Encyclopedia of Food Safety - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123786128, 9780123786135

Encyclopedia of Food Safety

1st Edition

Editor-in-Chiefs: Yasmine Motarjemi
eBook ISBN: 9780123786135
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123786128
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 27th December 2013
Page Count: 2304
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Description

With the world’s growing population, the provision of a safe, nutritious and wholesome food supply for all has become a major challenge. To achieve this, effective risk management based on sound science and unbiased information is required by all stakeholders, including the food industry, governments and consumers themselves. In addition, the globalization of the food supply requires the harmonization of policies and standards based on a common understanding of food safety among authorities in countries around the world. With some 280 chapters, the Encyclopedia of Food Safety provides unbiased and concise overviews which form in total a comprehensive coverage of a broad range of food safety topics, which may be grouped under the following general categories: History and basic sciences that support food safety; Foodborne diseases, including surveillance and investigation; Foodborne hazards, including microbiological and chemical agents; Substances added to food, both directly and indirectly; Food technologies, including the latest developments; Food commodities, including their potential hazards and controls; Food safety management systems, including their elements and the roles of stakeholders. The Encyclopedia provides a platform for experts from the field of food safety and related fields, such as nutrition, food science and technology and environment to share and learn from state-of-the art expertise with the rest of the food safety community.

Key Features

  • Assembled with the objective of facilitating the work of those working in the field of food safety and related fields, such as nutrition, food science and technology and environment - this work covers the entire spectrum of food safety topics into one comprehensive reference work
  • The Editors have made every effort to ensure that this work meets strict quality and pedagogical thresholds such as: contributions by the foremost authorities in their fields; unbiased and concise overviews on a multitude of food safety subjects; references for further information, and specialized and general definitions for food safety terminology
  • In maintaining confidence in the safety of the food supply, sound scientific information is key to effectively and efficiently assessing, managing and communicating on food safety risks. Yet, professionals and other specialists working in this multidisciplinary field are finding it increasingly difficult to keep up with developments outside their immediate areas of expertise. This single source of concise, reliable and authoritative information on food safety has, more than ever, become a necessity

Readership

The Encyclopedia will be useful for professionals and other specialists working in, but not limited to, the following institutions:  Regulatory and Enforcement Agencies; Food Industry; Trade and Industry Organizations; Audit and Certification Bodies; Academic Institutions; Private and Governmental Scientific and Research Institutions; and International and Non-Governmental Organizations with an interest in food.

Table of Contents

Preface

Dedication

Foreword I

Foreword II

Further Reading

Editor-in-Chief

Co-Editors Biography

Editorial Advisory Board

Abbreviations of Technical Terms

Abbreviation of Selected Organizations Involved in Food Safety

Volume 1: History, Science and Methods

 

History of Food Safety and Related Sciences

History of Food Safety and Related Sciences: History of Foodborne Disease – Part I – Ancient History

Abstract

Glossary

Prehistory

The Biblical Period

See also

Further Reading

History of Food Safety and Related Sciences: History of Foodborne Disease – Part II – The Greek and Roman Periods (1200 BCE–CE 500)

Abstract

Glossary

Not-so-Funny Honey

Lead Adrift

Middle Ages (CE 500–1500)

St. Anthony's Fire

See also

Further Reading

History of Food Safety and Related Sciences: History of Foodborne Disease – Part III – The Renaissance and the Enlightenment (CE 1300–1750)

Abstract

Glossary

The Constant Menace of Mold

Royal Parasites

Part V: The Industrial Revolution (CE 1750–1900)

See also

Further Reading

History of Food Safety and Related Sciences: History of Foodborne Disease – Part IV – Modern Times (CE 1900–Present Day)

Abstract

Glossary

Mercury in Minamata

Tainted Oil in Spain

The Birth of a Beast

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

History of Food Safety and Related Sciences: History of Foodborne Disease in Asia – Examples from China, India, and Japan

