Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123847317, 9780123847348

Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences

2nd Edition

Editor-in-Chiefs: C. Devine M. Dikeman
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123847317
eBook ISBN: 9780123847348
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 19th August 2014
Page Count: 1712
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Description

The Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences, Second Edition, prepared by an international team of experts, is a reference work that covers all important aspects of meat science from stable to table. Its topics range from muscle physiology, biochemistry (including post mortem biochemistry), and processing procedures to the processes of tenderization and flavor development, various processed meat products, animal production, microbiology and food safety, and carcass composition. It also considers animal welfare, animal genetics, genomics, consumer issues, ethnic meat products, nutrition, the history of each species, cooking procedures, human health and nutrition, and waste management.

Fully up-to-date, this important reference work provides an invaluable source of information for both researchers and professional food scientists. It appeals to all those wanting a one-stop guide to the meat sciences.

Key Features

  • More than 200 articles covering all areas of meat sciences
  • Substantially revised and updated since the previous edition was published in 2004
  • Full color throughout

Readership

Academic and laboratory researchers, economic and nutritional policy makers, graduate and undergraduate meat science students

Table of Contents

Editors-in-Chief

Section Editors

Preface

Introduction

Permission Acknowledgments

Article Titles

A

ADDITIVES | Extenders

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Functional Properties

Extender Addition to Meat Products

Functional Components of Extender Ingredients

Ingredients Used as Meat Extenders

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

ADDITIVES | Functional

Abstract

Glossary

Regulations

Adding Functional Ingredients to Meat Products

Functional Ingredients

See also

Further Reading

ANIMAL BREEDING AND GENETICS | DNA Markers and Marker-Assisted Selection in the Genomic Era

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Role of Molecular Markers on Genetic Improvement of Carcass and Meat Quality Traits

Markers and Quantitative Trait Loci

QTL and Genes Affecting Carcass and Meat Quality

Identification of QTL and Genes

Genomic Selection

Genome-Wide Association Studies and Functional Genomics

See also

Further Reading

ANIMAL BREEDING AND GENETICS | Traditional Animal Breeding

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Differences among Breeds

Carcass Composition

Meat Quality

Crossbreeding

Differences within Breeds

Genetic Parameters for Carcass Composition and Meat Quality Traits

Selection Programs

Major Genes

Future Considerations

See also

Further Reading

ANIMAL HEALTH RISK ANALYSIS

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Transparency

Uncertainty and Variability

Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

International Obligations

Hazard Identification

Risk Assessment

Risk Management

Risk Communication

See also

Further Reading

AUTOMATION IN THE MEAT INDUSTRY | Cutting and Boning

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Opportunities and Challenges

Pork Cutting and Boning

Automatic Cutting of Pork Middles

Beef Carcass Cutting and Boning

Ovine Cutting and Boning

See also

Further Reading

AUTOMATION IN THE MEAT INDUSTRY | Slaughter Line Operation

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Opportunities and Challenges

Automation of Pig Slaughter Lines

Beef Slaughter Automation

Ovine Slaughter Automation

See also

Further Reading

B

BACON PRODUCTION | Bacon

Abstract

Introduction

Belly Bacon

History of Bacon

The Raw Material Used for Bacon Production

Curing Methods

Post-Cook Chilling

Tempering

Pressing/Forming

Slicing and Packaging of Bacon

Microbiology, Color, and Flavor Development

See also

Further Reading

BACON PRODUCTION | Wiltshire Sides

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Bacon Pigs

Wiltshire Bacon Processing

Microbiology of Wiltshire Bacon

Microbial Spoilage of Wiltshire Bacon

Color and Color Problems in Bacon

Flavor Development in Wiltshire Bacon

Packaging and Transport of Bacon Sides

Cutting of Sides and Smoking

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

BIOFILM FORMATION

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Formation of Biofilms

Cellular Control of Biofilms – The Role of Cell-to-Cell Signaling Molecules and the Molecular Basis of Biofilm Formation

Studying Biofilms

Biofilms in the Food Industry

See also

Further Reading

BIOMETHANE PRODUCTION AND CLEANUP

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Methane Production in Livestock

Factors Related to Methane Production in Ruminants

Manure Management to Reduce Methane Emission and Using Techniques to Generate Energy

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

BIOPRESERVATION

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Lactic Acid Bacteria and Their Antimicrobial Activities

Bacteriocin Production

The Application of Bacteriocins to Meats

Fresh Meat

Bacteriophage Control of Bacteria in Meats

Consumer Acceptance of Biopreservation

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

BIOTECHNOLOGY IN MEAT ANIMAL PRODUCTION | Cloning

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Methods of Cloning

Nuclear Cloning Methodology

Current Efficiency of Nuclear Transfer

Complete Reprograming

Incomplete Reprograming

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

BIOTECHNOLOGY IN MEAT ANIMAL PRODUCTION | Genetically Modified Organisms in Meat Animal Production

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Methods to Produce Transgenic Animal Production

Use of Genetically Engineered Animals in Meat Production

Current Examples of Genetic Engineering of Animals

Future Direction of Genetic Engineering

Food Safety/Approval of Genetically Engineered Animals

See also

Further Reading

BOAR TAINT: BIOLOGICAL CAUSES AND PRACTICAL MEANS TO ALLEVIATE IT

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Boar Taint: Description and Causes

Alternatives to Castration for Control of Boar Taint

Strategies to Control Boar Taint

Further Reading

BY-PRODUCTS | Edible, for Human Consumption

Abstract

Introduction

Products

Mechanically Separated Meat

See also

Further Reading

BY-PRODUCTS | Hides and Skins

Abstract

Introduction

Trade in Hides and Leather

Classification

Hide Composition

Hide Harvesting

Hide Curing

Fleshing

Trimming

Sorting

Quality of Cure

Tanning

Soaking

Dehairing

Deliming

Bating

Pickling

Tanning

Wringing/Setting

Splitting and Shaving

Retanning

Dyeing/Coloring

Fatliquoring

Setting Out

Drying

Conditioning

Staking

Buffing

Finishing

Planning

Area Measurement

Physical Properties of Leather

Tanning Effluent and Waste

Summary

See also

Further Reading

BY-PRODUCTS | Inedible

Abstract

Introduction

Inedible By-Products

Processing

The Rendering Process

Processing of Feathers and Pig Hair

Statutory Requirements for Rendering

Industrial Uses of Animal By-Products

Animal By-Product Feed Ingredients

Major Animal-Derived Fats

Major Animal-Derived Proteins

Summary

See also

Further Reading

C

CANNING

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Microbial Population and Process Severity

Thermal Resistance of Microorganisms

Heat and Mass Transfer during Canning

Meat Canning Operations

Heat Treatment

Implications for Meat Quality

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

CARCASS CHILLING AND BONING

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Carcass Boning and Hot Boning

Other Options of Hot Boning

Chilling

See also

Further Reading

CARCASS COMPOSITION, MUSCLE STRUCTURE, AND CONTRACTION

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Meat Carcasses

Carcass Muscle

Muscle Connective Tissue

Muscle Fiber Structure and Physiology

Muscle Fiber Metabolism

Muscle Contraction

Carcass Fat

Carcass Bone

See also

Further Reading

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS | Analysis of Final Product Composition for Labeling

Abstract

Introduction

Current Labeling Requirements

Nutritional Databases

Chemical Analysis

Calculations

See also

Further Reading

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS | Physicochemical Analysis Methods

Abstract

Introduction

Classical Methods

Electrochemical Methods

Electronic Sensing; ‘Noses’ and ‘Tongues’

Flow Injection Analysis

Mass Spectrometric Techniques

Miscellaneous Techniques

Quality Assurance

See also

Further Reading

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS | Raw Material Composition Analysis

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Composition of Meat as a Raw Material

Performance of Analytical Methods

Methods of Fat Analysis

Methods for Protein Analysis

Methods of Analysis for Moisture

Multicomponent Methods

Summary

See also

Further Reading

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS | Sampling and Statistical Requirements

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Statistical Requirements of Analysis Techniques

