Encyclopedia of Health Economics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123756787, 9780123756794

Encyclopedia of Health Economics

1st Edition

Editor-in-Chiefs: A J. Culyer
eBook ISBN: 9780123756794
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123756787
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 24th March 2014
Page Count: 1664
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Description

The Encyclopedia of Health Economics offers students, researchers and policymakers objective and detailed empirical analysis and clear reviews of current theories and polices. It helps practitioners such as health care managers and planners by providing accessible overviews into the broad field of health economics, including the economics of designing health service finance and delivery and the economics of public and population health. This encyclopedia provides an organized overview of this diverse field, providing one trusted source for up-to-date research and analysis of this highly charged and fast-moving subject area.

Key Features

  • Features research-driven articles that are objective, better-crafted, and more detailed than is currently available in journals and handbooks
  • Combines insights and scholarship across the breadth of health economics, where theory and empirical work increasingly come from non-economists
  • Provides overviews of key policies, theories and programs in easy-to-understand language

Readership

Students, researchers, and policy makers in health and related fields, in business, government, and academia

Table of Contents

  • Editor-in-Chief
  • Section Editors
  • Preface
    • What Do Health Economists Do?
    • ... And How Do They Do It?
    • A Schematic of Health Economics
    • A Word on Textbooks
    • Acknowledgments
    • Further Reading
  • Permission Acknowledgments
  • Demand for Health and Health Care
    • Collective Purchasing of Health Care
      • Collective Purchasing of Health-Care Inputs
      • Collective Purchasing of Health Insurance
      • Collective Purchasing of Health-Care Treatments: The Role of Insurers
      • Summary
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Demand Cross Elasticities and ‘Offset Effects’
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Empirical Literature Cross Elasticities
      • A Model of Offsets in Health Insurance
      • Rule for Welfare Effects
      • A Simple Rule for When Offsets Increase Welfare
      • Final Comments
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Demand for Insurance That Nudges Demand
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Core Model
      • The Setting and the Behavioral Model
      • Deviations from Optimality
      • The Gain from ‘Nudging’
      • Modeling Deviation
      • The Best Case for Voluntary Value-Based Cost Sharing: Positive Insured Cost Offsets
      • A Good Case for Voluntary Value-Based Cost Sharing: The Consumer Looking to the Future Seeks to Control His Irrational Current Self
      • Better Information as the Solution
      • The Cost of Bother
      • Perception of Nonmonetary Cost
      • Other Threats: Heterogeneity
      • The Mixed Case
      • Focus Group Evidence
      • Solutions
      • See also
      • References
    • Education and Health: Disentangling Causal Relationships from Associations
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • The Grossman Model
      • Econometric Methods Used to Test for Causal Effects
      • Effect of Health on Education
      • Effect of Education on Health
      • Drawing Conclusions from Health Economics Research
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Health Care Demand, Empirical Determinants of
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Some Rules of Thumb
      • Empirical Determinants of Health Care Demand: A Survey of Current Practices
      • Empirical Determinants of Health Care Demand: An Illustration
      • Conclusion
      • Disclaimer
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Medical Decision Making and Demand
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Medical Decision Making
      • Health Care Demand
      • Double Moral Hazard under Two-Sided Asymmetric Information
      • Concluding Remarks
      • See also
      • References
    • Peer Effects, Social Networks, and Healthcare Demand
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Overview
      • Definitions of Peer Effects, Social Learning, and Social Network Effects
      • Social Network Effects and the Challenge of Identification
      • Empirical Approaches in the Estimation of Peer Effects in a Social Network
      • Selected Application of Social Network Models to Health and Healthcare
      • Final Comment
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Physician-Induced Demand
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Empirical Evidence
      • Related Literature
      • Suggestions for Future Research and Policy Implications
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Physician Management of Demand at the Point of Care
      • Introduction
      • Questions That Have Been Informed by Microlevel Interaction Analysis
      • Perspectives from Behavioral Economics
      • What Is the Value of This Research in Improving The Functioning of Patient–Physician Interaction?
      • Where This Research Area Should Go?
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Price Elasticity of Demand for Medical Care: The Evidence since the RAND Health Insurance Experiment
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • A Brief Review of the RAND Health Insurance Experiment
      • Need for More Recent Evidence
      • Estimates of Own-Price Elasticity of Demand since the HIE
      • Cross-Price Elasticities
      • Implications for Insurance Design
      • Final Comments
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Quality Reporting and Demand
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Quality Information and Quality of Care
      • Evidence on Quality Reporting and Demand
      • Quality Reporting and Demand in Other Markets: Comparing Healthcare to Education
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
    • Rationing of Demand
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Direct Rationing
      • Rationing by Waiting Times and Quality
      • Price Rationing
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • References
  • Determinants of Health and Ill-Health
    • Abortion
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Conceptual Link between Abortion and Health
      • Abortion: Data and Demographics
      • Overview of Studies on Health
      • Summary
      • See also
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • Addiction
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Perfectly Rational Addiction
      • Imperfectly Rational Models of Addiction
      • Irrational Models of Addiction
      • Empirical Evidence
      • Policy Implications of Addiction Perspectives
      • Summary
      • Acknowledgment
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Advertising as a Determinant of Health in the USA
      • Abstract
      • Overview
      • Conceptual Framework
      • Advertising in Health Markets
      • New Directions
      • Summary
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Aging: Health at Advanced Ages
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Causal Effects of Early-Life Conditions
      • Indirect Effects: Causal Pathways from Early Childhood by Way of Education to Later-Life Morbidity and Mortality
      • Summary and Implications for Health Policy
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Alcohol
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Alcohol's Pharmacological Profile
      • Economics Perspectives on Alcohol Use and Alcohol Regulation: Distinguishing Factors
      • Alcohol Control Policies and Alcohol Consumption
      • Causal Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Outcomes
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Education and Health
      • Abstract
      • Stylized Facts about Education and Health
      • Understanding the Relationship between Education and Health
      • Evidence on the Mechanisms Linking Education and Health
      • Summary
      • Data Appendix
      • Acknowledgment
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Illegal Drug Use, Health Effects of
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Extent of Illegal Drug Use
      • Health Effects of Illegal Drug Use
      • Discussion and Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
    • Intergenerational Effects on Health – In Utero and Early Life
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Theoretical Framework
      • The Intergenerational Transmission of Health
      • Factors Affecting In Utero and Later Health
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Macroeconomy and Health
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Time-Series Analyses
      • Estimation Using Pooled Data
      • Mortality is Procyclical
      • Other Measures of Health
      • Changes in Behaviors and Use of Medical Care
      • Sources of Countercyclical Variations in Health
      • Caveats and Uncertainties
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Mental Health, Determinants of
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Income
      • Macroeconomic Conditions
      • Employment
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Nutrition, Economics of
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Effect of Economic Conditions on Nutrition
      • A Framework for Nutrition Policy Options
      • Food Assistance Programs
      • The Economics of Information Policy
      • Direct Interventions: Taxes and Subsidies
      • Government Supply Interventions
      • Behavioral Economics: Nudges
      • See also
      • References
    • Peer Effects in Health Behaviors
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • A Brief History of Empirical Approaches
      • Newer Approaches and Extension of Outcomes
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Pollution and Health
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Conceptual Framework
      • Empirical Challenges
      • Evidence