Abstract

Introduction

Food Safety in Chinese Mythology

Food Safety in Ancient Times

Food Safety in Asia in Modern Times

Food Safety Legislation in Modern Times

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

See also

Further Reading

Disciplines Associated with Food Safety

Disciplines Associated with Food Safety: Food Microbiology

Abstract

Introduction

The Advent of Food Microbiology

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Disciplines Associated with Food Safety: Parasitology

Abstract

Glossary

Historical Perspectives and Introduction

Transition Parasite Ecology

Modern Quantitative Ecology

Nonquantitative Contributions

Food Webs and Trophic Dynamics

See also

Further Reading

Disciplines Associated with Food Safety: Food Virology

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

The History of Food Virology

HuNoV

HAV

Rotaviruses

Emerging Foodborne Viruses

Epidemiological Surveillance and Burden of Disease

Control of Foodborne Viruses

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Disciplines Associated with Food Safety: Epidemiology

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Disease Transmission

Measures of Disease Occurrence

Measures of Excess Risk

Types of Epidemiologic Studies

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Disciplines Associated with Food Safety: Food Safety Toxicology

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Classification of the Main Groups of Foodborne Toxicants

Analytical Methods and Development of Specifications

Toxicological Preclinical and Clinical Studies

Dose–Response Assessment

Derivation of Health-Based Guidance Values

Assessment of Exposure to Foodborne Toxicants

Characterization of Risk

Principles Related to Specific Groups of Substances

Interactions of Toxic Substances

Conclusions

Further Reading

Risk Analysis

Risk Analysis: Risk Analysis of Hazards in Food: An Overview

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Background

Risk Analysis Process

Risk Assessment

Risk Management

Risk Communication

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Risk Analysis: Risk Assessment: Principles, Methods, and Applications

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Risk

Risk Assessment

Risk Assessment Principles

Defining Risk Assessment

Hazard Identification

Hazard Characterization

Exposure Assessment

Risk Characterization

Roles and Responsibilities in Risk Assessment

Qualitative and Quantitative Assessments

Uncertainty and Variability

Sensitivity Analysis

Risk Assessment Applications

Safety Assessment

Linking Risk Assessment to Food Safety Management

Who Does Risk Assessment?

See also

Relevant Websites

Risk Analysis: Estimating the Burden of Foodborne Disease

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Burden of Disease Metrics

Methodological Choices Particular to Estimation of Foodborne Burden of Disease

Global Burden of Disease

Global Burden of Foodborne Disease

National Burden of Microbial Foodborne Disease Studies

National Burden of Chemical Foodborne Disease Studies

Future Challenges

See also

Further Reading

Risk Analysis: Risk Assessment: Microbiological Hazards

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Risks and Hazards

Risk Assessment Within the Risk Analysis Paradigm

Principles of MFSRA

Codex Principles and Guidelines for the Conduct of Microbiological Risk Assessment

Hazard Identification

Exposure Assessment

Hazard Characterization

Risk Characterization

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Risk Analysis: Risk Assessment: Chemical Hazards

Introduction

Risk Assessment and Risk Management Interface

Hazard Identification

Hazard Characterization

Exposure Assessment

Risk Characterization

See also

Further Reading

Risk Analysis: Risk Management: Application to Chemical Hazards

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Chemical Hazards in Food

Generic Framework for Food Safety Risk Management

Step 1: Preliminary Risk Management Activities

Step 2: Identification and Selection of Risk Management Options

Step 3: Implementation of Risk Management Options

Step 4: Monitoring and Review

See also

Further Reading

Risk Analysis: Risk Management: Application to Biological Hazards

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Background

Definition and Concept

General Principles for Microbiological Risk Management

Public Health Goals

Managing the Risk Management Process

Microbiological Risk Management Metrics

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Risk Analysis: Risk Communication

Abstract

Glossary

The Historical Background of Risk Communication and Food Safety

Risk Perception and Communication

Future Research Needs

See also

Further Reading

Risk Analysis: Risk Communication: Chemical Hazards

Abstract

Glossary

Chemical Contamination in the Context of Food Risk Communication

The Concept of Risk Communication in Food Safety

Attributes of Chemical Hazards that Increase Concern

Multidimensionality of People's Risk Concerns

The Pronounced Role of Trust in Chemical Risk Management

Need for Further Research

See also

Further Reading

Risk Analysis: Risk Communication: Biological Hazards

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Risk Communication as an Integral Part of Risk Analysis

Risk Communication in the Context of Health Education

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Risk Analysis: Risk Communication: Novel Foods and Novel Technologies

Abstract

Glossary

Distinctive Challenges Presented by Novel Technologies and Food

The Importance of Understanding Risk Perception

Basics of Risk Communication

Common Errors of Risk Communication

How does this Apply to Novel Foods?