Survey Sampling

Acceptance Sampling

See also

Further Reading

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS | Standard Methods

Abstract

Glossary

Use of Standard Methods

Standard Developing Organizations

How a Method Becomes a Standard

Performance Characteristics Examined

Determination of Performance Characteristics

The Codex Alimentarius' Guidelines for Numeric Values for Method Performance Criteria

How Methods Come into Being

Chemical Standards and Official Methods on Meat and Meat Products

Collaboration

See also

Further Reading

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR SPECIFIC COMPONENTS | Curing Agents

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Definitions

Legal Requirements

Reasons for Addition

Chemistry of Curing Agents

Concentrations of Nitrite and Nitrate in Meat Products

Changes of Nitrite during Storage

Analysis of Nitrite and Nitrate

Effects of Nitrite in Meat Products

Nitrosamine Formation

Toxicological Aspects

See also

Further Reading

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR SPECIFIC COMPONENTS | Major Meat Components

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Protein

Amino Acids

See also

Further Reading

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR SPECIFIC COMPONENTS | Micronutrients and Other Minor Meat Components

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Water-Soluble Vitamins

Minerals

Cholesterol

Enzymes

See also

Further Reading

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR SPECIFIC COMPONENTS | Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Sample Preparation

Analytical Methodologies

Future Trends in Residue Analysis

See also

Further Reading

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEAT | Adipose Tissue

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Sources of Lipid in Meat

Lipid Accumulation in Adipose Tissue

Fatty Acid Composition of Subcutaneous, Intramuscular, and Muscle Lipids

Lipid Accumulation in Meat

Conjugated Linoleic Acid

Desaturation of Fatty Acids

Contribution of Intramuscular Adipose Tissue to the Concentration of Cholesterol in Meat

Fatty Acid Composition and Melting Point of Lipids

See also

Further Reading

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEAT | Chemical Composition

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Major Chemical Components of Meat Tissues

Specific Chemical Components

See also

Further Reading

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEAT | Color and Pigment

Abstract

Introduction

Myoglobin

Amino Acid Sequence of Myoglobin

Pigments in Fresh Meats

Lipid Oxidation-Induced Myoglobin Oxidation

Pigments in Cooked Meats

Premature Browning

Pink Color Defect

Pigments in Cured Meats

See also

Further Reading

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEAT | Palatability

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Fat or Lipids: Effects on Meat Palatability

Four Theories of Marbling or Lipid Contribution to Meat Tenderness

Use of Marbling or Intramuscular Fat to Segment Meat for Expected Palatability Differences

Marbling or Intramuscular Fat as an Indirect Measure of Meat Tenderness

Muscle Fiber or Lean Components Contribution to Meat Palatability

Connective Tissue Influences on Meat Palatability

Chemical Development and Reactions of Meat Flavor

Cooked Meat Flavor Development

Basic Tastes in Meat

Species-Specific Flavor of Meat

Lipids and Off-Flavor Development

Measuring Meat Flavor

See also

Further Reading

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEAT | pH Measurement

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

What is pH?

pH Changes from Muscle to Meat

Buffering Capacity

Importance of pH Changes and Ultimate pH in Meat

Time of pH Measurement

Measurement of pH in Meat

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEAT | Protein Functionality

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Water Binding

Solubility

Gelation

Emulsification

See also

Further Reading

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEAT | Water-Holding Capacity

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Contractile Proteins – Actin and Myosin

Effect of pH

Effect of Rigor

Postmortem Glycolysis Rate

Effect of Temperature

Effect of Ageing

Effect of Salt (NaCl)

Effect of Phosphates

Effect of Ionic Strength

Effect of High-Pressure Processing

Effect of Ammonium Hydroxide

Effect of Calpain

See also

Further Reading

CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS OF COMMINUTED PRODUCTS | Emulsions and Batters

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Meat Proteins

Meat Emulsion Matrix

Emulsion/Batter Stability

Emerging Trends

See also

Further Reading

CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS OF COMMINUTED PRODUCTS | Nonmeat Proteins

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Functions of Nonmeat Proteins in Comminuted Meat Products

Composition for Nutrition and Health Purposes

Animal Proteins

Plant Protein Sources

Microbial Proteins

See also

Further Reading

CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS OF COMMINUTED PRODUCTS | Other Ingredients

Abstract

Introduction

Salt

Nitrite or Nitrate

Reducing Compounds

Cure Accelerators

Sodium (or Potassium) Lactate

Phosphates

Water or Ice

Binders, Emulsifiers, Extenders, or Fillers

Breading

Flavoring Agents

Nucleotides

Spices

Coloring

Starter Cultures (Lactic Acid Bacteria) or Added Acids

Antioxidants

Enzymes

Preservatives

Miscellaneous

See also

Further Reading

CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS OF COMMINUTED PRODUCTS | Spices and Flavorings

Abstract

Introduction

Characteristics and Components of Spices and Flavoring Agents

Applications of Spices

Usage

Labeling (United States)

See also

Further Reading

CLASSIFICATION OF CARCASSES | Beef Carcass Classification and Grading

Abstract

Glossary

Purpose of Beef Carcass Classification

Beef Carcass Classification in Europe

Grading in the United States

Grading in Australia

Grading in Japan

Further Reading

CLASSIFICATION OF CARCASSES | Pig Carcass Classification

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Reference

Online Instruments

Summary

See also

Further Reading

CONNECTIVE TISSUE: STRUCTURE, FUNCTION, AND INFLUENCE ON MEAT QUALITY

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Distribution, Composition, and Structure of Muscle Connective Tissue

In vivo’ Function of Connective Tissue

Connective Tissue Properties Related to Meat Texture

Method of Measuring Meat Texture

Biological Factors, Connective Tissue, and Meat Tenderness

Postmortem Changes in Connective Tissue

Changes in Connective Tissue with Cooking

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

CONVERSION OF MUSCLE TO MEAT | Aging

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Mechanism of Aging

When Does Aging Start?

Effects of Temperature on Aging

Variability in Tenderness and Aging

Physical Factors Influencing Aging

Biochemical Factors Influencing Aging

Other Factors Influencing Aging

Hot Boning

Electrical Stimulation

Different Species and Breeds

Factors That Reduce Aging

Injection of Calcium and Other Agents

Freezing and Thawing

Measurement of Aging

Packaging

See also

Further Reading

CONVERSION OF MUSCLE TO MEAT | Color and Texture Deviations

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Effects of Rigor Mortis and Aging Conditions on Texture and Color

Pale, Soft, and Exudative Meat

Pork

Other Species

Dark, Firm, and Dry Meat

Cold Shortening

Double Muscling

Callipyge Sheep

Muscle Degeneration

See also

Further Reading

CONVERSION OF MUSCLE TO MEAT | Glycogen

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Structure of Glycogen

Metabolism of Glycogen

Effect of Glycogen Content on Meat Quality

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

CONVERSION OF MUSCLE TO MEAT | Glycolysis

Abstract

Glossary

Anabolism versus Catabolism

Catabolism Postmortem

Time Course of Glycolysis

Consequences for Water Retention and Tenderness

Consequences for Shelf Life and Flavor

Abnormal Postmortem Changes

Conditioning and Aging

See also

Further Reading

CONVERSION OF MUSCLE TO MEAT | Rigor Mortis, Cold, and Rigor Shortening

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Relaxed State of Muscles

Contraction

Rigor Mortis

Influence of Temperature

Influence of Adenosine Triphosphate

Influence on Tenderness

Influence on Water-Holding Capacity

See also

Further Reading

CONVERSION OF MUSCLE TO MEAT | Slaughter-Line Operation and Pig Meat Quality

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Stress and Meat Quality

Transport from the Farm to the Abattoir

On-Farm Handling and Loading

Transportation

Lairage at the Abattoir

Slaughtering

Carcass Dressing

Chilling

See also

Further Reading

COOKING OF MEAT | Cooking of Meat

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Changes in Meat during Heating