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
    • Sex Work and Risky Sex in Developing Countries
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Why Might Women Enter the Sex Market?
      • Why Do Sex Workers Engage in Noncondom Use?
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
    • Smoking, Economics of
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • What is the Economics of Smoking and Why Should One Care?
      • Alternative Frameworks
      • Direct Empirical Tests of the Alternative Frameworks
      • Other Empirical Evidence to Explain Continued Smoking
      • Price: Effect of Cigarette Taxes
      • Effects of Other Cigarette Demand Determinants
      • Effects of Smoking on Longevity and Health
      • Other Effects of Smoking
      • Effects of Policy Interventions
      • See also
      • References
  • Economic Evaluation
    • Adoption of New Technologies, Using Economic Evaluation
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Normative Economic Evaluation
      • A National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence Case Study
      • The Problem
      • Empirical Work
      • Barriers to the Use of Economic Evaluation
      • Prescriptions for Improvement
      • Further National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence Reflections
      • The Research-Practice Divide
      • A More ‘Positive’ Approach?
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Analysing Heterogeneity to Support Decision Making
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Standard Approaches to Assess Heterogeneity in Evaluation of Healthcare Technologies
      • Value of Heterogeneity
      • Preferences and Choice as Sources of Heterogeneity
      • Conclusions
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Budget-Impact Analysis
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Key Elements of a Budget-Impact Analysis
      • Categorization of Budget-Impact Modeling Approaches
      • Conclusions and Where Next
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Cost-Effectiveness Modeling Using Health State Utility Values
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • What Measures Should be Used?
      • Source of Health State Utility Values
      • Predicting Health State Utility Values When Preference-Based Data are Not Available
      • Applying Health State Utility Values in Cost-Effectiveness Models
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Decision Analysis: Eliciting Experts' Beliefs to Characterize Uncertainties
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • The Design Process
      • Conducting the Exercise
      • Synthesizing Multiple Elicited Beliefs
      • Assessing Adequacy
      • Discussion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Economic Evaluation, Uncertainty in
      • Abstract
      • Sources of Uncertainty
      • Incorporating Uncertainty within Analyses
      • Presenting Uncertainty
      • Intervals and Distributions for Net Benefits
      • Linking Analysis of Uncertainty to Decision Making
      • See also
      • Reference
      • Further Reading
    • Incorporating Health Inequality Impacts into Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Estimating the Baseline Health Distribution
      • Estimating the Distribution of Health Changes Due to the Intervention
      • Measuring the Level of Inequality in the Estimated Health Distributions
      • Adjusting for Social Value Judgments Regarding Fair and Unfair Sources of Inequality
      • Social Welfare Functions and Distributional Dominance
      • Social Welfare Indices
      • Comparing and Ranking Interventions
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Infectious Disease Modeling
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Direct Airborne Transmission
      • An Example Transmission Model
      • Toward Further Realism
      • Choice of Model
      • Burden of Disease
      • Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
      • Further Reading
    • Information Analysis, Value of
      • Absrtact
      • Policy Relevance
      • The Value of Additional Evidence
      • What Type of Evidence?
      • Value of Implementation
      • Uncertainty, Variability, and Individualized Care
      • Value of Information and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Observational Studies in Economic Evaluation
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Example
      • The Fundamentals
      • Methods to Address Selection Bias
      • Example Revisited
      • Acknowledgments
      • See also
      • References
    • Policy Responses to Uncertainty in Healthcare Resource Allocation Decision Processes
      • Abstract
      • Background
      • Decision Uncertainty in Healthcare Resource Allocation
      • Designing Patient Access Schemes
      • Evidence for the Success or Otherwise of Patient Access Schemes
      • Linking Research and Reimbursement Decisions
      • Value-Based Pricing and Decision Uncertainty
      • Opportunities and Challenges in Emerging Decision Uncertainty Management Frameworks
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Problem Structuring for Health Economic Model Development
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • The Interpretation of Mathematical Models
      • Problem Structuring in Health Economics and Other Fields
      • Definition and Purpose of Conceptual Modeling
      • Practical Approaches to Conceptual Modeling in HTA
      • Problem-Oriented Conceptual Modeling – Disease Logic Models
      • Problem-Oriented Conceptual Modeling – Service Pathways Models
      • Practical Considerations – Design-Oriented Conceptual Models
      • Evidence Sources to Inform Conceptual Models
      • Acknowledgment
      • See also
      • References
    • Quality Assessment in Modeling in Decision Analytic Models for Economic Evaluation
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Factors Determining Model Quality
      • Assessing the Quality of Models
      • Reporting Methods and Results
      • Implications for Practice and Research
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Searching and Reviewing Nonclinical Evidence for Economic Evaluation
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Outline
      • Introduction
      • Types of Information and Forms of Evidence: The Classification of Evidence
      • Searching for and Locating Evidence
      • Reviewing and Selecting Evidence
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Specification and Implementation of Decision Analytic Model Structures for Economic Evaluation of Health Care Technologies
      • Introduction
      • Choice of an Appropriate Model Structure: Conceptual Framework
      • Choice of an Appropriate Modeling Technique: Implementation Framework
      • Uncertainty in Decision Analytic Models: Structural Uncertainty
      • Addressing Structural Uncertainty
      • Improving the Accuracy and Consistency of Model-Based Evaluations: The Case for Reference Models
      • Case Study: Major Depressive Disorder
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Statistical Issues in Economic Evaluations
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Analyzing Individual-Level Cost Data
      • Characterizing Uncertainty for Cost-Effectiveness Ratios
      • Development of Net-Benefit Solutions
      • Conclusions
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Synthesizing Clinical Evidence for Economic Evaluation
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Limitations of Pairwise Meta-analysis
      • Network Meta-analysis
      • Adjusted Indirect Comparison
      • Estimating Uncertainty
      • More Complex Networks
      • Assumption of Consistency
      • Choice of Scale
      • Network Geometry and Testing Consistency
      • Network Meta-analysis in Practice
      • Alternatives
      • Conclusions
      • Further Reading
    • Value of Information Methods to Prioritize Research
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • A Review of Value of Information Analyses Applied to Clinical and Policy Questions
      • Key Empirical Challenges
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Valuing Informal Care for Economic Evaluation
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Monetary Valuation of Informal Care
      • Nonmonetary Valuation of Informal Care
      • Discussion
      • See also
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
  • Efficiency and Equity
    • Efficiency and Equity in Health: Philosophical Considerations
      • Abstract
      • Concepts of Efficiency
      • Individual-Level Maximands
      • Social Maximands and the Ethics of Maximization
      • The Concept of Health Equity
      • Unfairness and Equality
      • Equality of Outcomes versus Process Equity
      • Questioning the Value of Equality
      • From Equality to Priority
      • The Value of Equality Revisited
      • The Possibility of an Egalitarian Prioritarianism
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Efficiency in Health Care, Concepts of
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Production Efficiency: Minimizing Cost of Production
      • Allocative Efficiency: Determining What Should be Produced
      • Why Measuring Efficiency is Pertinent in the Context of Health Care
      • Methods of Measuring Efficiency in Health Care
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Equality of Opportunity in Health
      • Abstract
      • Background
      • Inequality of Opportunity in Health Economics: Theoretical Contributions and Empirical Evidence
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Evaluating Efficiency of a Health Care System in the Developed World
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Efficiency Measurement
      • Data Envelopment Analysis
      • The Malmquist Index
      • Stochastic Frontier Analysis
      • Making Best Use of Efficiency Measures in Health Care
      • Summary
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Health and Health Care, Need for
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • The Concept of Health
      • The Logic of Need
      • The Health Baseline
      • Three Concepts of Health Care Need
