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Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121451608, 9780080548012

Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences

1st Edition

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Editors: Julian Evans John Youngquist
Editor in Chief: Jeffery Burley
Hardcover ISBN: 9780121451608
eBook ISBN: 9780080548012
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 2nd April 2004
Page Count: 2400
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A combination of broad disciplinary coverage and scientific excellence, the Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences will be an indispensable addition to the library of anyone interested in forests, forestry and forest sciences. Packed with valuable insights from experts all over the world, this remarkable set not only summarizes recent advances in forest science techniques, but also thoroughly covers the basic information vital to comprehensive understanding of the important elements of forestry.

The Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences also covers relevant biology and ecology, different types of forestry (e.g. tropical forestry and dryland forestry), scientific names of trees and shrubs, and the applied, economic, and social aspects of forest management. Valuable key features further enhance the utility of this Encyclopedia as an exceptional reference tool.

Also available online via ScienceDirect – featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit

Key Features

  • Edited and written by a distinguished group of editors and contributors
  • Well-organized encyclopedic format provides concise, readable entries, easy searches, and thorough cross-references
  • Illustrative tables, figures, and photographs in every entry, produced in full color
  • Comprehensive glossary defines new and important terms
  • Complete, up-to-date coverage of over 60 areas of forest sciences - sure to be of interest to scientists, students, and professionals alike!
  • Editor-in-Chief is the past president of the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, the oldest international collaborative forestry research organization with over 15,000 scientists from 100 countries


Researchers, scientists and professionals in forestry, the forestry industry, and related fields