The Heating Process in Meat

Main Cooking Methods

Other Cooking Methods

Temperature Control and Timetable

Resting Period after Cooking

Effects of Cooking Methods on the Eating Quality of Meat

Effect of Cooking on Color

Effect of Cooking on Odor and Flavor

Effect of Cooking on Texture

Effect of Cooking on Weight Loss

See also

Further Reading

COOKING OF MEAT | Flavor Development

Abstract

Introduction

The Precursors of Meat Flavor

Makeup of Meat Flavor: Taste and Odor

Sources of Heat-Induced Meat Flavor

Desirable Meaty Aromas of Cooked Meat

Flavor of Nitrite-Cured Meat

See also

Further Reading

COOKING OF MEAT | Heat Processing Methods

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Sterilization

Cooking (Pasteurization)

Hot Air

Steam

Hot Water

Hot Fat or Oil Frying

Radiant

Extrusion

Dielectric

Ohmic Heating

Thermal Surface Decontamination Processes

Hot Water

Steam

Scalding

Singeing

See also

Further Reading

COOKING OF MEAT | Maillard Reaction and Browning

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

The Maillard Reaction

Meat Flavor Compounds from Maillard Reaction

Meat Flavor Compounds from Lipid-Maillard Interactions

Maillard Browning

Summary

See also

Further Reading

COOKING OF MEAT | Physics and Chemistry

Abstract

Introduction

Chemical Changes in Meat Protein Systems

Water-Holding Capacity

Effects of Heating on Meat Microstructure

Texture and Tenderness of Heated Meat

See also

Further Reading

COOKING OF MEAT | Warmed-Over Flavor

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Warmed-Over Flavor as a Consequence of Lipid Oxidation

Warmed-Over Flavor as a Consequence of Protein Oxidation

Sensory and Chemical Analysis in Relation to Warmed-Over Flavor

Preventive Strategies

Meat Quality and Handling

See also

Further Reading

CURING | Brine Curing of Meat

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

The Chemistry of Meat Curing

Curing Ingredients and Their Role in Cured Meats

Summary

See also

Further Reading

CURING | Dry

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Proteolysis

Lipolysis

Microbial Evolution

Sensory Characteristics

Processing Control

Salt Reduction

See also

Further Reading

CURING | Natural and Organic Cured Meat Products in the United States

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Conventional Curing

Alternative Curing – Systems and Labeling

Alternative Curing – Manufacturing Ingredients

Alternative Curing – Manufacturing Procedures

‘Alternatively Cured’ Meat Product Challenges

See also

Further Reading

CURING | Physiology of Nitric Oxide

Abstract

Introduction

Nitric Oxide Biochemistry and Physiology

Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Physiology

Sources and Estimates of Exposure to Nitrite and Nitrate

Human Nitrogen Cycle: Reductive Pathways to Produce NO from Nitrite and Nitrate

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

CURING | Production Procedures

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Regulations

Basic Ingredients Needed for Curing

Formulating Meat Products

Brine Preparation

Application of Cures

Specific Cured Products

Natural Nitrate- and Nitrite-Free Cured Meats

See also

Further Reading

CUTTING AND BONING | Hot Boning of Meat

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Microbiology of Hot-Boned Meat

Quality of Hot Boned Meat

Hot and Warm Boning Operations

Beef

Lamb

Pork

Horse

Poultry

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

CUTTING AND BONING | Traditional

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Terminology of Cutting and Boning

Terms to Describe Wholesale Cuts of Meat

Beef Carcass Cutting

Forequarter Cutting

Forequarter Boning

Hindquarter Cutting

Hindquarter Boning

Pork Carcass Cutting

General Pork Carcass Cutting

Pork Shoulder Cutting

Pork Leg (Fresh Ham) Cutting

Pork Loin Cutting

Lamb Carcass Cutting

Carcass Primal Breaking

Lamb Foresaddle Component Cutting

Lamb Hindsaddle Component Cutting

Cutting and Boning Trends for the Future

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

D

DOUBLE-MUSCLED ANIMALS

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Genetic Background

Physiology and Metabolism

Reproduction, Growth, and Management

Carcass and Meat Quality

See also

Further Reading

DRYING

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Drying of Solid Foods

Quality of Dried Products

See also

Further Reading

E

ECONOMICS | Meat Business and Public Policy

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Animal Welfare

Environmental Stewardship and Regulation

Antibiotics

Dietary Guidelines

International Trade

Interaction with the Biofuel Industry

Internal Business Regulation

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

ELECTRICAL STIMULATION

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

History

Description

Factors That Influence Effectiveness of Stimulation

Scientific Basis for Tenderization Involving Electrical Stimulation

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

Abstract

Introduction

Pesticides

Dioxins and Polychlorinated Biphenyls

Legislation

Concentrations in Meat and Fish

Trace Elements

Radionuclides

Disclaimer

See also

Further Reading

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF MEAT PRODUCTION | Primary Production/Meat and the Environment

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Impacts Related to Land Use

Biodiversity

Impacts Related to Nutrient Use

Nitrogen

Phosphorus

Eutrophication and Acidification

GHG Emissions and Global Warming

Methane

Nitrous Oxide

Carbon Dioxide

Indicators of a Changing Climate

Chemicals

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

EQUIPMENT CLEANING

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Soils, Surfaces, and Cleaning

Surface Energy

Composition of Soils

Soil Removal

Hygienic Design of Equipment and Facility

Cleaning Compounds

Biofilms

Assessing the Effectiveness of a Cleaning Program

Summary

See also

Further Reading

ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | Biltong: A Major South African Ethnic Meat Product

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

The Traditional Method of Making Biltong

Preservation, Storage, and Shelf Life of Biltong as an Intermediate Moisture Food

Commercialization of Biltong

See also

Further Reading

ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | Brazil and South America

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Regional Products

Sausages

Miscellaneous

See also

Further Reading

ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | China and Southeast Asia

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Product Characteristics

Classification of Traditional Chinese Meat Products

Chinese and Related Cuisines

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | France

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Braised Meat Courses

Charcuterie (Delicatessen)

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | Germany

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | India and Pakistan

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Tandoori

Tikka

Wazwan Meats

Kabab

Biryani

Haleem

Kolhapuri Mutton

Goan Vindaloo

Meat Pickles

Momo/Dumpling

Rapka

Pish Pash and Khicheri

Keema

Dry salted Meat

Kargyong

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | Japan and Korea

Abstract

Introduction

Japanese Meat-Based Cuisine in General

Korean Meat-Based Cuisine in General

See also

Further Reading

ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | Mediterranean

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Mediterranean Meat Products

See also

Further Reading

ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | Middle East

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

The Middle Eastern Meat Products

Sausages

Pastrami

Other Meat Products

Traditional Meat Dishes

See also

Further Reading

ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | North America

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Pemmican

Whole-Muscle Jerky

Restructured Jerky

Summer Sausage

See also

Further Reading

ETHNIC MEAT PRODUCTS | Poland

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Polish Meat Products

See also

Further Reading

EXSANGUINATION

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

EXTRUSION TECHNOLOGY

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Cold Extrusion

Extrusion Cooking

Coextrusion

Meat Analogs

Thermoplastic Starch

Quality of Extruded Food

Economics of Extrusion

See also

Further Reading

F

FERMENTATION

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

The Processing of Fermented Sausages

Microorganisms Involved and the Use of Starter Cultures

Sausage Metabolism and pH

Development of Sensory Quality

Microbial Stability and Safety

Modeling the Nature and Dynamics of Ripening

Fermented Sausages as ‘Functional Meat Products’

See also

Further Reading

FISH INSPECTION

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Freshness Assessment and its Evaluation

See also

Further Reading

FOODBORNE ZOONOSES

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Emerging Foodborne Pathogens

See also

Further Reading

FOREIGN BODIES

Abstract

Glossary

Definition and Implications of Foreign Bodies in Meat – Intrinsic Foreign Bodies

Definition and Implications of Foreign Bodies in Meat – Extrinsic Foreign Bodies

How to Assess the Risk of Foreign Bodies in a Production

Legislation and Customer Demands

Technologies for Detection of Foreign Bodies in Meat

X-Ray Contrast

Electromagnetic Contrast

Determination of the Specific Detection Limit

Emerging Technologies

See also

Further Reading

FUNCTIONAL FOODS

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Overview of Functional Foods

Functional Meat Products

Meat-Based Bioactive Compounds

Development of Novel Functional Meat Products

Conclusions and Future Prospects

See also

Further Reading

G

GENOME PROJECTS | Modern Genetics and Genomic Technologies and Their Application in the Meat Industry – Red Meat Animals, Poultry