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Impact of Income Inequality on Health
      • Abstract
      • Introduction: What Are Health Inequalities?
      • The Link between Income and Health
      • Relative Income Hypothesis
      • Theories Behind the Relative Income Hypothesis
      • Aggregate-Level Data Problems
      • Unresolved Issues
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Measuring Equality and Equity in Health and Health Care
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Measurement of Inequality
      • Decomposition Methods
      • Measurement of Inequity
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Measuring Health Inequalities Using the Concentration Index Approach
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Concentration Index and the Generalized Concentration Index
      • Measurement Properties of Health Variables
      • Desirable Properties of Inequality Indices
      • Recent Corrections of Concentration Index
      • Guidelines for Practitioners
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Measuring Vertical Inequity in the Delivery of Healthcare
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • A Simple Model of Vertical Equity
      • Vertical Equity in Healthcare Delivery
      • Conclusions and Implications
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Resource Allocation Funding Formulae, Efficiency of
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Efficiency
      • The Current NHS Resource Allocation Formulae in England
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Theory of System Level Efficiency in Health Care
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • What is the ‘Health System’?
      • Efficiency at Different Levels
      • The Components of the Health System
      • The Elements of Efficiency
      • Allocative and Technical Efficiency as Applied to Health Policy
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Welfarism and Extra-Welfarism
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Welfarism and the Welfare-Economic Framework
      • Extra-Welfarism
      • Current Issues in Extra-Welfarism
      • Acknowledgment
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
  • Global Health
    • Education and Health in Developing Economies
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Mapping the Relationship between Education and Health
      • Intragenerational Links
      • Intergenerational Links
      • Open Questions
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Fertility and Population in Developing Countries
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • A Modern History of Fertility in Developing Countries
      • Demographic Transition and the Implications for Economic Growth and Public Health
      • Missing Women and Implications for Public Health
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Health Labor Markets in Developing Countries
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • A Labor Economics Perspective
      • The Developing Country Context
      • Using a Labor Economics Perspectives to Guide Policy
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Health Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Financing, Payment, and Provision
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • How are Health Services Financed?
      • How are Health Services Paid for?
      • Who are the Health Service Providers?
      • Key Issues
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Health Status in the Developing World, Determinants of
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Patterns of Health and Mortality
      • Evidence on Determinants of Health Improvements
      • Discussion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • HIV/AIDS: Transmission, Treatment, and Prevention, Economics of
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Determinants of HIV Transmission
      • (Micro-) Economic Consequences of HIV/AIDS
      • HIV Prevention
      • AIDS Treatment
      • At the Intersection of Prevention and Treatment: Disinhibition Behaviors
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Internal Geographical Imbalances: The Role of Human Resources Quality and Quantity
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • What Geographical Imbalances?
      • Implications of Imbalances for Health Outcomes
      • Causes of Imbalances in Health Care: Theory and Evidence
      • Lessons for Policy Making and Ways Forward
      • Summary and Conclusion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Nutrition, Health, and Economic Performance
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Impact of Health on Economic Development
      • Conclusions
      • Reference
      • Further Reading
    • Pay-for-Performance Incentives in Low- and Middle-Income Country Health Programs
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • What to Reward
      • Who to Reward
      • How to Reward
      • Perverse Incentives and Unintended Consequences
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgment
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Pricing and User Fees
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Cost-Effectiveness
      • Allocative Efficiency
      • Equity
      • Progressivity of Public Health Spending – the Redistributive Implications of User Fees
      • Quality of Service
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Water Supply and Sanitation
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Water Supply
      • Sanitation
      • Elastic Demand and the Subsidy Debate
      • Conclusion
      • Disclaimer
      • See also
      • Further Reading
  • Health and Its Value
    • Cost–Value Analysis
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Disability-Adjusted Life Years
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Basic Concepts
      • Applications
      • DALYs and QALYs
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Health and Its Value: Overview
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • What Is Health?
      • The Value of Health
      • Measuring the Value of Health
      • The Utility and Value of Health Care
      • See also
    • Incorporation of Concerns for Fairness in Economic Evaluation of Health Programs: Overview
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Equity in Health Policy
      • Equity in Health Economics
      • Concerns for Equity: Overview
      • Methods for Incorporating Concerns for Fairness into Economic Evaluation
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Measurement Properties of Valuation Techniques
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Validity
      • Reliability
      • Responsiveness
      • Level of Measurement
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Multiattribute Utility Instruments and Their Use
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • History, Description and Construction of MAU Instruments
      • Instrument Use and Acceptance
      • Comparison of Instruments
      • Theory and Evaluation
      • Construct and Content Validity
      • Criterion Validity
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Multiattribute Utility Instruments: Condition-Specific Versions
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Construction
      • Validity
      • Future Developments
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Quality-Adjusted Life-Years
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Definition, Operationalization, and Meaning
      • Issues
      • Alternatives to QALYs
      • Acknowledgments
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Time Preference and Discounting
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Conventional Approaches to Discounting
      • Contentious Issues in Discounting
      • Discounting in the Context of Health Policy Making
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Utilities for Health States: Whom to Ask
      • Abstract
      • Overview: Two Main Approaches
      • The Facts of Variation
      • Reasons for Variation: Knowledge and Adaptation
      • Conceptual Issues in Choosing an Approach
      • Normative Considerations in Choosing an Approach
      • Summary and Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
    • Valuing Health States, Techniques for
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Overview of Techniques
      • Historical Development of Health State Valuation Techniques
      • Key Conceptual and Methodological Issues
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Willingness to Pay for Health
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Welfare Theoretical Background and Application (in Principle) to Health Technology Assessment
      • Measurement of Individual WTP and Estimation of Aggregate Value
      • Examples of Applications in Safety and Health
      • Issues
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
  • Health and the Macroeconomy
    • Development Assistance in Health, Economics of
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Background
      • Trends in Development Assistance on Health
      • Measuring Effectiveness of DAH
      • Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of DAH
      • Discussion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Emerging Infections, the International Health Regulations, and Macro-Economy
      • Abstract
      • The Economic Impact of Emerging Infections
      • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS): A Case Study on the Economic Cost Associated with Emerging Infectious Disease Outbreaks
      • The International Health Regulations and International Spread of Infectious Diseases
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Global Health Initiatives and Financing for Health
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • To What Extent Have Global Health Initiatives Increased Health Financing?
      • Is Financing from Global Health Initiatives Predictable?
      • Are Global Health Initiatives Financing Sustainable Health Programs?
      • Is Financing from Global Health Initiatives Harmonized and Aligned?
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Global Public Goods and Health
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • What are Global Public Goods?