Conclusion: What does the Public Need to Know?

See also

Further Reading

Risk Analysis: Risk Communication: Diet, Nutrition, and Health

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Consumer Awareness and Motivation to Process Information

Potential Misinterpretations of Communication about Risks, Health, and Nutrition

Consumer Trust in Information

Changing Consumer Behavior in a Desired Direction

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Risk Analysis: Food Safety Training and Health Education: Principles and Methods

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Understanding Food Safety Behavior

Training and Commercial Food Handlers

Health Education

Further Reading

Analytical Methods

Analytical Methods: Overview of Methods of Analysis for Chemical Hazards

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Sampling

Screening Methods (Field Tests)

Screening Methods

Instrumental Methods

Method Validation

Method Performance Characteristics

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Analytical Methods: Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Diagnosis

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Clinical Diagnosis

Bioassay

Histology

Immunohistochemistry

Western Immunoblotting

ELISA

Lateral Flow Immunochromatography

Rapid BSE Tests as Screening Tools

Validation of Rapid BSE Screening Tests

Field Applications of Rapid BSE Tests

Diagnosis of Atypical BSE Cases

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Hazards and Diseases

Characteristics of Foodborne Hazard and Diseases

Characteristics of Foodborne Hazard and Diseases: Pathogenesis and Virulence

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Resistance to Acidic Conditions

Type III Secretion Systems

Flagellar Motility

Manipulation of the Intestinal Barrier

Survival within Vacuoles

Escape from the Phagosome

Actin-Based Movement and Actin Remodeling

Inhibition of Ribosomes

Synaptic Inhibition

N- and O-Glycosylation

Manipulation of the Host Immune Response

Epigenetic Modifications

Neurotoxicity Caused by Insoluble Proteinaceous Aggregates

See also

Further Reading

Characteristics of Foodborne Hazard and Diseases: Microbial Stress Response

Abstract

Glossary

Food-Related Stresses

Culture Production

Bacterial Stress Response

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Characteristics of Foodborne Hazard and Diseases: Sublethally Injured and Viable but Nonculturable Cells

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Properties of Sublethally Injured Cells

Resuscitation and Repair of Injury

Screening for the Presence or Absence of Pathogens

Enumeration Using the Most Probable Number Method

Enumeration Using Selective Agar Media

Preventing Death of Injured Cells from Oxidative Stress During Recovery Procedures

Viable but Nonculturable Cells

Resuscitation of Viable but Nonculturable Cells

Virulence of Viable but Nonculturable Cells

Resistance of Viable but Nonculturable Cells

Nature of the Viable but Nonculturable Condition

Spore Injury

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Characteristics of Foodborne Hazard and Diseases: Drug Resistant Pathogens

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Epidemiology of Major Foodborne Pathogens in Commercial Food

Resistant Foodborne Pathogens may Cause Intestinal and Extraintestinal Disease

Antibiotics and the Selection of Resistant Pathogens on Farms

Additional Routes to Contaminate the Food Chain

Resistant Bacteria in the Kitchen and the Potential for Cross-Contamination

Interactions Between Ecosystems: The Farm and Beyond

See also

Further Reading

Characteristics of Foodborne Hazard and Diseases: Cost of Foodborne Diseases

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Individual, Industry, and Public Sector Costs of Foodborne Disease

Why is it Important to Estimate the Costs and Burden of Foodborne Disease?