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Meat Tenderness

Beef

Pork

Poultry

Marbling

Muscle Fiber Biochemistry

Candidate Genes

Genome-Wide Association Studies

Gene Expression Analysis

Linkage Disequilibrium

Proteomics

Traceability

See also

Further Reading

GROWTH OF MEAT ANIMALS | Adipose Tissue Development

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Brown Adipose Tissue

White Adipose Tissue

Anabolic Lipid Metabolism

Catabolic Lipid Metabolism

See also

Further Reading

GROWTH OF MEAT ANIMALS | Endocrinology

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Embryonic and Fetal Growth

Postnatal Growth

Recently Identified Factors Controlling Growth

Summary

See also

Further Reading

GROWTH OF MEAT ANIMALS | Growth Patterns

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Measuring Patterns of Growth

Organ and Tissue Growth Patterns

Patterns of Carcass Growth

Patterns of Bone Growth

Patterns of Muscle Growth

Patterns of Fat Depot Deposition

Gender Differences in Growth Patterns of Body Constituents

Genetic Variation in Growth Patterns of Carcass Components

Nutrition Effects on Growth Patterns

See also

Further Reading

GROWTH OF MEAT ANIMALS | Metabolic Modifiers

Abstract

Glossary

General Effects of Metabolic Modifiers

Beta-Adrenergic Agonists in Animal Production

Practical Considerations for Beta-Adrenergic Agonists Use

Comparative Efficacy of Steroids and Beta-Adrenergic Agonists

Effects of Growth Promotants on Palatability

Summary

See also

Further Reading

GROWTH OF MEAT ANIMALS | Muscle

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Allometry

Myogenesis in Embryonic Development

Postnatal Development

Endocrinology

Further Reading

GROWTH OF MEAT ANIMALS | Physiology

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Physiology of Skeletal Muscle Growth

Physiology of Adipose Tissue Growth

Physiology of Bone Growth

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

H

HAM PRODUCTION | Cooked Ham

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Selection and Preparation of the Raw Material

Brine Preparation and Injection

Tenderization

Tumbling-Massaging

Stuffing and Molding

Cooking

Cooling

Preparation for Marketing

See also

Further Reading

HAM PRODUCTION | Dry-Cured Ham

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Raw Material

Classification Methods

Salting

The Development of New Quick-Maturation Products

Commercial Presentation

See also

Further Reading

HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINT AND SELF-REGULATION

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Self-Regulation

See also

Further Reading

HUMAN NUTRITION | Cancer Health Concerns

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Diet and Cancer

Cancer Sites

Summary

See also

Further Reading

HUMAN NUTRITION | Cardiovascular and Obesity Health Concerns

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

Diet Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

Red Meat and Cardiovascular Disease

The Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet Study

The Role of Lean Beef in a Healthy Diet

Understanding Meat Labeling

Can the Composition of Meat be Modified?

Obesity and Weight-Reducing Diets

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

HUMAN NUTRITION | Macronutrients in Meat

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Macronutrient Content of Meat

Meat Consumption and Macronutrients in Meat from Various Countries

Meat Proteins

Meat Lipids

Fatty Acid Composition of Meat

Macronutrients and Oxidation

Summary

See also

Further Reading

HUMAN NUTRITION | Meat and Human Diet: Facts and Myths

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Proteins

Micronutrients

Fat

Meat Intake and Cancer

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

HUMAN NUTRITION | Micronutrients in Meat

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Minerals

Vitamins

B Vitamins

Summary

Acknowledgement

See also

Further Reading

HUMAN NUTRITION | Nutraceuticals

Abstract

Introduction

Government Regulations

Examples of Animal-Derived Nutraceuticals

See also

Further Reading

HUMAN NUTRITION | Vegetarianism

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Definitions of and Motivations for Vegetarianism

Attitudes toward Meat

Values and Vegetarianism

Perceptions of Vegetarians

Vegetarianism and Health

Gender and Vegetarianism

Summary

See also

Further Reading

I

IRRADIATION

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiation

Irradiation Compared to Pasteurization

Regulation of Food Irradiation

The Food Irradiation Process

Irradiation of Muscle Foods

Four Areas in Which Irradiation Is Most Useful

Nutritional Quality of Irradiated Foods

Effects of Irradiation on Biological Organisms

Microbiology Effects

Approved Uses for Food Irradiation

Applications for Food Irradiation

Industry Adoption of Meat Irradiation

See also

Further Reading

L

LABORATORY ACCREDITATION

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Accreditation and Notification System

Laboratory Requirements

Prospects

See also

Further Reading

M

MANURE/WASTE MANAGEMENT | Manure Management

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Manure Nutrients

Farm Nutrient Balance

Feed Influences Manure Nutrients

Manure Treatment

Land Application

See also

Further Reading

MANURE/WASTE MANAGEMENT | Waste Management in Europe

Abstract

Legal Background

Municipal Solid Waste

Biowaste

Sewage Sludge

Animal By-Products

Waste Treatment

Waste Management and Hygiene

Summary

Further Reading

MEASUREMENT OF MEAT QUALITY | Measurements of Water-holding Capacity and Color: Objective and Subjective

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Water-holding Capacity Measurement

Color Measurement

See also

Further Reading

MEAT, ANIMAL, POULTRY AND FISH PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT | Antibiotic Growth Promotants

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

The Efficacy of Antibiotic Growth Promotants

The Mechanism of Action of Antibiotic Growth Promotants

Antibiotic Growth Promotants and Their Role in Resistance Development

Antibiotics Allowed as Antibiotic Growth Promotants

Ionophore Antibiotics (Coccidiostats)

Impact on Resistance of Termination of the Use of Antibiotic Growth Promotants

Managing without Antibiotic Growth Promotants

See also

Further Reading

MEAT, ANIMAL, POULTRY AND FISH PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT | Beta-Agonists

Abstract

Introduction

Nature of Beta-Agonists

Beta-Agonists as Feed Additives

Mode of Action of Beta-Agonists

Safety of Feeding Beta-Agonists to Meat Animals

See also

Further Reading

MEAT, ANIMAL, POULTRY AND FISH PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT | Bovine and Porcine Somatotropin

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Somatotropin

Performance, Carcass Quality, and Health

Muscle Characteristics and Meat Quality

Final Remarks

See also

Further Reading

MEAT, ANIMAL, POULTRY AND FISH PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT | Disease Control and Specific Pathogen Free Pig Production

Abstract

Infectious and Noninfectious Diseases

Methods for Reduction of Infectious Diseases

Infectious Disease Control

Infectious Disease Elimination

Specific Pathogen Free Production

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

MEAT, ANIMAL, POULTRY AND FISH PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT | Exotic and other Species

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Birds

Buffalo

Camelids

Deer

Game Animals

Goats

Rabbits

Rodents

Reptiles

Kangaroos

Yaks

Various Other Species

See also

Further Reading

MEAT, ANIMAL, POULTRY AND FISH PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT | Meat Production in Organic Farming

Abstract

Introduction

Guidelines and Regulations in Organic Production

Pork Production

Cattle and Sheep Production

Broiler Production

Product Quality

Conclusion and Perspectives

See also

Further Reading

MEAT, ANIMAL, POULTRY AND FISH PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT | Poultry

Abstract

Glossary

Chicken Meat Production Systems

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

MEAT, ANIMAL, POULTRY AND FISH PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT | Red Meat Animals

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Cattle Production Systems

Sheep and Goats Production Systems

Pig Production Systems

See also

Further Reading

MEAT-BORNE HAZARDS, CONCEPTS AND METHODS FOR MITIGATING RISKS RELATED TO

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Concepts of Hazard Mitigation