Table of Contents

Aquatic Habitats in Forest Ecosystems
Biological Impacts of Deforestation and Fragmentation
Breeding and Genetic Resources of Scots Pine
Breeding Theory and Genetic Testing
Causes of Deforestation and Forest Fragmentation
Conifer Breeding and Genetic Resources
Cytogenetics of Forest Tree Species
Disease and Pest Resistance Breeding
Economic Returns from Tree Breeding
Endangered Species of Trees
Entomology: Bark Beetles
Entomology: Foliage Feeders
Entomology: Sapsuckers
Eucalyptus Improvement and Culture
Forest Canopies
Forest Ecosystems: Acacias
Forest Ecosystems: Alders, Birches and Willows
Forest Ecosystems: Bamboos, Palms and Rattans (Arecaceae and Poaceae)
Forest Ecosystems: Bombacaceae
Forest Ecosystems: Combretaceae
Forest Ecosystems: Dipterocarps
Forest Ecosystems: Eucalypts
Forest Ecosystems: Fagaceae (Oaks, Beeches, Hickories and Nothofagus)
Forest Ecosystems: Ficus spp. (and other important Moraceae)
Forest Ecosystems: Juglandaceae (Hickories)
Forest Ecosystems: Lauraceae
Forest Ecosystems: Lecythidaceae
Forest Ecosystems: Mangroves
Forest Ecosystems: Myristicaceae
Forest Ecosystems: Pines
Forest Ecosystems: Poplars
Forest Ecosystems: Southern Hemisphere Conifers
Forest Ecosystems: Spruces, Firs and Larches
Forest Ecosystems: Swietenia (American mahogany)
Forest Ecosystems: Swietenia (American mahogany)
Forest Ecosystems: Teak and Related Verbenaceae
Forest Ecosystems: Woody Legumes (excluding Acacias)
Forest Environment: Carbon Cycle
Forest Environment: Environmental Impacts
Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding: Current and Future Signposts
Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding: Quantitative Genetic Principles
Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding Overview: History
Forest Health: Biochemical and Physiological Aspects
Forest Health: Diagnosis, Monitoring and Evaluation
Forest Landscape: Cultural Values and Perceptions of Forests by Indigenous Communities
Forest Landscape: Perceptions of Forest Landscapes
Forest Landscape: Visual Analysis of Forest Landscapes
Forest Landscape: Visual Resource Management Approaches
Forest Management for Conservation
Forest Operations: Ergonomics
Forest Operations: Forest Operations in the Tropics/Reduced Impact Logging
Forest Operations: Forest Operations Management
Forest Operations: Forest Operations under Mountainous Conditions
Forest Operations: Harvesting of Thinnings
Forest Operations: Logistics in Forest Operations
Forest Operations: Nursery Operations
Forest Operations: Roading and Transport Operations
Forest Operations: Small-scale Forestry
Forest Operations: Wood Delivery
Forest Pathology: Diseases of Forest Trees
Forest Pathology: Heart Rot and Wood Decay
Forest Pathology: Insect Associated Diseases
Forest Pathology: Leaf and Needle Diseases
Forest Pathology: Phytophthora Root Rot of Forest Trees
Forest Pathology: Pine Wilt and the Pine Wood Nematode
Forest Pathology: Root and Butt Rot Diseases
Forest Pathology: Rust Diseases
Forest Pathology: Stem Canker Diseases
Forest Pathology: Tree Disease in Exotic Plantation Industry
Forest Pathology: Vascular Wilt Diseases
Forest Planning and Design: Forest Amenity Planning Approaches
Forest Planning and Design: Public Participation in Community Forestry in the Tropics
Forest Planning and Design: The Role of Visualisation in Forest Planning
Forest Plant Diversity
Forest Products: Adhesion and Adhesives
Forest Products: Biological Deterioration of Wood
Forest Products: Biological Improvement of Wood Properties
Forest Products: Chemical Modification of Wood
Forest Products: Chemical Properties of Wood
Forest Products: Chemicals from Wood
Forest Products: Dendrochronology
Forest Products: Dendrochronology
Forest Products: Effect of Growth Conditions on Wood Properties
Forest Products: Energy from Wood
Forest Products: Environmental Aspects of Using Wood Compared to Other Building Materials
Forest Products: Formation and Structure of Wood
Forest Products: Glued Structural Members
Forest Products: International Trade in Wood Products
Forest Products: Lumber Production, Properties and Uses
Forest Products: Mechanical Properties of Wood
Forest Products: Physical Properties of Wood
Forest Products: Protection of Wood against Biodeterioration
Forest Products: Protection of Wood from Fire
Forest Products: Solid Wood Recycling and Recycled Products
Forest Products: Structural Use of Wood
Forest Products: Timbers, Poles and Ties
Forest Products: Wood Drying
Forest Products: Wood Finishing
Forest Products: Wood Machining
Forest Products: Wood-based Composites and Panel Products
Forest Recreation: Inventory, Monitoring and Management - Concepts, Approaches and Methods
Forest Recreation: User Needs and Preferences
Forests, Tree Physiology and Climate
Genecological/Adaptational Genetics
Genetic Aspects of Air Pollution and Climate Change
Genetic Systems of Forest Trees
Genetics and Improvement of Wood Properties
Genetics of Pinus Radiata
History: History and Overview of Wood Use
History: Paper and Papermaking
Human Influences on Forest Wildlife
Hydrology: Forest Hydrological Cycle
Hydrology: Forests and Snow and Avalanche Control
Hydrology: Forests and Soil Erosion Control
Hydrology: Forests and Streamflow
Hydrology: Forests and Water Quality
Hydrology: Hydrological Impacts of Forest Management
Hydrology: Hydrology of Forest Plantations
Impacts of Air Pollution on Forest Ecosystems
Impacts of Elevated CO2 and Climate Change on Forest Systems
Integrated Pest Management: Practical Implementation in Temperate and Tropical Forests
Integrated Pest Management: Principles in Temperate and Tropical Forests
Inventory: Biodiversity in Forests
Inventory: Biometric Research
Inventory: Design, Performance and Evaluation of Experiments
Inventory: Forest Change
Inventory: Forest Inventory and Monitoring
Inventory: Forest Measurements
Inventory: Forest Resources
Inventory: GIS and Remote Sensing