Estimation Challenges for Foodborne Disease

Valuation Methods

Examples of the Economic Costs and Burden of Foodborne Disease

Looking Ahead

See also

Further Reading

Characteristics of Foodborne Hazard and Diseases: International Classification of Diseases

Abstract

Introduction

History

Content

Structure

Maintenance

Implementation

Modifications and Adaptations

ICD and Foodborne Diseases (FBDs)

ICD-11

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Foodborne Diseases

Foodborne Diseases: Overview of Biological Hazards and Foodborne Diseases

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Epidemics and Pandemics

The Burden of Foodborne Disease

Bacteria

Viruses

Parasites

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) Including Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)

Chronic Effects of Foodborne Disease Infections

See also

Further Reading

Foodborne Diseases: Overview of Chemical, Physical, and Other Significant Hazards

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Chemical Hazards

Environmental Contaminants

Biological Toxins

Physical Hazards

Miscellaneous Hazards

See also

Further Reading

Foodborne Diseases: Overview of Emerging Food Technologies

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Genetically Modified Organisms

Animal cloning

High-Pressure Processing

Modified Atmosphere Packaging

Food Irradiation

Membrane Filtration

Ohmic Heat Processing

Pulsed Electric Field Pasteurization

Pulsed Light

Microwave Technology

Sous Vide

Nanotechnology

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Foodborne Diseases: Prevalence of Foodborne Diseases in Africa

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Bacteria

Parasites

Viruses

Mycotoxins

Street Foods

Conclusion

See also

References

Further Reading

Foodborne Diseases: Prevalence of Foodborne Diseases in North America

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Information on Foodborne Diseases

Burden of Disease

National Trends

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Foodborne Diseases: Prevalence of Foodborne Diseases in South East and Central Asia

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

South East Asia

Central Asia

See also

Further Reading

Foodborne Diseases: Prevalence of Foodborne Diseases in Australia and New Zealand

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Description of Surveillance Systems

Diseases due to Foodborne Pathogens in Australia and New Zealand

Other Foodborne Diseases

Gastroenteritis in Australia and New Zealand

Attribution

Policy Implications

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

See also

Further Reading

Foodborne Diseases: Prevalence of Foodborne Diseases in Europe

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

The Prevalence of Foodborne Disease in Europe: The Official Estimates

Burden of Acute Gastroenteritis

Burden of Food-Related Illness

Food-Related Illness by Food Commodity

Investigating the Unknown

Conclusion

See also

References

Further Reading

Foodborne Diseases: Prevalence of Foodborne Diseases in Western Pacific Region

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

General

Country Specific

See also

Further Reading

Foodborne Diseases: Foodborne Diseases and Vulnerable Groups

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Age-Related Physical or Physiological Susceptibility

Diseases and Therapeutics Generating Long-Term or Permanent Immunosuppression

Prevention of Foodborne Disease in Vulnerable Populations

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Foodborne Diseases: Foodborne Diseases in Travelers

Abstract

Glossary

Epidemiology

Clinical Picture and Impact

Etiology

Prevention

Therapeutic Options

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria

Bacteria: Acinetobacter

Abstract

History, Background, and Taxonomy

Epidemiology and Habitat

Clinical Profile of Acinetobacter Infections

Therapeutic Problems

Pathogenesis and Virulence Factors

Sources and Food Origins of Acinetobacter spp. Relation with Human Contamination

Other Aspects in Relation to Food and Other Conditions

Acinetobacter Metabolism

Beneficial Aspects of Acinetobacter

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Aeromonas

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

The Pathogen

Clinical Presentation

Importance as Food Pathogen

Prevention and Control

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Arcobacter

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics of the Organisms

Pathogenicity, Clinical Manifestations, and Virulence Factors

Epidemiology of Arcobacter spp.

Isolation, Identification, and Detection of Arcobacter spp.

Control/Preventive Measures for Arcobacter spp.