Surveillance Systems

Interventions for Hazard Reduction

Economics of Hazard Mitigation

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

MEAT MARKETING | Cold Chain

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Elements of The Cold Chain

Transport

Retail Display

Chilled Wrapped Meat

Chilled Unwrapped Meat

Frozen Display

Domestic Handling

See also

Further Reading

MEAT MARKETING | Market Requirements and Specifications

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Reasons for Specifications

Specification Attributes

Assessment of Adherence to Product Specifications

Recent Developments

See also

Further Reading

MEAT MARKETING | Transport of Meat and Meat Products

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Sea Transport

Air Transport

Overland Transport

Types of Refrigeration System

Mechanical Units

Eutectic Plates

Liquid Nitrogen

Problems Particular to Local Delivery Vehicles

Design and Operation of Local Distribution Vehicles

Van Insulation

Infiltration

Door Openings

Initial Food Temperature

Length of Journey

Combination of Factors

See also

Further Reading

MEAT MARKETING | Wet Markets

Abstract

Introduction

Meat Stalls

Poultry Stalls

Wet Market Strengths

Wet Market Weaknesses

Market Forces

Public Health Hazards

Modern Wet Markets

The Future

See also

Further Reading

MEAT PRICING SYSTEMS

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Price Discovery

Pricing Efficiency

Meat Pricing Systems in Transition

Public Policy Issues in Meat Pricing Systems

Meat Pricing Systems of the Future

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

MEAT RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS

Abstract

Introduction

Further Reading

MEAT SPECIES DETERMINATION

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Protein-Based Methods

Deoxyribonucleic Acid-Based Methods

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

MECHANICALLY RECOVERED MEAT

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Machines that Remove Meat from Bone

Names for Mechanically Recovered Meat and Pertaining Legislation

Uses for Mechanically Recovered Meat

Composition

Safety

Palatability

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION | Decontamination of Fresh Meat

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Temperature-Based Treatments

Chemical Treatments

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION | Decontamination of Processed Meat

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Thermal Technologies

Infrared Heating

Nonthermal Technologies

Chemical Antimicrobials

Clean Label Alternatives

Probiotic Bacteria and Bacteriocins

Bacteriophage

Plant Extracts

Active Packaging

High-Pressure Processing

Validation

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION | Microbial Contamination of Fresh Meat

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Sources of Microbial Contaminants in Fresh Meat

Detection of Microbial Contaminants

Indicator Tests for Pathogen Contamination in Meat

Total Viable Counts

Generic E. coli

Coliforms

Microbiological Criteria

Processes to Reduce Microbial Contamination on Meat Carcasses and Cuts

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION | Microbial Contamination of Processed Meat

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Sources of Microbial Contaminants in Meat Products

Some Microbial Contaminants of Processed Meat

Intervention against Microbial Contaminants of Processed Meat

Microbial Contamination Intervention and Processed Meat Quality

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS | DNA Methods

Abstract

Glossary

Molecular Detection of Foodborne Pathogens

DNA Subtyping of Foodborne Pathogens

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS | Indicator Organisms in Meat

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Historical Perspective

Objectives of Indicators

Qualities of a Good Indicator Organism

Common Uses of Indicator Organisms

Microbial Indicators and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control

Regulatory Issues

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS | Standard Methods

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Types of Culture Media

Spoilage Bacteria

Meat-Borne Pathogens

Considerations for Specific Pathogens

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Aeromonas spp.

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Habitats

Occurrence of Aeromonas in Raw Meat and Poultry

Phenotypic Characteristics

Virulence Factors

Human and Veterinary Clinical Infections

Controlling the Numbers of Aeromonas in Foods

Antibiotic Sensitivity and Resistance

Isolation of Aeromonads

Molecular Characterization of Aeromonas Isolates

Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Aeromonas

Distribution of Aeromonas Virulence Genes

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Studies

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Bacillus cereus

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Characteristics of Bacillus cereus

Isolation and Identification

Characteristics of Foodborne/Meatborne Disease

Mechanism of Pathogenicity

Epidemiology

Control and Preventive Measures

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Clostridium botulinum and Botulism

Abstract

Botulism

Isolation and Characterization of C. botulinum

Botulinum Neurotoxin

Incidence of C. botulinum in Meats

Botulism Incidents Involving Meat Products

Control of C. botulinum in Meats

Refrigeration

Thermal Processing

Redox Potential and Atmosphere

pH

Water Activity

Preservatives

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Clostridium perfringens

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Characteristics of C. Perfringens

Isolation and Identification

Characteristics of C. Perfringens Foodborne Disease

Mechanism of Pathogenicity

Epidemiology

Control and Preventive Measures

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Emerging Pathogens

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Hurdle Technology

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Aspects of Hurdle Technology

Hurdle Technology and Food Quality

Application of Hurdle Technology in the Meat Industry

Design of Effective Hurdle Technology for Meats

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Listeria monocytogenes

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

General Characteristics of Listeria

Isolation and Identification

Listeriosis

Mechanism of Pathogenicity

Epidemiology of Meatborne Listeriosis

Control and Preventive Measures

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Pathogenic Escherichia coli

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Clinical Significance

Molecular Aspects of Pathogenicity

Ecology

Presence and Survival on Meat

Detection

Control

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Prions

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Biochemical and Biophysical Properties

Pathogenesis of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

Animal Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathiess

Human Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Salmonella spp.

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Characteristics of Salmonella

Isolation and Identification of Salmonella

Characteristics of Salmonellosis

Mechanisms of Pathogenicity

Epidemiology

Control and Preventive Measures

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Staphylococcus aureus

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Characteristics of the Organism and its Toxin

Isolation and Identification

Characteristics of Foodborne Illness

Epidemiology

Control and Preventative Measures

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Thermotolerant Campylobacter

Abstract

Introduction

Characteristics of Thermotolerant Campylobacter

Isolation and Identification

Mechanism of Pathogenicity

Epidemiology

Control and Preventative Measures

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Viruses

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Hepatitis E Virus

Caliciviruses

Rotavirus

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Yeasts and Molds

Abstract

Introduction

Identification and Enumeration of Yeasts and Molds in Foods

Importance and Occurrence of Yeasts in Meats

Importance and Occurrence of Molds in Meats

Beneficial Aspects of Yeasts and Molds in Meat Systems

Spoilage and Food Safety Issues of Yeasts and Molds

Conclusions

Acknowledgment

See also

Further Reading

MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF MEAT | Yersinia enterocolitica

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Characteristics of the Organism

Clinical Presentation

Mechanism of Pathogenicity

Isolation and Identification

Epidemiology

Control Measures

See also

Further Reading

MICROORGANISMS AND RESISTANCE TO ANTIBIOTICS, THE UBIQUITY OF | Antibiotic Resistance by Microorganisms

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Zoonotic Bacteria

Aquaculture

Commensal Bacteria

Other Bacteria Associated with Food Animals

Other Factors to Consider

Conclusions and Summary

See also

Further Reading

MICROORGANISMS AND RESISTANCE TO ANTIBIOTICS, THE UBIQUITY OF | Potential Environmental and Wildlife Sources of Microorganisms in Meat

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Role of Wildlife

Environmental Exposure to Antimicrobial-Resistant Organisms

Transmission of Antimicrobial-Resistant Organisms from Terrestrial Animals

Transmission of Antimicrobial-Resistant Organisms from Avian Species

Research Needs

Acknowledgment

See also

Further Reading

MINCED MEATS

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Advantages of Mincing

Disadvantages of Mincing

Oxidative Changes

Microbial Spoilage

See also

Further Reading

MODELING IN MEAT SCIENCE | Meat Quality

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

An Example Causal Model Framework

Component Models of Meat Quality Attributes

An Example Statistical Modeling Framework

The Future of Meat Quality Modeling

See also

Further Reading

MODELING IN MEAT SCIENCE | Microbiology

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

The Need for Control of Microbial Activity in Meat and Meat Products

Preventive Measures and Intervention Strategies

Understanding of Microbial Dynamics in Muscle Foods

Limitations and Challenges

Databases and User-Friendly Predictive Software Packages

See also

Further Reading

MODELING IN MEAT SCIENCE | Refrigeration

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Model Boundaries

Meat Product Chilling and Freezing Times

Meat Product Chilling and Freezing Heat Loads

See also

Further Reading

MUSCLE FIBER TYPES AND MEAT QUALITY

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Muscle Fiber – General Structure and Composition

