Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780080454283

Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition

2nd Edition

Editor-in-Chiefs: Benjamin Caballero
Editors: Lindsay Allen Andrew Prentice
eBook ISBN: 9780080454283
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 20th July 2005
Page Count: 2000
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Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, Second Edition is a thorough revision and 20% expansion of the 1998 release, reflecting the continuing scientific advances in the field of human nutrition. Now a four-volume set, nearly 300 articles with concise, up-to-date information are complemented by an award-winning indexing system. Included is expanded coverage of epidemiology of diet-related diseases, functional foods, food safety, clinical nutrition and gastrointestinal disorders. Virtually everyone will find the Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition an easy-to-use resource making it an ideal reference choice for both the professional and the non-professional alike.

Also available online via ScienceDirect – featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit www.info.sciencedirect.com.

Key Features


  • Now a four-volume set with over 250 articles
  • Expanded coverage of epidemiology of diet-related diseases, functional foods, food safety, and gastrointestinal disorders, among other topics


  • Browse the whole work by volume, authors or article titles
  • Full and extensive subject index can be searched or browsed online, and takes you directly to the indexed paragraph, section, figure or table
  • Basic and advanced search functionality across the entire work or by specific volume
  • Users can build, save and re-run seraches, as well as combine saved searches
  • Extensive internal cross-referencing and dynamic linking from biliographic references to primary-source material, increasing the scope of your research rapidly and effectively
  • All articles available as full-text HTML files, or as PDF files that can be viewed, downloaded or printed in their original format


Nutritionists, clinical nutritionists, dietitians and allied health workers, university/medical school libraries and public libraries, managers and lawyers within the food industry, and government sectors dealing with nutritional policies