Inventory: Large-scale Forest Inventory and Scenario Modeling
Inventory: Mensuration - Growth and Yield
Inventory: Modeling
Inventory: Multipurpose Resource Inventories
Inventory: Non-timber Forest Resources and Products
Inventory: Regional and Global Forest Resource Assessments
Inventory: Regional and Global Forest Resource Assessments
Inventory: Spatial Information
Inventory: Stand Inventories
Inventory: Statistical Methods (Mathematics and Computers)
Inventory: Timber and Tree Measurements
Inventory: Yield Tables, Forecasting, Modelling and Simulation
Landscape Ecology - Use and Application in Forestry
Landscape Ecology the Concepts
Molecular Biology of Forest Trees
Natural Disturbance in Forest Environments
Nitrogen-fixing Tree Improvement and Culture
Non-wood Forest Products: Bamboos and their Role in Ecosystem Rehabilitation
Non-wood Forest Products: Cork Oak
Non-wood Forest Products: Edible Products from the Forest
Non-wood Forest Products: Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Bioprospecting and Biopartnership
Non-wood Forest Products: Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Ethnobotany and Conservation Status
Non-wood Forest Products: Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Good Sourcing and Manufacturing Practices
Non-wood Forest Products: Medicinal Plants and Human Health
Non-wood Forest Products: Paper Raw Materials and Paper Technology
Non-wood Forest Products: Resin, Latex and Palm Oil
Non-wood Forest Products: Rubber Trees
Non-wood Forest Products: Seasonal Greenery
Non-wood Forest Products: Traditional Chinese Medicine System and Associated Medicinal Plants
Non-wood Forest Products: Tribal Medicine and Medicinal Plant-based Knowledge
Oak Breeding and Genetic Resources
Plant-Animal Interactions in Forest Ecosystems
Poplar and Willow Genetics and Breeding
Population Dynamics of Forest Insects
Population, Conservation and Ecological Genetics
Propagation Technology for Forest Trees
Pulp and Paper: Bleaching of Pulp
Pulp and Paper: Chemical Additives
Pulp and Paper: Chemical Pulping
Pulp and Paper: Chip Preparation
Pulp and Paper: Coating
Pulp and Paper: Environmental Control
Pulp and Paper: Fiber Resources
Pulp and Paper: Mechanical Pulping
Pulp and Paper: New Technology
Pulp and Paper: Packaging Grades
Pulp and Paper: Paper Grades
Pulp and Paper: Paper Recycling Science and Technology
Pulp and Paper: Paper Recycling Science and Technology
Pulp and Paper: Paperboard Grades
Pulp and Paper: Papermaking
Pulp and Paper: Physical Properties
Pulp and Paper: Printing
Pulp and Paper: Tissue Grades
Pulp and Paper: World Industry Overview
Regional Forest Types: Mediteranean Forest Ecosystems
Regional Forest Types: Monsoon Forests (Southern and Southeast Asia)
Regional Forest Types: Northern Coniferous Forests
Regional Forest Types: Southern Coniferous Forests
Regional Forest Types: Subalpine and Boreal Forests
Regional Forest Types: Temperate Broadleaved Deciduous Forests
Regional Forest Types: Tropical Dry Forests
Regional Forest Types: Tropical Dry Forests
Regional Forest Types: Tropical Moist Forests
Regional Forest Types: Tropical Montane Forests
Reproductive Ecology of Forest Trees
Silviculture: Coppicing
Silviculture: Ecology and Silviculture of Tropical Wetland Forests
Silviculture: Forest Dynamics
Silviculture: Forest Fires (Prediction, Prevention, Preparedness and Suppression)
Silviculture: Forest Plantations
Silviculture: Forest Rehabilitation
Silviculture: Ground Preparation
Silviculture: High Pruning
Silviculture: Managing for Tropical Non-timber Forest Products
Silviculture: Multiple-use Silviculture
Silviculture: Natural Regeneration of Tropical Rain Forests
Silviculture: Natural Stand Regeneration
Silviculture: Reclamation of Mining Lands
Silviculture: Rotations
Silviculture: Short Rotation Forestry for Biomass Production
Silviculture: Silvicultural Systems
Silviculture: Silviculture in Mountain Forests
Silviculture: Species Choice
Silviculture: Stand Density and Stocking in Plantations
Silviculture: Stand Establishment, Treatment and Promotion
Silviculture: Sustainability of Forest Plantations
Silviculture: Tending
Silviculture: Tropical Silviculture
Silviculture: Unevenaged Silviculture
Silviculture: Windbreaks and Shelterbelts
Silviculture and Management in Arid and Semi-arid Regions
Silviculture in Polluted Areas
Social Forestry: Collaborative Management between Forest Industries and Local Communities
Social Forestry: Common Property Forest Management
Social Forestry: Forest and Tree Tenure and Ownership
Social Forestry: Forest Functions
Social Forestry: Forest Values
Social Forestry: Joint and Collaborative Forest Management
Social Forestry: Social and Community Forestry
Soils and Site: Forests and Soil Development
Soils and Site: Landscape and Soil Classification for Forest Management
Soils and Site: Nutrient Cycling
Soils and Site: Nutrient Limitations and Fertilization
Soils and Site: Soil and its Relationship to Forest Productivity and Health
Soils and Site: Soil Biology
Soils and Site: Soil Contamination and Amelioration
Soils and Site: Soil Organic Matter
Soils and Site: The Forest Floor
Soils and Site: Tree Roots and their Interaction with Soil
Soils and Site: Waste Utilization and Treatment
Soils and Site: Water Storage and Movement
Southern Pine Breeding and Genetic Resources
Sustainable Forest Management
Sustainable Forest Management: Certification
Tree Physiology: A Whole Tree Perspective
Tree Physiology: Canopy Processes
Tree Physiology: Mycorrhizae
Tree Physiology: Nutrition
Tree Physiology: Physiology
Tree Physiology: Physiology of Sexual Reproduction in Trees
Tree Physiology: Physiology of Vegetative Reproduction
Tree Physiology: Root System Physiology
Tree Physiology: Seed Physiology
Tree Physiology: Shoot Growth and Canopy Development
Tree Physiology: Stress
Tree Physiology: Xylem Physiology
Tropical Hardwoods Breeding and Genetic Resources
Tropical Pines Breeding and Genetic Resources
Urban Forestry