Muscle Fibers – Characteristics

Muscle Fibers – Methods of Identifying Fiber Type

Muscle Fiber Types – Factors of Variation

Influence of Fiber Type on Meat Quality Properties

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

N

NUTRIENT CLAIMS ON PACKAGING

Abstract

Introduction

Concern Over Fat

Role of Fat in Meat Products

Strategies for Fat Reduction

Nutritional Composition

Nutritional Enhancement of Meat Products

Labeling of Meat Products with Nutrient Claims

Summary

Further Reading

NUTRITION OF MEAT ANIMALS | Pigs

Abstract

Introduction

Retention of Protein and Lipid in Pigs

Response to Nutrient Supply

Feed Intake

Influence of Nutrition on the Eating Quality of Pig Meat

Dietary Energy in Pig Feeds

Dietary Amino Acids in Pig Feeds

Diet Ingredients

Mineral and Vitamin Requirements of pigs

Water Requirement of Pigs

Energy Requirement of Pigs

Protein Requirement of Pigs

Conclusion

Acknowledgment

See also

Further Reading

NUTRITION OF MEAT ANIMALS | Poultry

Abstract

Introduction

Nutrient Requirements

Ingredients Used in Poultry Feed Formulations

Feed Additives Used in Poultry Feed Formulations

Feeding for Leaner Carcass Production

Nutrition and Carcass Quality

See also

Further Reading

NUTRITION OF MEAT ANIMALS | Ruminants

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Anatomical Distinction

Feed Digestion in Ruminants

Classes of Meat-Producing Ruminants

General Aspects of Feeding Ruminants

See also

Further Reading

O

ON-LINE MEASUREMENT OF MEAT COMPOSITION

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Performance of In-Line Methods

Optical Systems

Ultrasound

Near Infrared Spectroscopy

Total Body Electromagnetic Conductivity

Radioactive Isotopes

X-Ray Systems

Summary

See also

Further Reading

ON-LINE MEASUREMENT OF MEAT QUALITY

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Optical Measurements

Measuring Fat Softness in Pork

Electrical Measurements

Microwaves

Dual-Energy X-Rays

Mechanical Measurements of Toughness in Beef and Lamb

Chemical Analysis of Odors

See also

Further Reading

P

PACKAGING | Equipment

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Nonpreservative Packaging

Preservative Packaging

See also

Further Reading

PACKAGING | Modified and Controlled Atmosphere

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Purposes of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Controlled Atmosphere Packaging

Role of Gases in Packaging

Gas Effects on Bone Marrow

Gas Effects on Cooked Color

Film Composition and Gas Permeability

Enhancement of Meat

Key Factors for Success in Product Quality Using Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Controlled Atmosphere Packaging

See also

Further Reading

PACKAGING | Overwrapping

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Meat Pigment Chemistry

Requirements for Overwrapped Packages

Microbial Effects

Management Practices and Systems to Enhance Overwrapping

See also

Further Reading

PACKAGING | Technology and Films

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Functions of the Package

Film Chemistry

Multilayer Films

Quality Assurance in Film Production and in Packaging

Active Packaging

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

PACKAGING | Vacuum

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Measurement of Vacuum

Myoglobin Chemistry

Essential Film and Package Traits

Vacuum Packaging Operations

See also

Further Reading

PARASITES PRESENT IN MEAT AND VISCERA OF LAND FARMED ANIMALS

Abstract

Introduction

Ecological Patterns of Meatborne Parasite Transmission and Maintenance of Life Cycle in Farmed Animals

Farmed Animals as Intermediate Hosts

Detection at Slaughter: New Approaches

Drivers for Transmission of Meatborne Parasites among Farmed Animals and to Humans

Public Health Impact of Zoonotic Meatborne Parasites from Domestic Animals

Disclaimer

See also

Further Reading

PATENTING PRODUCTS, PROCESSES, AND APPARATUSES

Abstract

Introduction

Legal Requirements for Patentability of Inventions

Patent – An Exclusive Right

The Patenting Process

Patent Strategy

Patents as a Source of Information

Patenting in the Meat Technology Field

Examples of Patents

How to Prepare a Patent Application

The Patent Subsequent to Publication

See also

Further Reading

PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS | Other Physical Measurements

Abstract

Glossary

Measurement of Humidity and Water Activity

Measurement of Product Moisture Content

Measurement of Air Velocity

See also

Further Reading

PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS | Temperature Measurement

Abstract

Glossary

Types of Thermometers

Temperature Logging

Calibration and Use of Thermometers

See also

Further Reading

POTENTIAL CHEMICAL HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH MEAT

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Veterinary Drug Residues

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Other Chemical Risks

See also

Further Reading

PREDICTION OF MEAT ATTRIBUTES FROM INTACT MUSCLE USING NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Near Infrared

Meat Microstructure and Near Infrared

Pre- and Postrigor Changes

Prerigor Changes

Postrigor Changes

Use of Near Infrared to Predict Meat Quality in Commercial Situations

See also

Further Reading

PRESERVATION METHODS OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Individual Techniques Utilized

Refrigeration

Freezing

Vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaging

Salt

Sweeteners

Smoking

Additives

Reducing Compounds

Binders

Spices

Color

Other Additives

Pickling

Canning

Irradiation

Pulsed Electric Fields Processing

High-Pressure Food Preservation

Biopreservation

Hurdle Technology

See also

Further Reading

PRESLAUGHTER HANDLING | Behavior of Cattle, Pigs, Sheep, Bison, and Deer during Handling and Transport

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Behavior Is Important

Behavioral Indicators of Stress

Stress during Slaughter

Animal Perception

Behavioral Methods for Moving Livestock

Species Differences in Behavior between Sheep and Other Livestock

The Need and Impact of Understanding Animal Behavior

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

PRESLAUGHTER HANDLING | Design of Stockyards, Lairages, Corrals, Races, Chutes, and Loading Ramps

Abstract

Introduction

A Case Study of A Beef Plant

Stun Box and Restrainer Design for Cattle, Pigs, and Sheep

Layout Principles for Races, Chutes, and Crowd Pens

Design of Stockyards and Lairages

Design of Unloading Ramps

See also

Further Reading

PRESLAUGHTER HANDLING | Preslaughter Handling

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Methods of Measuring Preslaughter Stress

Preparation for Transport

Loading and Unloading

Transportation

Lairaging at the Abattoir

Movement from Lairage to Stunning Pen

Effects of Preslaughter Handling on Meat Quality

See also

Further Reading

PRESLAUGHTER HANDLING | Welfare Including Housing Conditions

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

What Is Animal Welfare?

The Importance of Animal Welfare to Consumers

Threats to Animal Welfare

Assessing Animal Welfare

See also

Further reading

PRESLAUGHTER HANDLING | Welfare of Animals

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

The Evolution of Philosophical Thinking about the Human–Animal Bond

Jeremy Bentham and Modern Utilitarianism

The Animal Rights Movement

The Definition of Animal Welfare

The Five Freedoms

Animal Welfare Science

Understanding Animal Welfare

The ‘Nature’ of Animals

Welfare Is about Biological Functioning

The Subjective Experience of Animals

The Welfare Continuum

Pain and Suffering

Abnormal Behaviors as Indicators of Poor Welfare

What Is Good Welfare

Using Animal Behavior to Explore Animal Welfare

Animal Welfare Legislation and Standards

Practical Assessment of Animal Welfare

See also

Further Reading

PROCESSING EQUIPMENT | Battering and Breading Equipment

Abstract

Introduction

Common Line Configurations

Types of Coating Equipment

Measures of Coating Line Performance

Key Control Points in the Performance of a Coating Line

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

PROCESSING EQUIPMENT | Brine Injectors

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Continuous Injectors

Solution Uptake Targets

Pump Pressure

Injection Time

Needle Design

Pumps

Accumulator Tanks

Product Temperatures

Maintenance and Sanitation

See also

Relevant Website

PROCESSING EQUIPMENT | Mixing and Cutting Equipment

Abstract

Glossary

Mixing Equipment

Paddle Mixers

Ribbon Blenders

Cooking and Cooling

Vacuum

Other Types of Mixer/Blenders

Mincers/Grinders

Bone Separators

In-Line or Pump Mincer/Grinder

Bowl Choppers

Other Features

Vertical Cutter/Mixers

Emulsion Mills

Flaking Equipment

Frozen Meat Breakers

Slicers

Dicers

See also

Relevant Website

PROCESSING EQUIPMENT | Smoking and Cooking Equipment

Abstract

Glossary

Cooking Equipment

Cooking Processes

Cooking and Smoking Processes

Smoking Equipment

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

PROCESSING EQUIPMENT | Tumblers and Massagers

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Mechanical Conditioning Cycles