Research Needs

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Bacillus anthracis

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics of Organism

Clinical Manifestations

Pathogenesis and Virulence Factors

Epidemiology

Analytical Methods

Control and Prevention

Importance to the Food Industry

Research Needs

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Bacillus cereus and Other Pathogenic Bacillus Species

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Taxonomy of the Bacillus cereus Group

Foodborne Outbreaks Caused by the Bacillus cereus Group

Characteristics of Bacillus cereus Disease

Infectious Dose of Bacillus cereus Disease

Virulence Factors/Mechanisms of Pathogenicity

Foodborne Disease Potential of Other Bacillus Species

Prevention and Control of Bacillus Foodborne Illness

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Brucella

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics

Clinical Manifestation (Disease)

Epidemiology

Analytical Methods for Organisms

Control and Preventive Measures

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Campylobacter

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics of the Organisms

Clinical Manifestation

Pathogenesis

Virulence Factors

Epidemiology

Analytical Methods

Control/Preventive Measures

Research Needs

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Bacteria: Clostridium botulinum

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics of the Bacterium and Neurotoxins

Clinical Manifestation of Botulism

Epidemiology of Foodborne Botulism

Analytical Methods for C. botulinum and Its Neurotoxins

Control and Prevention of Foodborne Botulinum

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Clostridium perfringens

Abstract

Glossary

Historical Background

Characteristics

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestation (Disease)

CPE Causes the Symptoms of C. Perfringens Type A Food Poisoning

CPE Protein

Control and Preventative Measures

Acknowledgments

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Toxigenic Corynebacteria

Abstract

Glossary

Characteristics of the Genus

The Diphtheria Toxin

Other Virulence Factors

Clinical Manifestation

Epidemiology of Infections

Occurrence in the Environment and Food

Identification and Toxigenicity Testing

Antimicrobial Susceptibility

Typing Methods

Control and Preventive Measures

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Coxiella burnetii

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestation

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Bacteria: Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Other Pathogenic Escherichia coli

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

STEC Virulence Factors

Genomic Plasticity and STEC Evolution

Evolution Outside the Box: The E. coli O104:H4 Example

Pathogenesis of Human Infections

Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Infections

Epidemiology of STEC

Detection of STEC in Food

Regulatory Context for STEC in Food

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Cronobacter (Enterobacter) sakazakii and Other Cronobacter spp.

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics of the Organism

Reservoirs

New Classification

Clinical Manifestations and Features

Virulence Factors and Pathogenicity

Detection Methods

Preventive Measures

Conclusion

See also

References

Further Reading

Bacteria: Other Pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae – Enterobacter and Other Genera

Abstract

Glossary

Enterobacter species

Klebsiella Species

Pantoea Species

Serratia Species

Other Genera Less Often Encountered

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Francisella tularensis

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics of the Organism

Epidemiology

Pathogenesis

Clinical Manifestation and Pathology

Analytical Methods

Control/Preventive Measures

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Helicobacter pylori

Abstract

Glossary

History, Background, and Taxonomy

Bacteriology of H. pylori

Epidemiology, Contamination, and Transmission

Clinical Profile, Signs and Symptoms, and Associated Diseases

Inflammatory Factors

Structure, Genome, and Pathogenesis

H. pylori and Cancers

Detection Methods

Prevention and Control Measures

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes

Listeria monocytogenes Control in the Food-Processing Environment

Listeriosis: Epidemiology and Clinical Features

Analytical Methods for Organism and Toxins

Control Measures

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics

Epidemiology of JD in Animals

Epidemiology of CD in Humans

Analytical Methods for MAP

Routes of Transmission

Prevention and Control

See also

References

Further Reading

Bacteria: Mycobacterium bovis

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Characterisitics of the Pathogen

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

00106. Bacteria: Pasteurella multocida

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics of the Organism

Epidemiology

Pathogenesis

Clinical Manifestation and Pathology

Diagnosis and Analytical Methods

Control and Preventive Measures

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Plesiomonas shigelloides

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Characteristics of the Organism

Nomenclature and Taxonomy

Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics

Ecological Distribution

Toxins and Invasive Factors

β-Hemolysis

Isolation

Serology

Epidemiology and Outbreaks

Application of the PCR

Control and Prevention of P. shigelloides Infections

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Proteus

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics of the Organisms

Clinical Manifestation, Pathogenesis, and Treatment

Virulence Factors

Analytical Methods

Prevention

Further Reading

Bacteria: Pseudomonas

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics of the Organism

Clinical Manifestation in Animals

Tetrodotoxin-Producing Pseudomonas

Possible Association with Crohn's Disease

Epidemiology

Analytical Methods

Control/Preventive Measures

Research Needs

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Salmonella Non-Typhi

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Historical Aspects and Current Perspectives