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2005
2nd April 2004
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Editors

Julian Evans

Professor Julian Evans OBE is on the staff of Imperial College London where he convenes a Masters degree in Forest Protection and Conservation. His main research interest is the sustainability of forest plantations, in particular sub-tropical pine plantations in Swaziland, Africa.

Julian was formerly the British Forestry Commission’s Chief Research Officer (South) in charge of the Alice Holt Research Station. Research interest in UK focused on silviculture of broadleaved woodland, cold-hardy eucalypts, and tree nutrition.

Julian is author of about 130 scientific articles and papers and 12 books including Plantation Forestry in the Tropics Oxford, 3e 2004. He is vice-president of the Commonwealth Forestry Association, an honorary member of the Society of American Foresters, and has chaired UNFF intersessional meetings on forest plantations.

Julian owns, manages and also writes about his own 12 ha woodland. He is on the board of the international relief and development agency, Tearfund, and was appointed OBE in 1997 for ‘services to forestry and the third world’.

Affiliations and Expertise

Imperial College London, UK

John Youngquist

John A. Youngquist, P.E. Born in 1939 in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Education: B.S. Chemical Engineering, University of Wisconsin at Madison, 1962. Professional Engineering Registration, Wisconsin 1965. Law, 40 semester hours, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1965. Statistics and advanced calculus, 20 semester hours, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1967. Business Management, 20 semester hours, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1977. Professional Positions: Ray-O-Vac Corporation; Technical Manager, Quality Control Manager, and Assistant Plant Manager (1967-1975). Research Project Leader, Forest Products Laboratory, 1975 through 1999. Recipient: USDA Superior Service Awards, 1982, 1995, 1996, 1998, 2001; Outstanding Federal Supervisor of the Year, 1991; USDA Forest Service Engineering Manager of the Year, 1993; USDA Forest Service Chief’s Award for Technology Transfer, 1999. Certificates of Merit, Forest Products Laboratory, 1985 through 1997. Distinguished Service Award - International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO), 2004. Elected: Deputy Coordinator and Coordinator of IUFRO Division 5 on Forest Products; IUFRO Board of Directors (1990-2000); IUFRO Chair of Honors and Awards Committee (1997-2000), IUFRO Chair of Finance Committee (1997-2000); Vice President, President-elect and President of the Forest Products Society (1993-1996); Fellow, International Academy of Wood Science, (1996 and continuing). Appointed: Editorial Boards of Journal of Tropical Forest Science (1992-1995), Journal of Tropical Forest Products (1995 and continuing, Drvna Industrija Journal (1994 and continuing, CAB Abstracts (1997-2000). Patents: Six granted. Professional Registration: Professional Engineer, State of Wisconsin, USA. Publications Authored: A total of 120, and continuing. Youngqu

Affiliations and Expertise

Forest Products Consultant, retired from USDA Forest Products Laboratory, Wisconsin, USA

About the Editor in Chief

Jeffery Burley

Jeff Burley took an honours degree in Forestry at Oxford (1961) and an MF (1962) and PhD (1965) at Yale where his thesis concerned the genetic variation of Sitka spruce. He then headed the Forest Genetics Research Laboratory of the Agricultural Research Council of Central Africa for four years, living in Zambia and working also in Malawi and Zimbabwe. He returned to Oxford in 1969 and held three successive posts in Oxford University - Senior Research Officer for Forest Genetics and Tree Improvement; Lecturer in Wood Structure and Properties; Director, Oxford Forestry Institute and Professor of Forestry. Variously in these roles he provided education, research, advice and information plus actual consultancies to many countries and agencies throughout the world.

From 1995 - 2000 he was the President of the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations and is now Immediate Past-President; from July 2002 to February 2005 he was chairman of the Commonwealth Forestry Association. He was also Chairman of the British and Irish Hardwoods Improvement Programme from 1999 to 2004. For many years he was Director-at-Large of the International Society of Tropical Foresters. In 1991 he was presented with the CBE (Commander of the British Empire) by the Queen of England for services to international forestry. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Society of American Foresters and of the UK Institute of Chartered Foresters, Honorary Research Professor at the Chinese Academy of Forestry, and Foreign Corresponding Member of the Swedish and Italian Academies. Since 1994 he has been a member (and since 1998 the Chairman) of the Marcus Wallenberg Prize Selection Committee.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director-Emeritus, Oxford Forestry Institute, Oxford University, UK


"...provides an excellent summary of current ideas and practice...This encyclopedia does the job triumphantly. If you are at all involved with trees, you should have a copy." --Colin Tudge, Nature Magazine, September 2004

"Timely and unique, this contribution to the literature of forest sciences is the first encyclopedia to provide global coverage of forestry-related subjects that affect politics, the environment, economics, and science...The coverage is extraordinarily extensive…an outstanding work....Highly recommended." --N. Kobzina, University of California Berkeley, 2004

" outstanding work. ...Highly recommended." --CHOICE, 2004

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