Advantages of Mechanical Conditioning

Disadvantages of Mechanical Conditioning

See also

Further Reading

PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

Abstract

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

PROTEOMIC TECHNOLOGIES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN THE MEAT INDUSTRY

Abstract

Introduction

Tools in Proteomics

Role of Proteome in the Properties of Muscle as Food

Conversion of Muscle to Meat

Meat Tenderization

Meat Color Stability

Dry-Cured Meats

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Q

QUALITY MANAGEMENT | Abattoirs and Processing Plants

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Quality Attributes of Meat and Meat Products

Quality Strategies in the Meat Production Chain

Standardized Quality Management and Certification

Quality Management in the Meat Production Chain

Prospect

See also

Further Reading

QUALITY MANAGEMENT | Farm Level: Pork Quality

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Pork Quality

Pork Quality Assurance

Production Factors Affecting Pork Quality

Animal Welfare

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

QUALITY MANAGEMENT | Farm Level: Safety and Quality of Beef

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Definition of Beef Quality

Structure and Impact of Beef Quality Assurance Programs on Product Safety and Quality

Producers' Role in Beef Quality and Safety

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

R

REFRIGERATION AND FREEZING TECHNOLOGY | Applications

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

The Chilling Process

The Freezing Process

Designing Refrigeration Applications

See also

Further Reading

REFRIGERATION AND FREEZING TECHNOLOGY | Equipment

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Basic Refrigeration System

Primary Chilling

Red Meat

Poultry Carcasses

Primary Freezing Equipment

Air Blast

Plate Freezing

Secondary Chilling and Freezing Systems

Air

Spray

Vacuum

Cryogenic

High Pressure

Storage

Transportation

Mechanical Units

Eutectic Plates

Liquid Nitrogen

Retail Display

Chilled Wrapped

Chilled Unwrapped

Frozen Wrapped

Domestic Storage

See also

Further Reading

REFRIGERATION AND FREEZING TECHNOLOGY | Freezing and Product Quality

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Packaging Before Freezing

Freezing Process

Frozen Storage

Thawing

Appearance

Eating Quality

Microbiological Quality and Safety

Freezing of Other Flesh Foods

Storage Life of Frozen Foods

See also

Further Reading

REFRIGERATION AND FREEZING TECHNOLOGY | Principles

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Fundamentals of Heat Transfer

Refrigeration Systems

See also

Further Reading

REFRIGERATION AND FREEZING TECHNOLOGY | Thawing

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Physical Aspects of Thawing and Tempering

Meat Quality Aspects

Microbial Growth

Water Loss

Appearance and Eating Quality

Common Thawing Methods

External Heating Methods

Internal Heating Methods

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

RELIGIOUS SLAUGHTER

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Kosher Slaughtering (Shechita)

Halal Slaughtering (al-Dhabh)

Restraint

Stunned versus Conscious Slaughter

The Future

See also

Further Reading

RESIDUES IN MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS | Feed and Drug Residues

Abstract

Glossary

Preamble

Terms of Reference and Definitions

Feed Residues

Residues of Feed Additives and Veterinary Drugs

Mandatory Residue Testing: National Residue Control Plans

Risk Mitigation, Risk Management, and Risk Communication

See also

Further Reading

RESIDUES IN MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS | Residues Associated with Meat Production

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Biogenic Amines

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Residual Additives

Nitrosamines

Heterocyclic Amines

See also

Further Reading

RISK ANALYSIS AND QUANTITATIVE RISK MANAGEMENT

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Purpose and Role

Hazards and Risks

Risk Assessment

Risk Assessment of Chemical Hazards

Microbiological Risk Assessment

Risk Management

Quantitative Risk Management

Risk Communication

See also

Further Reading

S

SAUSAGE CASINGS

Abstract

Glossary

Animal Casings

Laminated Casings

Manufactured Collagen Casings

Cellulose Casings

Plastic Casings

Fabric Casings

Coextrusion

See also

Further Reading

SAUSAGES, TYPES OF | Cooked

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

List of Sausages

Cooked Sausage Production

Cured Sausage Products

Uncured Cooked Sausage Products

See also

Further Reading

SAUSAGES, TYPES OF | Dry and Semidry

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Definitions of Dry and Semidry Fermented Sausages

Technology of Dry and Semidry Sausages

Processing Changes

Flavor Development

Color Development

Texture Development

Safety of Dry and Semidry Fermented Sausages

See also

Further Reading

SAUSAGES, TYPES OF | Emulsion

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Comminution Methods

Emulsification Procedures

Types of Emulsified Sausages

See also

Further Reading

SAUSAGES, TYPES OF | Fresh

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Definitions

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

SENSORY AND MEAT QUALITY, OPTIMIZATION OF

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Visual Impact at Point of Sale

Species, Gender, and Genetics

Genetics

Production

Preslaughter

Processing

Evaluation of Meat Quality Sensory Properties

Cooking

Guaranteed Tenderness

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

SENSORY ASSESSMENT OF MEAT

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Factors to Be Considered before Performing a Sensory Analysis of Meat

Sensory Assessment of Pork, Beef, and Lamb

Sensory Assessment of Flavor of Lamb and Beef

Sensory Assessment of Meat Products

Physical and Chemical Measurements of Sensory Related Properties

See also

Further Reading

SLAUGHTER, ETHICS, AND THE LAW

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Applied Ethics and Decision-Making

Stereotypes in Ethical Discussions on Animal Welfare and Slaughter

Ethics of Stunning

See also

Further Reading

SLAUGHTER-LINE OPERATION | Cattle

Abstract

Introduction

Cattle Receiving and Animal Handling

Antemortem Inspection

Stunning

Shackling and Hoisting

Exsanguination (Sticking/Bleeding)

Blood Collection

Hide Washing/Dehairing

Hide Removal

Steam Vacuuming Stations

Pre-evisceration Washing

Tie and Separation of Weasand

Dentition Check

Head Removal

Tongue Removal

Head and Tongue Washing

Head and Tongue Inspection

Brisket Saw

Bung Bagging, Tying, and Separation

Oxtail Removal

Evisceration

Carcass Splitting

Spinal Cord Removal

Final Trimming

Final Postmortem Inspection

Measurement of Hot Carcass Weight

Hot Fat Trimming

Final Carcass Decontamination Interventions

Carcass Chilling

See also

Further Reading

SLAUGHTER-LINE OPERATION | Other Species

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Deer

Camel

Buffalo

North American Bison

Horse

Various Other Species

See also

Further Reading

SLAUGHTER-LINE OPERATION | Pigs

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

A Description of Current Pig Slaughter Practices

On-Farm Pig Quality Assurance Systems

Feed Withdrawal

Animal Transport, Receiving, and Antemortem Inspection

Holding

Weighing and Recording

Stunning and Shackling

Sticking and Bleeding

Dehiding

Scalding

Dehairing

Gambrelling

Singeing

Black Scraping, Carcass Brushing, White Scraping, and Polishing

Lean Meat Yield Estimation

Preevisceration Wash

Evisceration

Fin Cutting

Carcass Splitting

Head Removal

Spinal Cord Removal

Leaf Fat Removal and Exposure of the Kidneys

Final Trim

Carcass Grading, Weighing, and Stamping

Final Wash

Thermal Treatments

Chilling

See also

Further Reading

SLAUGHTER-LINE OPERATION | Poultry

Abstract

Glossary

Poultry

Receiving and Weighing

Unloading

Stunning

Bleeding

Scalding

Feather Removal

Electrical Stimulation

Feet Removal

Rehanging

Evisceration

Inspection

Giblet Salvage

Lung, Head, and Crop Removal

Inside/Outside Bird Wash

Chilling

Grading, Weighing, and Packaging

See also

Further Reading

SLAUGHTER-LINE OPERATION | Sheep and Goats

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Stunning

Bleeding

Pelt Removal

Evisceration

Head Processing

Mechanization

Sheep and Lamb Carcass Grading

Electrical Stimulation, Chilling, and Freezing

Future Trends

See also

Further Reading

SMOKING | Liquid Smoke (Smoke Condensate) Application

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Methods for Smoke Condensate Production