      • How do Global Public Goods Relate to Health?
      • Production and Finance
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Health and Health Care, Macroeconomics of
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • What is ‘Macroeconomics’?
      • How Does Macroeconomics Relate to Health and Health Care?
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • HIV/AIDS, Macroeconomic Effect of
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • HIV/AIDS and the State of Economic Development
      • Macroeconomic Impact of HIV/AIDS
      • Macroeconomic Aspects of the Response to HIV/AIDS
      • Concluding Remarks
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • International E-Health and National Health Care Systems
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • Reference
      • Further Reading
    • International Movement of Capital in Health Services
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Overview of Trends
      • Policies Governing Foreign Investment in Health Services
      • Impact of Foreign Investment in Health Services
      • Concluding Thoughts
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • International Trade in Health Services and Health Impacts
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • How Can Trade Affect Health?
      • How has the WTO Managed the Tensions between Trade and Health?
      • Global Health Diplomacy in On-Going Trade Negotiations
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • International Trade in Health Workers
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • A Geography of Need
      • A Brief History of Migration
      • Rationales for Migration
      • Recruitment
      • Consequences of Migration
      • The Future Global Healthcare Chain
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Macroeconomic Causes and Effects of Noncommunicable Disease: The Case of Diet and Obesity
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Causes
      • Effects
      • Contemplating Hypothetical Scenarios: What Would the Implications of Improved Diets Be?
      • Policy for Better Diets
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Macroeconomic Dynamics of Health: Lags and Variability in Mortality, Employment, and Spending
      • Abstract
      • Prologue: Lags Tend to Obscure What is Known
      • Mortality and GDP
      • Spending
      • Growth, Business Cycles, and the Long Run
      • Conclusion: Structure and Lags in the Macroeconomics of Health
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Macroeconomic Effect of Infectious Disease Outbreaks
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Macroeconomic Evidence
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Medical Tourism
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Implications of Importing Medical Tourist Services
      • System Implications for Exporting Countries
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • Further reading
    • Noncommunicable Disease: The Case of Mental Health, Macroeconomic Effect of
      • Abstract
      • Mental Health
      • Economic Impacts
      • Mental Health, Employment, and Productivity
      • Mental Health, Poverty, and Debt
      • Macroeconomics and Mental Health
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Pharmaceuticals and National Health Systems
      • Abstract
      • Background
      • Pharmaceuticals and Health Systems
      • How Are Pharmaceuticals Financed?
      • Balance of Power in Procurement: Manufacturer, Payer, and Patient
      • Pharmaceutical Procurement and Distribution in the Public Sector
      • Setting Prices/Price Ceiling or Reimbursement Levels for Pharmaceuticals
      • Domestic Production Versus Import of Pharmaceuticals
      • How Are Medicines Distributed?
      • Summary
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • What Is the Impact of Health on Economic Growth – and of Growth on Health?
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • How Have We Become so Healthy?
      • Correlates of Population Health and Income
      • Individual Health and Productivity
      • Health-Related Interventions and Health: Implications for Policy
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
  • Health Econometrics
    • Dominance and the Measurement of Inequality
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Dominance and Health Inequality with Cardinal Data
      • Dominance and Inequality with Ordinal Data
      • Statistical Inference
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Dynamic Models: Econometric Considerations of Time
      • Introduction
      • Examples of Dynamics in Health and Health-Related Behaviors
      • Econometric Methods to Capture Dynamics
      • Solution and Estimation of Dynamic Theoretical Models
      • Summary
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Empirical Market Models
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Effect of Competition on Quality and Prices
      • Ownership
      • Choice Models
      • Mergers
      • Report Cards
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
    • Health Econometrics: Overview
      • References
    • Inference for Health Econometrics: Inference, Model Tests, Diagnostics, Multiple Tests, and Bootstrap
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Inference
      • Model Tests and Diagnostics
      • Multiple Tests
      • Bootstrap and Other Resampling Methods
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
    • Instrumental Variables: Informing Policy
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Instrumental Variables Estimator
      • Statistical Properties of the IV Estimator
      • Examples of Instrumental Variables in Health Research
      • Problems with Instrumental Variables Estimation
      • Heterogeneous Causal Effects
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Instrumental Variables: Methods
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Unobserved Confounder Bias
      • Instrumental Variables Methods
      • Summary
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Latent Factor and Latent Class Models to Accommodate Heterogeneity, Using Structural Equation
      • Abstract
      • Heterogeneity
      • Classic Structural Equation Models
      • Latent Factor Models
      • Latent Class and Finite Mixture Models
      • Model Fitting
      • Summary
      • Acknowledgment
      • See also
      • References
    • Missing Data: Weighting and Imputation
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and Goals
      • Foundational Issues
      • A Taxonomy of Missing Data Assumptions
      • Approaches: When to use What?
      • Weighting
      • Multiple Imputation
      • Conclusion and Key Literature
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Modeling Cost and Expenditure for Healthcare
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Healthcare Expenditures
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Models for Count Data
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Poisson Regression
      • Alternatives to the Poisson
      • Panel Data
      • Further Reading
    • Models for Discrete/Ordered Outcomes and Choice Models
      • Introduction
      • Choice Modeling: Theory and Econometrics
      • Issues in Binary Choice Modeling
      • Extended Choice Models
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • References
    • Models for Durations: A Guide to Empirical Applications in Health Economics
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Concepts and Nonparametric Estimates
      • Parametric and Semiparametric Models
      • Unobserved Heterogeneity in Duration Models: The Mixed Proportional Hazard
      • Other Relevant Issues in Applied Duration Analysis
      • See also
      • Appendix: A Description of the Data and ome STATA Codes for Duration Models
      • Reference
      • Further Reading
    • Nonparametric Matching and Propensity Scores
      • Abstract
      • Potential Outcomes Framework
      • Critical Assumptions: Unconfoundedness and Overlap
      • Nonparametric Matching Methods
      • Propensity Score-Based Methods
      • Doubly Robust Methods
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Panel Data and Difference-in-Differences Estimation
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Model
      • Dynamic Panel Data Models
      • Limited Dependent Variable Panel Data Models
      • Further Readings
      • References
    • Primer on the Use of Bayesian Methods in Health Economics
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • How It Works
      • A Simple Linear Regression Example
      • Bayesian Inference in Latent Variable Models
      • Conclusion
      • Reference
      • Further Reading
    • Spatial Econometrics: Theory and Applications in Health Economics
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Spatial Weights and the Spatial Lag Operator
      • Spatial Dependence in Panel Data Models
      • Estimation
      • Heterogenous Panels
      • Dynamic Panels with Spatial Dependence
      • Testing for Spatial Independence
      • Applications of Spatial Econometrics in Health Economics
      • Concluding Remarks
      • Acknowledgment
      • See also
      • References
    • Survey Sampling and Weighting
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Survey Requirements
      • Sampling Design
      • Weighting
      • Design Effect
      • See also
      • Further Reading
  • Health Insurance
    • Access and Health Insurance
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Health Insurance Increases Utilization
      • Interpreting the Causal Effect of Insurance: Moral Hazard or Access?
      • Effect of Insurance on the Subjective Assessment of Unmet Need by Survey Respondents
      • Insurance and Utilization of Medically Necessary Care
      • Effect of Insurance on Health Outcomes: Adverse Events and General Health and Mortality
      • Policy Implications
      • See also
      • Reference
      • Further Reading
    • Cost Shifting
      • Abstract
      • Cost Shifting
      • The Economics of Cost Shifting
      • Empirical Evidence on Cost Shifting
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • References