Characteristics

Clinical Manifestations

Epidemiology

Isolation, Identification, and Enumeration

Food Sources of Infection and Preventive measures

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics

Clinical Manifestations

Pathogenesis

Virulence Factors

Epidemiology

Analytical Methods

Control/Prevention Measures

Research Needs

See also

References

Further Reading

Bacteria: Shigella

Abstract

Glossary

Family: Enterobacteriaceae

Prevalence of Shigellosis

Pathology

Mortality/Morbidity

Preventing a Shigella Infection

Outbreaks

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics

Clinical Manifestations

Epidemiology

Analytical Methods for Organisms and/or Toxins

Route of Transmission

Examples of Outbreaks

Staphylococcal Enterotoxin as a Bioterrorism Agent

Prevention of Staphylococcal Intoxication

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Streptococcus

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics of the Organisms

Clinical Manifestations

Epidemiology

Analytical Methods

Control/Preventive Measures

Research Avenues

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Vibrio cholerae

Glossary

Introduction

Historical Outline

Taxonomy and Characteristics of V. cholerae

Clinical Symptoms of V. cholerae Infection

Detection Methods

Virulence Features and Pathogenicity of V. cholerae

Risk Factors and Reservoirs

Survival Strategies

Epidemiology Cholera with Reference to Contamination of Foods

Molecular Typing Methods

Prevention and Control Measures

Further Reading

Bacteria: Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Taxonomy and Characteristics of V. parahaemolyticus

Pandemic Strains

Clinical Symptoms of V. parahaemolyticus Infection

Detection Methods

Risk Factors and Reservoirs

Survival Strategies

Incidence and Epidemiology of V. parahaemolyticus Infection

Molecular Typing Methods

Pathogenesis

Decontamination and Other Preventive Measures

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Vibrio vulnificus

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics of the Pathogen

Ecology

Survival in the Environment and Food

Clinical Manifestations

Methods for Detection and Enumeration in Foods

Risk Assessment

Control Measures

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Other Vibrios

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics of the Organism

Clinical Manifestation

Pathogenesis

Virulence Factor

Other Infections

Epidemiology

Analytical Methods

Control/Preventive Measures

Vaccination Research Needs

See also

Further Reading

Bacteria: Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Virulence and Pathogenesis

Clinical Manifestations

Analytical Methods

Epidemiology

Examples of Outbreaks

Control and Preventive Measures

See also

Further Reading

Volume 2: Hazards and Diseases

 

Prions and Agents of TSEs

Prions and Agents of TSEs: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Cattle

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Nature of the Agent

Epidemiology

Pathogenesis

Controls

Diagnosis

BSE Risk – Categorization of Countries

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Prions and Agents of TSEs: Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease

Abstract

Glossary

Characteristics

Epidemiology

Evidence of a Link Between BSE and vCJD

Clinical Features and Diagnosis of CJD

Future Prospects

See also

Further Reading

Protozoa

Protozoa: Cryptosporidium spp.

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Transmission of Cryptosporidiosis

Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Surveillance in Foods

Foodborne Outbreaks

Control Measures

See also

Further Reading

Protozoa: Cyclospora cayetanensis

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics

Epidemiology

Analytical Methods

Control and Preventive Measures

See also

Further Reading

Protozoa: Entamoeba histolytica

Abstract

Glossary

Historical Evidence

Definitions

Cultural Characteristics

Typing

Virulence Factors

Gal/GalNAc Lectin

Cysteine Proteinases

Amebapores

Iron and Infection

Genetics and Evolution

Animal Models

Detection Methods

Health Effects

Epidemiology

Outbreaks

Case–Control Studies

Routes of Transmission

Reservoirs and Environmental Occurrence

Infections in Animals

Water Treatment

Foodborne Transmission

Preventive and Control Measures

Entamoeba

Further Reading

Protozoa: Giardia lamblia

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics

Clinical Manifestations

Epidemiology

Control and Prevention Measures

See also

Further Reading

Protozoa: Cystoisospora belli (Syn. Isospora belli)