Chemical Composition of Liquid Smoke Preparations

Smoke Condensate Application Methods

Use of Smoke Condensates

Properties of Smoke Condensates

Health Aspects Relating to the Use of Smoke Condensates

See also

Further Reading

SMOKING | Traditional

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Wood Smoke

Deposition on Smoked Goods

Diffusion and Interactions in the Smoked Meats

The Effect of Smoking on the Shelf Life of Meat Products

Health Hazards Induced by Smoking of Foods

The Equipment

See also

Further Reading

SPECIES OF MEAT ANIMALS | Cattle

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Biological Types of Beef Cattle

Traits of Importance in Finished Beef Cattle

Traits Determining the Value of Commercial Beef Animals

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

SPECIES OF MEAT ANIMALS | Finfish

Abstract

Introduction

Definitions

Capture (Wild) Production by Principal Species

World Aquaculture Production

Nutritional Content of Selected Groups of Finfish

Processing of Finfish

Potential Health Issues Associated with Finfish

Welfare Issues

Nonfinfish

Disclaimer

See also

Further Reading

SPECIES OF MEAT ANIMALS | Game and Exotic Animals

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Game Production, Consumption, and Economics

Birds

Deer

African Ungulates

Wild Suids

Kangaroos

Rabbits and Hares

Bison

Camelids

Buffalo

See also

Further Reading

SPECIES OF MEAT ANIMALS | Meat Animals, Origin and Domestication

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Origins of Domesticated Meat Animals

Domestication of Sheep

Changes in Species under Domestication

The Future of Domestication of Meat Animals

See also

Further Reading

SPECIES OF MEAT ANIMALS | Pigs

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Growth and Carcass Composition

Carcass Classification

Dressing Percentage

Meat Quality

Fat Quality

See also

Further Reading

SPECIES OF MEAT ANIMALS | Poultry

Abstract

Introduction

Chickens

Turkeys

Ducks

Geese

Ratite

Game Birds

See also

Further Reading

SPECIES OF MEAT ANIMALS | Sheep and Goats

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

World Sheep and Goat Inventory

Biological Types of Sheep

Biological Types of Goats

Factors Affecting Growth, Carcass Composition, and Carcass Quality

Summary

See also

Further Reading

SPECIES OF MEAT ANIMALS | Shellfish

Abstract

Introduction

Crustaceans or Crayfish

Shrimp/Prawn

Lobster and Spiny Lobster

Crab

Crayfish/Crawfish

Krill (Euphausia superba)

Molluscs

Bivalves (Two Piece Shells)

Single-Shell Molluscs

Welfare Issues

See also

Further Reading

SPOILAGE, FACTORS AFFECTING | Microbiological

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Aerobic Spoilage of Raw Muscle Tissue

Aerobic Spoilage of Fat and Organ Tissues and Minced Meats

Anaerobic Spoilage

Spoilage in Modified and Controlled-Atmosphere Packagings

Bacterial Spoilage of Preserved Meats

Spoilage by Yeast and Molds

See also

Further Reading

SPOILAGE, FACTORS AFFECTING | Oxidative and Enzymatic

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Peroxidation of Lipids

Normal Lipid Peroxidation

Warmed-Over Flavor (WOF)

Oxidation of Pigments

Oxidation of Proteins

Enzymatic Factors

See also

Further Reading

STUNNING | CO2 and Other Gases

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Reason for Use of Gas Stunning

Gas Mixtures Evaluated for Stunning/Killing

Mechanisms of Induction of Unconsciousness

Time to Onset of Unconsciousness during Exposure to Gas Mixtures

Welfare Concerns of Gas Stunning

Commercial Implications

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

STUNNING | Electrical Stunning

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Brain Stimulation

Ethics

Meat Quality

Practical Application

See also

Further Reading

STUNNING | Mechanical Stunning

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Practical Considerations

Abattoir Audits

See also

Further Reading

STUNNING | Slaughter: Immobilization

Abstract

Glossary

Western World

Emerging Economies

Postslaughter Considerations

See also

Further Reading

STUNNING AND KILLING OF FARMED FISH: HOW TO PUT IT INTO PRACTICE?

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Slaughter of Farmed Fish

Stunning and Killing

How to Assess Stunning and Killing

Physical Measurements

Product Quality

How to Control the Process of Stunning and Killing in Practice?

Conclusion

Acknowledgment

See also

Further Reading

SUSTAINABLE MUSCLE FOODS INDUSTRY

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Livestock Production

Processing Optimization

New Product Development

Conclusions

Further Reading

T

TENDERIZING MECHANISMS | Chemical

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

TENDERIZING MECHANISMS | Enzymatic

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Enzymatic Tenderization

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

TENDERIZING MECHANISMS | Mechanical

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Carcass Methods

Cut Methods

See also

Further Reading

TENDERNESS MEASUREMENT

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Descriptive Terms and Scales

Intrinsic Determinants of Meat Tenderness

Measurement of Tenderness of Cooked versus Uncooked Meat

Mechanical Methods of Tenderness Measurement

Sensory Methods of Tenderness Measurement

Other Methods of Tenderness Measurement or Prediction

See also

Further Reading

THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Density

Freezing Temperature

Glass Transition

Enthalpy, Latent Heat, and Specific Heat Capacity

Thermal Conductivity

Moisture Diffusivity

See also

Further Reading

Index

Authors

Details

No. of pages:
1712
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123847317
eBook ISBN:
9780123847348

About the Editor-in-Chief

C. Devine

C. Devine

Carrick Devine, commenced his career with the New Zealand Oceanographic Institute measuring ocean currents and salinity patterns in Antarctica followed by an MSc at Canterbury University on the ecology of a shrimp in a sandy beach. At the University of Otago he gained a PhD on the ultrastructure, physiology and pharmacology of smooth muscle and its innervation followed by a Post Doctoral fellowship at the Presbyterian-University of Pennsylvania Medical Center on smooth muscle.

After joining Meat Industry Research Institute of New Zealand (MIRINZ) in 1973, Dr Devine worked on optimising electrical stimulation to make meat tender - a process in all New Zealand lamb, beef and venison processing plants. Subsequent research showed further tenderisation, not only required the best electrical stimulation parameters, but also holding at optimum temperatures throughout critical parts of processing. Animal pre-slaughter stress often toughens meat so stress reduction procedures were developed. Stress amelioration was shown to also occur by conditioning animals to various stressors.

Neurophysiological studies showed pre-slaughter head only electrical stunning to be humane and thus enabled the harmonisation of halal and western slaughter procedures. Dr Devine later joined Plant and Food Research and with AgResearch, successfully developed near infrared spectroscopy techniques (NIR) to measure meat tenderness on-line.

Dr Devine obtained a DSc based on his research and is a fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand, and New Zealand Institute of Chemistry and gained an ONZM for work on meat. He is currently an editor of the Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research, Hamilton, New Zealand

M. Dikeman

M. Dikeman

Michael E. Dikeman; Born in the state of Kansas, USA. Received B.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Kansas State University and M.S.degree from Michigan State University. Professor at Kansas State University from 1970 to present. He teaches courses ranging from beginning animal/meat science to graduate level. His research interests include effects of genetics and management systems for livestock production on carcass composition and meat quality. He has particular interests in postmortem technology to enhance meat quality, and in effects of meat cookery on tenderness. He received the Meats Research Award from the American Society of Animal Science. He served as President of the American Meat Science Association, and the Federation of American Societies of Food Animal Sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Kansas State University, USA

Reviews

Praise for the Previous Edition:
"...a very worthwhile addition to any biological sciences library...would not be out of place in the office of the manager and/or technical director of a meat plant. ...We strongly recommend it to anyone with more than a passing interest in meat, as a primary source." --Meat Science, 2005