    • Demand for and Welfare Implications of Health Insurance, Theory of
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Conventional Insurance Theory
      • Alternative Theory
      • See also
      • References
    • Health Insurance and Health
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Uninsured and the US Health Care System
      • Methodological Challenges
      • Estimation Methods
      • Results: Health Insurance Effects by Type of Health Measure and Study Population
      • Conclusion
      • Relevance for Health Reform
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Health Insurance in Developed Countries, History of
      • Introduction
      • The Medieval and Early Modern Periods
      • Nineteenth Century until 1880
      • Later Nineteenth Century until the Great War
      • After 1918
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Health Insurance in Historical Perspective, I: Foundations of Historical Analysis
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Historical and Conceptual Frameworks
      • Social Politics and Social Science: Securing Refuge from the Market
      • The Eroding Aura of Medicine and the Opening to Market-Based Thinking
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Health Insurance in Historical Perspective, II: The Rise of Market-Oriented Health Policy and Healthcare
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • From Advocating Care to Reforming Health Insurance
      • Healthcare Plans
      • Concluding Reflections
      • See also
      • Reference
      • Further Reading
    • Health Insurance in the United States, History of
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • A History of Political Failure: Attempts to Achieve Universal Coverage
      • The ‘Government Interference with Health Care Markets’ Narrative: A Narrative of Economic Failure
      • An Alternative Narrative: A Modestly Successful Patchwork of Coverage
      • The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Health Insurance Systems in Developed Countries, Comparisons of
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Agents and Choices
      • Breadth of Coverage and National Expenses
      • Revenue
      • HealthCare Cost Control
      • Specialized, Secondary, and Self-Insurance
      • Country-Specific Comparisons
      • Concluding Thoughts
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Health-Insurer Market Power: Theory and Evidence
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Theoretical Aspects of Health-Insurer Market Power
      • Empirical Aspects of Health-Insurer Market Power
      • Empirical Findings Regarding Health-Insurer Market Power
      • Summary and Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
    • Health Microinsurance Programs in Developing Countries
      • Abstract
      • What is Microinsurance?
      • How Common is Microinsurance for Health?
      • Typology of Microinsurance Business Models
      • Insurance Failures under Microinsurance
      • Application of Specific Actuarial Issues to Microinsurance
      • The ‘Make-It-Or-Break-It’ Factor of Microinsurance: Willingness to Pay
      • The Impact of Health Microinsurance, and Why it is Not More Common
      • Concluding Note
      • Preferred Definition of Microinsurance for Health
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Long-Term Care Insurance
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Theory of Demand for Long-Term Care Insurance
      • Theory of Supply of Long-Term Care Insurance
      • Distinctive Features of the Long-Term Care Insurance Market and Related Empirical Evidence
      • Public Policy and Long-Term Care Insurance
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Managed Care
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Managed Care Organizations: A ‘Nexus of Contracts’
      • Evolution of Managed Care Organizations
      • The End of Managed Care?
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Mandatory Systems, Issues of
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Rationales for Mandatory Health Insurance
      • Implementing Mandatory Health Insurance
      • Problems of Mandatory Health Insurance
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • References
    • Medicare
      • Abstract
      • What is Medicare?
      • How is the Medicare Program Financed?
      • Expenditures and Cost Trends in Medicare
      • Future Policy Options
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Moral Hazard
      • Introduction
      • Traditional Economic Theory
      • Challenges to the Traditional Theory
      • Evidence
      • Tailoring Cost-Sharing to Medical Effectiveness
      • Supply-Side Policies
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
    • Performance of Private Health Insurers in the Commercial Market
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Conceptual Framework for the Production of Health Insurance
      • Empirical Evidence on Insurer Performance
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • Private Insurance System Concerns
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Summary
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Risk Selection and Risk Adjustment
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Theory of Risk Selection
      • Empirical Models of Risk Selection
      • Theory of Risk Adjustment
      • Empirical Risk Adjustment Models
      • Econometric Issues
      • Future Directions in Risk Adjustment
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Sample Selection Bias in Health Econometric Models
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Sample Selection Bias Because of Unobserved Confounders
      • Using Control Functions to Correct for Sample Selection Bias
      • Summary
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Social Health Insurance – Theory and Evidence
      • Abstract
      • The Concept of Social Health Insurance
      • Normative Theories of Social Health Insurance
      • Positive Theory: The Political Economy of Social Health Insurance
      • Disclaimer
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • State Insurance Mandates in the USA
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Prevalence of State Insurance Mandates
      • Federal Insurance Mandates
      • Rationales for Mandates
      • Economics of Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance and State Insurance Mandates
      • Cost of Mandates
      • Wage and Benefit Adjustments to Mandates
      • Self-Insured Plans: Avoiding Mandates
      • Mandates and Coverage Decisions
      • The New Generation of Mandates Research
      • Summary
      • See also
      • References
    • Supplementary Private Health Insurance in National Health Insurance Systems
      • Abstract
      • Defining Supplementary Private Health Insurance
      • Theoretical Effects of Supplementary Private Health Insurance in National Health Insurance Systems
      • Empirical Evidence on the Effects of Supplementary Private Health Insurance in National Health Insurance Systems
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • References
    • Supplementary Private Insurance in National Systems and the USA
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Value of Supplemental Insurance Plans
      • Sources of Supplemental Insurance Plans
      • Standardization of ‘Medigap’ Plans
      • Premium Levels and Regulation
      • Demand for Supplemental Insurance ‘Medigap’ Plans
      • Other Sources of Coverage
      • Supplemental Insurance and Medicare Advantage Plans
      • Effect of Supplemental Insurance Plans on Medicare Spending
      • Further Reading
    • Value-Based Insurance Design
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Theory
      • Practitioners
      • Empirical
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
  • Human Resources
    • Dentistry, Economics of
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Oral Health
      • Determinants of Dental Demand
      • Determinants of Dental Service Supply
      • Dental Auxiliaries and Other Providers of Oral Health Services
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Income Gap across Physician Specialties in the USA
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Potential Explanations for the Income Gap
      • Concluding Remarks
      • See also
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • Learning by Doing
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Hospital-Level Studies
      • Physician-Level Studies
      • Endogeneity
      • Forgetting
      • Other Forms of Learning
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Market for Professional Nurses in the US
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Key Characteristics of the Registered Nurse Workforce
      • Overview of Factors Affecting the Demand and Supply of Registered Nurses
      • Societal Factors Affecting the Demand for Registered Nurses
      • Organizations’ Demand for Registered Nurses
      • Forecasts of Registered Nurse Demand
      • Factors Affecting the Supply of Registered Nurses
      • Short-Run Supply
      • Long-Run Supply of Registered Nurses
      • Projections of the Long-Run Supply of Registered Nurses
      • Registered Nurse Shortages
      • History of Hospital Registered Nurse Shortages
      • Impact of Recent Recessions on Hospital Registered Nurse Shortages
      • The Future of the Registered Nurse Workforce
      • The Advanced Practice Nurse Workforce
      • Overlap with Physicians
      • Summary
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Medical Malpractice, Defensive Medicine, and Physician Supply
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The US Malpractice System and Physician Supply
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • References
    • Monopsony in Health Labor Markets
      • Abstract
      • Models and Predictions
      • Suggestive Evidence
      • Empirical Studies of Monopsony
      • Discussion
      • Acknowledgment
      • References
    • Nurses' Unions
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Organized Labor in the US Health Care Industry
      • Nurses' Unions and the Labor Market for Nurses
      • Nurses' Unions and Firm Performance
