OF MEAT ANIMALS | Cattle

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Biological Types of Beef Cattle

    Traits of Importance in Finished Beef Cattle

    Traits Determining the Value of Commercial Beef Animals

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    SPECIES OF MEAT ANIMALS | Finfish

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Definitions

    Capture (Wild) Production by Principal Species

    World Aquaculture Production

    Nutritional Content of Selected Groups of Finfish

    Processing of Finfish

    Potential Health Issues Associated with Finfish

    Welfare Issues

    Nonfinfish

    Disclaimer

    See also

    Further Reading

    SPECIES OF MEAT ANIMALS | Game and Exotic Animals

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Game Production, Consumption, and Economics

    Birds

    Deer

    African Ungulates

    Wild Suids

    Kangaroos

    Rabbits and Hares

    Bison

    Camelids

    Buffalo

    See also

    Further Reading

    SPECIES OF MEAT ANIMALS | Meat Animals, Origin and Domestication

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Origins of Domesticated Meat Animals

    Domestication of Sheep

    Changes in Species under Domestication

    The Future of Domestication of Meat Animals

    See also

    Further Reading

    SPECIES OF MEAT ANIMALS | Pigs

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Growth and Carcass Composition

    Carcass Classification

    Dressing Percentage

    Meat Quality

    Fat Quality

    See also

    Further Reading

    SPECIES OF MEAT ANIMALS | Poultry

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Chickens

    Turkeys

    Ducks

    Geese

    Ratite

    Game Birds

    See also

    Further Reading

    SPECIES OF MEAT ANIMALS | Sheep and Goats

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    World Sheep and Goat Inventory

    Biological Types of Sheep

    Biological Types of Goats

    Factors Affecting Growth, Carcass Composition, and Carcass Quality

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    SPECIES OF MEAT ANIMALS | Shellfish

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Crustaceans or Crayfish

    Shrimp/Prawn

    Lobster and Spiny Lobster

    Crab

    Crayfish/Crawfish

    Krill (Euphausia superba)

    Molluscs

    Bivalves (Two Piece Shells)

    Single-Shell Molluscs

    Welfare Issues

    See also

    Further Reading

    SPOILAGE, FACTORS AFFECTING | Microbiological

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Aerobic Spoilage of Raw Muscle Tissue

    Aerobic Spoilage of Fat and Organ Tissues and Minced Meats

    Anaerobic Spoilage

    Spoilage in Modified and Controlled-Atmosphere Packagings

    Bacterial Spoilage of Preserved Meats

    Spoilage by Yeast and Molds

    See also

    Further Reading

    SPOILAGE, FACTORS AFFECTING | Oxidative and Enzymatic

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Peroxidation of Lipids

    Normal Lipid Peroxidation

    Warmed-Over Flavor (WOF)

    Oxidation of Pigments

    Oxidation of Proteins

    Enzymatic Factors

    See also

    Further Reading

    STUNNING | CO2 and Other Gases

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Reason for Use of Gas Stunning

    Gas Mixtures Evaluated for Stunning/Killing

    Mechanisms of Induction of Unconsciousness

    Time to Onset of Unconsciousness during Exposure to Gas Mixtures

    Welfare Concerns of Gas Stunning

    Commercial Implications

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    STUNNING | Electrical Stunning

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Brain Stimulation

    Ethics

    Meat Quality

    Practical Application

    See also

    Further Reading

    STUNNING | Mechanical Stunning

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Practical Considerations

    Abattoir Audits

    See also

    Further Reading

    STUNNING | Slaughter: Immobilization

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Western World

    Emerging Economies

    Postslaughter Considerations

    See also

    Further Reading

    STUNNING AND KILLING OF FARMED FISH: HOW TO PUT IT INTO PRACTICE?

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Slaughter of Farmed Fish

    Stunning and Killing

    How to Assess Stunning and Killing

    Physical Measurements

    Product Quality

    How to Control the Process of Stunning and Killing in Practice?

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    See also

    Further Reading

    SUSTAINABLE MUSCLE FOODS INDUSTRY

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Background

    Livestock Production

    Processing Optimization

    New Product Development

    Conclusions

    Further Reading

    T

    TENDERIZING MECHANISMS | Chemical

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    TENDERIZING MECHANISMS | Enzymatic

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Enzymatic Tenderization

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    TENDERIZING MECHANISMS | Mechanical

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Carcass Methods

    Cut Methods

    See also

    Further Reading

    TENDERNESS MEASUREMENT

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Descriptive Terms and Scales

    Intrinsic Determinants of Meat Tenderness

    Measurement of Tenderness of Cooked versus Uncooked Meat

    Mechanical Methods of Tenderness Measurement

    Sensory Methods of Tenderness Measurement

    Other Methods of Tenderness Measurement or Prediction

    See also

    Further Reading

    THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    Abstract

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Density

    Freezing Temperature

    Glass Transition

    Enthalpy, Latent Heat, and Specific Heat Capacity

    Thermal Conductivity

    Moisture Diffusivity

    See also

    Further Reading

    Index

    Authors

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1712
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
  • Published: July 22, 2014
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123847317
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123847348

About the Editors

Carrick Devine

Carrick Devine, born in Blenheim, New Zealand, studied at Canterbury University in New Zealnd where he obtained an MSc in Marine Biology and then a PhD at the University of Otago Medical School in 1969, studying physiology/pharmacology of smooth muscle and its innervation. Following a post doctoral period at Presbyterian University of Pennsylvania Medical Center working on smooth muscle, he returned to New Zealand and worked with striated muscle – i.e. meat - at the Meat Industry Research Institute of New Zealand, becoming sector leader. He has been involved in the development of electrical stimulation for meat tenderness, quality assurance procedures to ensure that appropriate levels of tenderness are attained, establishing neurological indices of humaneness of slaughter procedures using microdialysis probes, to harmonise western and halal slaughter methods and developing protocols to reduce preslaughter stress of cattle and sheep. He now works on biosensors at the bioengineering sector of Hortresearch and is presently engaged on a collaborative project with the MIRINZ Centre of Agresearch to measure meat tenderness on-line using near infrared spectroscopy. He obtained a DSc in 1991 and is a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand and the New Zealand Institute of Chemistry.

Affiliations and Expertise

Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand Ltd, Hamilton, New Zealand

Michael Dikeman

Michael Dikeman
Michael E. Dikeman; Born in the state of Kansas, USA. Received B.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Kansas State University and M.S.degree from Michigan State University. Professor at Kansas State University from 1970 to present. He teaches courses ranging from beginning animal/meat science to graduate level. His research interests include effects of genetics and management systems for livestock production on carcass composition and meat quality. He has particular interests in postmortem technology to enhance meat quality, and in effects of meat cookery on tenderness. He received the Meats Research Award from the American Society of Animal Science. He served as President of the American Meat Science Association, and the Federation of American Societies of Food Animal Sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Kansas State University, USA

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