Table of Contents

Adipose tissue
Adolescents: Nutritional Requirements
Adolescents: Nutritional Problems
Alcohol: Absorption, Metabolism and Physiological Effects
Alcohol: Disease Risk and Beneficial Effects
Alcohol: Effects of Consumption on Diet and Nutritional Status
Amino Acids: Chemistry and Classification
Amino Acids: Metabolism
Amino Acids: Specific Functions
Anemia: Iron-Deficiency Anemia
Anemia: Megaloblastic Anemia
Antioxidants: Diet and Antioxidant Defense
Antioxidants: Observational Studies
Antioxidants: Intervention Studies
Appetite: Physiological and Neurobiological Aspects
Appetite: Psychobiological and Behavioral Aspects
Ascorbic Acid: Physiology, Dietary Sources and Requirements
Ascorbic Acid: Deficiency States
Body Composition
Brain and Nervous System
Breast Feeding
Burns Patients
Cancer: Epidemiology and Associations Between Diet and Cancer
Cancer: Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Cancers Other Than Colorectal Cancers
Cancer: Epidemiology of Lung Cancer
Cancer: Dietary Management
Cancer: Effects on Nutritional Status
Cancer: Carcinogenic Substances in Food
Carbohydrates: Chemistry and Classification
Carbohydrates: Regulation of Metabolism
Carbohydrates: Requirements and Dietary Importance
Carbohydrates: Resistant Starch and Oligosaccharides
Carotenoids: Chemistry, Sources and Physiology
Carotenoids: Epidemiology of Health Effects
Cereal Grains
Children: Nutritional Requirements
Children: Nutritional Problems
Cholesterol: Sources, Absorption, Function and Metabolism
Cholesterol: Factors Determining Blood Levels
Choline and Phosphatidylcholine
Celiac Disease
Cofactors: Inorganic
Cofactors: Organic
Colon: Structure and Function
Colon: Disorders
Colon: Nutritional Management of Disorders
Complementary Feeding
Coronary Heart Disease: Hemostatic Factors
Coronary Heart Disease: Lipid Theory
Coronary Heart Disease: Prevention
Cystic Fibrosis
Dairy Products
Dental Disease
Diabetes Mellitus: Etiology and Epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus: Classification and Chemical Pathology
Diabetes Mellitus: Dietary Management
Diarrheal Diseases
Dietary Fiber: Physiological Effects and Effects on Absorption
Dietary Fiber: Potential Role in Etiology of Disease
Dietary Fiber: Role in Nutritional Management of Disease
Dietary Guidelines, International Perspectives
Dietary Intake Measurement: Methodology
Dietary Intake Measurement: Validation
Dietary Surveys
Drug-Nutrient Interactions
Early Origins of Disease: Fetal
Early Origins of Disease: Non-Fetal
Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa
Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa
Eating Disorders: Binge Eating
Electrolytes: Acid-Base Balance
Electrolytes: Water-Electrolyte Balance
Energy: Metabolism
Energy: Balance
Energy: Requirements
Energy: Adaptation
Energy Expenditure: Indirect Calorimetry
Energy Expenditure: Doubly Labeled Water
Exercise: Beneficial Effects
Exercise: Diet and Exercise
Fats and Oils
Fatty Acids: Metabolism
Fatty Acids: Monounsaturated
Fatty Acids: Omega-3 Polyunsaturated
Fatty Acids: Omega-6 Polyunsaturated
Fatty Acids: Saturated
Fatty Acids: Trans Fatty Acids
Folic Acid
Food Allergies: Etiology
Food Allergies: Diagnosis and Management
Food Choice, Influencing Factors
Food Composition Data
Food Folklore
Food Fortification: Developed Countries
Food Fortification: Developing Countries
Food Intolerance
Food Safety: Mycotoxins
Food Safety: Pesticides
Food Safety: Bacterial Contamination
Food Safety: Other Contaminants
Food Safety: Heavy Metals
Fruits and Vegetables
Functional Foods: Health Effects and Clinical Applications
Functional Foods: Regulatory Aspects
Gall Bladder Disorders
Glucose: Chemistry and Dietary Sources
Glucose: Metabolism and Maintenance of Blood Glucose Level
Glucose: Glucose Tolerance
Glycemic Index
Growth and Development, Physiological Aspects
Growth Monitoring
Handicap: Downs Syndrome
Handicap: Prader-Willi Syndrome
Handicap: Cerebral Palsy
Hyperlipidemia: Overview
Hyperlipidemia: Nutritional Management
Hypertension: Etiology
Hypertension: Dietary Factors
Hypertension: Nutritional Management
Immunity: Physiological Aspects
Immunity: Effects of Iron & Zinc
Inborn Errors of Metabolism: Classification and Biochemical Aspects
Inborn Errors of Metabolism: Nutritional Management of Phenylketonuria
Infants: Nutritional Requirements
Infants: Feeding Problems
Infection: Nutritional Interactions
Infection: Nutritional Management in Adults
Iodine: Physiology, Dietary Sources and Requirements
Iodine: Deficiency Disorders
Lactation: Physiology
Lactation: Dietary Requirements
Lactose Intolerance
Lipids: Chemistry and Classification
Lipids: Composition and Role of Phospholipids
Liver Disorders
Low Birthweight and Preterm Infants: Causes, Prevalence and Prevention
Low Birthweight and Preterm Infants: Nutritional Management
Lung Diseases
Lycopenes and Related Compounds
Malabsorption Syndromes
Malnutrition: Primary, Causes Epidemiology and Prevention
Malnutrition: Secondary, Diagnosis and Management
Meal Size and Frequency
Meat, Poultry and Meat Products
Microbiota of the Intestine: Prebiotics
Microbiota of the Intestine: Probiotics
Nucleic Acids
Nutrient-Gene Interactions: Molecular Aspects
Nutrient-Gene Interactions: Health Implications
Nutrient Requirements, International Perspectives
Nutrition Policies In Developing and Developed Countries
Nutrition Transition, Diet Change and its Implications
Nutritional Assessment: Anthropometry
Nutritional Assessment: Biochemical Indices
Nutritional Assessment: Clinical Examination
Nutritional Support: In the Home Setting
Nutritional Support: Adults, Enteral
Nutritional Support: Adults, Parenteral
Nutritional Support: Infants and Children, Parenteral
Nutritional Surveillance: Developed Countries
Nutritional Surveillance: Developing Countries
Nuts and Seeds
Obesity: Definition, Etiology and Assessment
Obesity: Fat Distribution
Obesity: Childhood Obesity
Obesity: Complications
Obesity: Prevention
Obesity: Treatment
Older People: Physiological Changes
Older People: Nutritional Requirements
Older People: Nutrition-Related Problems
Older People: Nutritional Management of Geriatric Patients
Pantothenic Acid
Phytochemicals: Classification and Occurrence
Phytochemicals: Epidemiological Factors
Pregnancy: Role of Placenta in Nutrient Transfer
Pregnancy: Nutrient Requirements
Pregnancy: Energy Requirements and Metabolic Adaptations
Pregnancy: Weight Gain
Pregnancy: Safe Diet for Pregnancy
Pregnancy: Dietary Guidelines and Safe Supplement Use
Pregnancy: Prevention of Neural Tube Defects
Pregnancy: Pre-eclampsia and Diet
Premenstrual Syndrome
Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes
Protein: Synthesis and Turnover
Protein: Requirements and Role in Diet
Protein: Digestion and Bioavailability
Protein: Quality and Sources
Protein: Deficiency
Religious Customs, Influence on Diet
Small Intestine: Structure and Function
Small Intestine: Disorders
Socio-economic Status
Sodium: Physiology
Sodium: Salt Intake and Health
Sports Nutrition
Starvation and Fasting
Stomach: Structure and Function
Stomach: Disorders
Stroke, Nutritional Management
Sucrose: Nutritional role, Absorption and Metabolism
Sucrose: Dietary Sucrose and Disease
Supplementation: Dietary Supplements
Supplementation: Role of Micronutrient Supplementation
Supplementation: Developing Countries
Supplementation: Developed Countries
Surgery: Perioperative Feeding
Surgery: Long-term Nutritional Management
Thiamin: Physiology
Thiamin: Beriberi
Tuberculosis: Nutrition and Susceptibility
Tuberculosis: Nutritional Management
Ultratrace Elements
United Nations Children's Fund
Urban Nutrition
Vegetarian Diets
Vitamin A: Physiology
Vitamin A: Biochemistry and Physiological Role
Vitamin A: Deficiency and Interventions
Vitamin B6
Vitamin D: Physiology, Dietary Sources and Requirements
Vitamin D: Rickets and Osteomalacia
Vitamin E: Metabolism and Requirements
Vitamin E: Physiology and Health Effects
Vitamin K
Weight Management: Approaches
Weight Management: Weight Maintenance
Weight Management: Weight Cycling
Whole Grains
World Health Organization
Zinc: Physiology
Zinc: Deficiency in Developing Countries, Intervention Studies