      • Conclusion and Areas for Future Research
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Occupational Licensing in Health Care
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Theories of Occupational Licensing
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Organizational Economics and Physician Practices
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • A Descriptive Overview
      • Agency and Pay for Performance
      • Professional Autonomy versus Integration
      • Coordination, Specialization, and Innovation
      • Prospects for Accountable Care Organizations
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgment
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Physician Labor Supply
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Conceptual Issues
      • Earnings and Labor Supply
      • Competition, Fee Schedules, and Labor Supply
      • Income Targets, Reference Incomes, and Labor Supply
      • Managed Care and Labor Supply
      • Malpractice Liability and Labor Supply
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
    • Physician Market
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Who Are the Patients/Consumers That Physicians Compete Over?
      • Who Competes against Whom?
      • The Competitive Model
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgment
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
  • Markets in Health Care
    • Advertising Health Care: Causes and Consequences
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Economics of Advertising
      • Advertising of Health Care Providers
      • Advertising of Prescription Drugs
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Comparative Performance Evaluation: Quality
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Principal–Agent Problems
      • Problems with Incentive Contracts in Healthcare
      • Information on Quality
      • Comparative Performance Evaluation
      • Benchmarking versus Rank-Order Tournaments
      • The Development of Comparative Performance Evaluation
      • The Advancing Quality Program
      • Concluding Remarks
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Competition on the Hospital Sector
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Issues in Measuring Competition
      • General Evidence on the Relationship between Hospital Competition and Clinical Quality
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Heterogeneity of Hospitals
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • The Basic Inspiration of Prospective Payment Systems
      • Sources of Heterogeneity in Hospital Costs
      • How to Pay for Unobservable Heterogeneity?
      • Technical Appendix: Designing Payments That Allow for Cost Heterogeneity between Hospitals
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Interactions Between Public and Private Providers
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Stylized Facts and Preliminary Insights
      • Theoretical Concerns: Uncertainty and Information
      • Empirical Evidence of Uncertainty and Informational Problems: Who Buys Duplicate Private Health Insurance?
      • Political and Financial Sustainability of a DHPI Health Sector
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Markets in Health Care
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Introducing Market Forces in a NHS
      • Market Regulation
      • Duplicate Systems
      • A Closer Look at the Provision of Goods and Services in Health
      • A Teachers' Guide
      • Concluding Remarks
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Pharmacies
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Challenges and Policy Options
      • Benefits and Risks from Regulating Pharmacies
      • Concluding Remarks
      • Acknowledgment
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Physicians' Simultaneous Practice in the Public and Private Sectors
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction/Background
      • Dual Practice: A Context for Discussion
      • Costs of Dual Practice
      • Benefits of Dual Practice
      • An Overview of Dual Practice Interventions
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Preferred Provider Market
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • The PPOs Market Place
      • Anticompetitive Scrutiny of PPOs
      • Silent PPOs
      • Final Remarks
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Primary Care, Gatekeeping, and Incentives
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Gatekeeping
      • Incentives
      • Selection
      • The Supply of Specialized Care
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Risk Adjustment as Mechanism Design
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Defining Risk Adjustment
      • The Basic Adverse Selection Problem and the Role of Risk Adjustment
      • Multiple Services and Maximizing Fit
      • Application to Managed Competition and Enrollee Premiums
      • Final Comment
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Risk Classification and Health Insurance
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Potential Welfare Effects of Risk Classification
      • The Equity and Efficiency Trade-offs of Risk Classification
      • A Quick-and-Dirty Guide to the Equity–Efficiency Trade-offs
      • Risk Classification and Residual Asymmetric Information in Health Insurance Markets
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Risk Equalization and Risk Adjustment, the European Perspective
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Why Risk Equalization, and How?
      • The European Experience with Risk Equalization: A Historical Perspective
      • Future Perspective of Risk Equalization in Europe
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Specialists
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Allocation of Doctors
      • The Allocation of Patients
      • Specialist Quality and Quantity of Care
      • Empirical Evidence Concerning Specialist Payment Schemes
      • Specialist and Patient Selection
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Switching Costs in Competitive Health Insurance Markets
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Switching Costs
      • Managed Competition in Switzerland: The Regulatory Framework
      • Stylized Facts: The Ineffectiveness of Competition to Date
      • Possible Barriers to Switching Behaviors
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Waiting Times
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Waiting-Time Measures
      • Waiting Times as a Mechanism to Bring the Healthcare Market to an Equilibrium
      • Competition and Choice
      • Waiting Times and the Private Sector
      • Maximum Waiting-Time Guarantees
      • Equity Issues
      • Conclusions
      • Technical Appendix
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
  • Pharmaceutical and Medical Equipment Industries
    • Biopharmaceutical and Medical Equipment Industries, Economics of
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • R&D: Costs, Regulation, and IP
      • Markets for Biopharmaceuticals and Medical Technology
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Biosimilars
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Biosimilar Experience in the European Union
      • The United States Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act
      • Food and Drug Administration Regulations and the Costs of Developing a Biosimilar
      • The Perspectives of Healthcare Payers, Providers, and Patients
      • Biosimilar Competition versus Generic Competition
      • Projected Savings to United States Consumers
      • Innovation Incentives
      • Summary and Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Cross-National Evidence on Use of Radiology
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • United States
      • United Kingdom/England
      • Canada
      • Japan
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
    • Diagnostic Imaging, Economic Issues in
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Role of Diagnostic Imaging in Healthcare Delivery
      • Overview of the Market for Diagnostic Imaging
      • Supply of Equipment: Cost, Location, and Regulation
      • Demand for Imaging: Moral Hazard and Asymmetric Information among Providers and Patients
      • Fee-for-Service Payment and Incentives
      • Economic and Comparative Evaluations of Imaging Appropriateness
      • Imaging Utilization Management Strategies and Appropriateness Tools
      • Trends in US Imaging Spending: Growth and Controls
      • Innovation and Dynamic Efficiency
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Markets with Physician Dispensing
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Potential Conflict of Interest
      • Physician Dispensing in Japan
      • Physician Dispensing in South Korea
      • Physician Dispensing in Taiwan
      • Research Agenda
      • Conclusions and Lessons Learned
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Mergers and Alliances in the Biopharmaceuticals Industry
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Determinants of Mergers, Acquisitions, and Alliances
      • The Effects of Pharmaceutical Mergers and Alliances
      • Policy Issues
      • Summary and Concluding Comments
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Patents and Other Incentives for Pharmaceutical Innovation
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Intellectual Property: Advantages and Disadvantages
      • Alternative Push and Pull Schemes
      • Discussion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Patents and Regulatory Exclusivity in the USA
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Pharmaceutical Patents
      • Regulatory Exclusivity for Drugs
      • Medical Devices
      • Biosimilars
      • Regulatory Exclusivities versus Patents
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Personalized Medicine: Pricing and Reimbursement Policies as a Potential Barrier to Development and Adoption, Economics of
      • Abstract
      • Background: Barriers to Personalized Medicine
      • Economic Incentives for Personalized Medicine Development: A Framework
      • Personalized Medicine Products
      • Personalized Medicine, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis, and Pharmacoeconomics
      • Regulatory and Policy Issues and Implications
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Pharmaceutical Company Strategies and Distribution Systems in Emerging Markets
      • Abstract
      • Background
      • The Unique Characteristics of Emerging Markets
      • Pharmaceutical Distribution Systems in Developed Markets
      • Pharmaceutical Distribution Systems in Emerging Markets
      • Strategy for Emerging Markets
      • Distribution Strategy for Emerging Markets
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Pharmaceutical Marketing and Promotion
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Background
      • Conceptual Framework
      • Empirical Evidence
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
    • Pharmaceutical Parallel Trade: Legal, Policy, and Economic Issues
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Background
      • The Legal Debate
      • Conceptual Frameworks for Evaluating Parallel Trade
      • Determinants of Parallel Trade
      • Parallel Trade and Its Economic Impact
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Regulation in Europe
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Concept of Pricing and Reimbursement in the EU
      • The Process of a Price and Reimbursement Decision in the EU
      • Demand- and Supply-Side Regulation Structure
      • Concluding Remarks
      • See also
      • References
    • Prescription Drug Cost Sharing, Effects of
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Economic Framework
      • Types of Cost Sharing
      • Empirical Evidence on the Effects of Drug Cost Sharing
      • Value-Based Insurance Design
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
    • Pricing and Reimbursement of Biopharmaceuticals and Medical Devices in the USA
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Overview of the Drug Distribution System and Price Levels
      • Why Biopharmaceuticals Markets are Different
      • Reimbursement Rules for Onpatent Brands
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Regulation of Safety, Efficacy, and Quality
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Overview of Pharmaceutical Regulation
      • The European Medicines Agency
      • Evidence about the Effects of Pharmaceutical Regulation
      • Recent Reforms of Food and Drug Administration Regulation
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Research and Development Costs and Productivity in Biopharmaceuticals
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Quantitative Overview
      • The R&D Phases
      • Estimating R&D Cost per Successful New Drug
      • Critiques
      • Reasons for Change
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Vaccine Economics
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Background
      • Demand
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Value of Drugs in Practice
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Elements of Value to Be Included
      • Estimating the Opportunity Cost of Adopting a Technology
      • Making Decisions about Value
      • Using Coverage with Evidence Development Evidence to Handle Uncertainty in Decision-Making
      • Implementation of Technologies Regarded as Good Value
      • Disinvestment from Treatments that are not Good Value
      • Regional Collaboration in the Assessment of and Decision-Making about Value
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
  • Public Health
    • Economic Evaluation of Public Health Interventions: Methodological Challenges
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Healthcare Interventions
      • Methods Challenges for the Economic Evaluation of Public Health Interventions
      • Recent Guidance for the Economic Evaluation of Public Health Interventions
      • Methods Developments in the Economic Evaluation of Public Health Interventions
      • Summary
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Ethics and Social Value Judgments in Public Health
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Justifications for Government Intervention
      • Individual Freedom versus Public Health
      • Distributive Justice in Public Health
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Fetal Origins of Lifetime Health
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Early Evidence
      • Conceptual Framework
      • Empirical Evidence
      • The 1918 Influenza
      • Identification
      • Evidence from Sudden Shocks
      • Longer Natural Experiments
      • Further Issues: Measurements of Fetal Health
      • Further Issues: Bias from Selective Prenatal Mortality
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgement
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Infectious Disease Externalities
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Basic Nature of the Externality
      • Policies to Offset Externalities
      • Need for Persistent Policies
      • Span of the Externality
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Pay for Prevention
      • Introduction
      • Evidence
      • Strengthening the Payment Mechanism
      • Objections
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Preschool Education Programs
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Evidence from Program Evaluations
      • Economic Case for Preschool Investments
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Priority Setting in Public Health
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • The Scope of the Challenge: The Social Determinants of Health
      • How to Encourage Intersectoral Alignment: The Role of Economic Evaluation
      • Translating Evidence into Policy: The Role of Priority Setting Tools
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • Reference
      • Further Reading
    • Public Choice Analysis of Public Health Priority Setting
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Interest Groups
      • Voting Models
      • Bureaucratic Decision Making
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Public Health in Resource Poor Settings
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • What is Distinctive about Low- and Middle-Income Countries?
      • Addressing Public Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
      • Conclusions
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Public Health Profession
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Origins of the Public Health Profession
      • Academic Public Health
      • The Creation of Community Medicine
      • Multidisciplinary Public Health
      • Training in Public Health
      • System Failure
      • The Chief Medical Officer
      • Future Directions
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Public Health: Overview
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • The Nature and Scope of Public Health Intervention
      • Economic Arguments for Government Intervention in Public Health
      • Economic Evaluation in Public Health
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
      • Relevant Websites
    • Unfair Health Inequality
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Pure Health Inequality
      • Socioeconomic Health Inequalities
      • Unfairness and the Causes of Inequality: A General Framework
      • Health and Well-Being
      • See also
      • Further Reading
      • Relevant Websites
    • Ambulance and Patient Transport Services
      • Introduction
      • Taxonomy of Ambulance and Patient Transport Services
      • US Emergency Medical Services
      • Private Provision of Emergency Medical Services
      • Factors Affecting Quality of Care
      • Quality of Care and Health Outcomes
      • Demand for Emergency Medical Services
      • Cost-Effectiveness/Cost–Benefit Analyses
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Cost Function Estimates
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • The Economic Cost Function: Foundations
      • Approaches to Cost Function Estimation
      • Challenges in Cost Function Estimation
      • Useful Constructs
      • Functional Form of the Cost Function
      • Some Applications
      • Stochastic Frontier Cost Function Estimation: Measuring Inefficiency
      • Further Reading
    • Healthcare Safety Net in the US
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Special Needs of Lower Income Populations
      • Challenges to Providers
      • Precarious Future
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Home Health Services, Economics of
      • Introduction
      • Home Health Care Industry
      • Reimbursement under Medicare
      • The Nature of Competition
      • Nature, Roles, and Impacts of Regulation
      • The Role of Integration
      • The Use of Technology in Home Health Care
      • The Nature, Role, and Impact of Quality Initiatives in Home Health Care
      • Acknowledgements
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Long-Term Care
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Who Needs Long-Term Care?
      • Who Provides Long-Term Care?
      • Who Pays for Long-Term Care?
      • Government Regulation of Long-Term Care
      • Key Economic Questions in Long-Term Care
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Production Functions for Medical Services
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Introduction: Distinction between Production Functions for Medical Care versus Production Functions for Health
      • Hospital Production Functions
      • Functional Forms
      • Interpretation of Production Function Estimates
      • Stochastic Frontier Estimation and Data Envelopment Analysis
      • Multiproduct Adjustments
      • Specific Applications: Specialty Care
      • Conclusion
      • See also
      • Further Reading
    • Understanding Medical Tourism
      • Abstract
      • Glossary
      • Growth of Medical Tourism
      • Medical Tourism through a Systems Thinking Perspective
      • Economic Drivers of Medical Tourism
      • Health Policy Issues in Medical Tourism
      • The Future of Medical Tourism
      • See also
      • Further Reading
  • Index
  • Author Index