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© Academic Press 2006
Academic Press
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About the Editor-in-Chief

Benjamin Caballero

Benjamin Caballero

Dr. Caballero is Professor of International Health at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Professor of Pediatrics at the School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University. He has over 20 years of experience as a scholar, researcher and leader in the area of child health and nutrition. He obtained his MD from the University of Buenos Aires and his PhD (in neuroendocrine regulation) from MIT. He started his faculty career at Harvard Medical School, and moved to Johns Hopkins in 1990 to found the Center for Human Nutrition.

Dr. Caballero is a recognized expert on the nutritional needs of children and adults, and on nutrient requirements in undernourished populations. For the past 10 years, he has focused on the problem of childhood obesity in the US and in developing countries, and explored the impact of dietary transition and globalization on health indicators. He is an active participant in key scientific committees advising the US government on issues of diet and health, including the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Committee, the Expert Panel on Macronutrient Requirements, and the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences. He was a member of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Advisory Committee, and is currently a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI).

Dr. Caballero is an active leader in the area of global health, specifically on diet, lifestyle and disease risk. He is Chairman of the Board of the Pan American Health and Education Foundation, in Washington, D.C., and member of the Board of Directors of the International Nutrition Foundation, in Boston, MA. He is a member of the Steering Committee of the Centers of Excellence Network of the Global Health Initiative, National Institutes of Health. Recent awards include the Ancel Keys Prize for achievements in international public health and the Thompson-Beaudette Lectureship from Rutgers University. In 2011 he was named to the Spanish Academy of Nutritional Sciences.

Dr. Caballero is the author of over 150 scientific publications. He is the Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition, a 10-volume work on food production, consumption and biological effects. He is also Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, which received the Book of the Year Award from the British Medical Association. His Guide to Dietary Supplements summarizes the current scientific basis for the use of mineral and vitamin supplements. His book The Nutrition Transition: Diet and Disease in the Developing World explored the impact of demographic and economic development on diet- and lifestyle-related diseases in developing countries. His book Obesity in China summarizes research conducted in rural and urban China to track the impact of socioeconomic development on health outcomes. He is also co-editor of the most widely used textbook in human nutrition, Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease.

Affiliations and Expertise

Johns Hopkins University, Maryland, U.S.A.

About the Editor

Lindsay Allen

Lindsay Allen is the Director of the USDA's Western Human Nutrition Research Center, and Research Professor in the Department of Nutrition, at the University of California, Davis. Her research is concerned with the prevalence, causes, consequences and prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, primarily in developing countries.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, Davis, U.S.A

Andrew Prentice

Andrew Prentice is Professor of International Nutrition at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. He leads the Medical Research Council's International Nutrition Group which is based in London and The Gambia. His research interests have encompassed human energy metabolism and obesity as well as maternal and child nutrition in developing


Affiliations and Expertise

London School of Tropical Medicine, UK


"This new edition has been completely revised and expanded to accommodate the enormous growth of the scientific discipline of human nutrition. ...relevant to both general readers and health care practitioners. Essential. All Libraries; all levels." - CHOICE (2006) "The information gathered in The Encyclopedia is the goldmine of knowledge. ...a very good and comprehensive source of information and a help for an adult reader with some biological and medical knowledge. ...indispensable for scientific workers and practitioners in the field of biology, medicine, nutritionists and dietitians" - ACTA PHYSIOLOGIAE PLANTARUM (2005) From the First Edition... "A major achievement condensing current authoritative reviews on all aspects of nutrition and clinical nutrition. It is an excellent starting point for anyone initiating a research project in nutrtion and is well indexed." BMA MEDICAL BOOK COMPETITION

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