Details

No. of pages:
1664
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780123756794
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123756787

About the Editor-in-Chief

A J. Culyer

A J. Culyer

Tony Culyer is Ontario Research Professor of Health Policy & System Design in the faculty of Medicine at the University of Toronto (Canada) and a professor of economics at the University of York (England). He is a founding father of health economics. He was founding co-editor of the Journal of Health Economics and the founding Organiser of the (UK) Health Economists’ Study Group, the first of its kind anywhere). He was, from its creation in 1999 until 2003, Vice Chair of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and is chair of NICE International’s Advisory Committee. He has been a member of or chaired many UK National Health Service committees (especially those to do with research) and trusts and was responsible for the 1994 report that led to the redesign of the NHS's system for supporting R&D. He is chair of the Office of Health Economics in London (England). For many years he was chair of the Department of Economics & Related Studies at the University of York (England) and, for six of them, was also deputy vice-chancellor of the university, with special responsibility for the University’s research infrastructure and performance. He is currently Editor-in-Chief of a new on-line Encyclopaedia of Health Economics.

His Canadian connections include having been Chief Scientist at the Institute for Work & Health in Toronto and chair of the Toronto-based Workplace Safety & Insurance Board’s Research Advisory Council. He is a board member of the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) and has served on several Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care committees. Dr Culyer has published around 300 articles in various books and scholarly journals and he has written or edited 33 books. A collection of his essays, called The Humble Economist, edited by Karl Claxton and Richard Cookson, was published in 2012 (University of York & Office of Health Economics) and is now available on-line free of charge.

He is a founding Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences. His honours include Commander of the British Empire, Hon DEcon (Stockholm School of Economics) and Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of London.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of York, York, UK

Reviews

The ...volumes have many strengths. They will be comprehensive, up to date, and linked to web sites with additional information. The papers to be included will be readable and therefore accessible to a wide audience. The plans to have more than one paper on the same subject and to include all schools of thought are especially appealing. The volume has in my view no weaknesses. --Michael Grossman, National Bureau of Economic Research, USA

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