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

The Pathogen

Transmission

Epidemiology

Clinical Presentation

Diagnosis

Prevention and Control

See also

Further Reading

Protozoa: Sarcocystis

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics

Clinical Manifestation

Diagnosis

Treatment

Epidemiology

Prevention and Control

Acknowledgment

See also

Further Reading

Protozoa: Toxoplasma gondii

Abstract

Glossary

General Information

Foodborne Transmission

Food-Associated Risks for People

Detection in Animals, Meat and Environmental Samples, and Determination of Clonal Types

Risks from Food Animals

Prevention and Control

Conclusion

Further Reading

Helminth-Cestode

Helminth-Cestode: Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus mutilocularis

Glossary

Characteristics of Echinococcus and Life Cycle

Epidemiology and Transmission to Man

Economics and Societal Burden

Conclusions

Further Reading

Helminth-Cestode: Taenia saginata and Taenia solium

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

History and Biology

Chemotherapeutic Control

Immunoprophylaxis

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Helminth-Nematode

Helminth–Nematode: Anisakid Nematodes

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics

Clinical Manifestation

Epidemiology

Control

Further Reading

Helminth-Nematode: Ascaris

Abstract

Glossary

Characteristics of the Genus

Infectivity

Health Consequences

Epidemiology

Foodborne Transmission

Diagnosis of Infection

Analytical Aspects

Importance to the Food and Water Industries

Importance to the Consumer

Strategies for Control of Ascaris

See also

References

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Helminth-Nematode: Capillaria hepatica and Capillaria philippinensis

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Capillaria hepatica

Capillaria philippinensis

See also

Further Reading

Helminth-Nematode: Gnathostoma spinigerum

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics and Transmission

Clinical Manifestations

Pathogenesis

Diagnosis and Analytical Methods

Control/Prevention Measures

Research Needs

See also

Further Reading

Heminth-Nematode: Haplorchis

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics

Clinical Manifestations

Epidemiology and Preharvest Control of Fish Infections

Detection/Diagnosis Methods

Control and Prevention Measures

Research Needs

See also

Further Reading

Helminth-Nematode: Trichinella spiralis and Other Trichinella Species

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics

Clinical Manifestations

Epidemiology

Analytical Methods

Control and Prevention

See also

Further Reading

Helminth-Nematode: Trichuris trichiura

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics

Clinical Manifestations

Epidemiology

Diagnosis

Control and Prevention

Conclusion and Future Perspectives

See also

Further Reading

Helminth-Trematode

Helminth-Trematode: Clonorchis sinensis

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Morphology and Life Cycle

Pathology and Clinical Symptoms

Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Infections

Epidemiology of the Parasite

Detection of Metacercariae in Fish

Deactivation Methods

Food Safety and Control Measures

See also

Further Reading

Helminth-Trematode: Dicrocoelium dendriticum

Abstract

Glossary

See also

Further Reading

Helminth-Trematode: Diphyllobothrium

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics

Clinical Manifestation

Epidemiology

Analytical Methods

Control and Preventive Measures

Conclusions and Future Perspectives

See also

Further Reading

Helminth-Trematode: Echinostoma

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Morphology and Classification

Life Cycle

Clinical Manifestations and Pathology

Epidemiology

Analytical Methods

Treatment and Control Measures

See also

Further Reading

Helminth-Trematode: Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics

Diagnosis

Clinical Manifestation

Epidemiology

Analytical Methods

Control and Preventive Measures

Economic Damage

See also

Reference

Further Reading

Helminth-Trematode: Fasciolopsis buski

Abstract

Glossary

Etiology: The Parasite

Parasite Biology and Life Cycle

Food-Borne Transmission

Disease Control

See also

Further Reading

Helminth-Trematode: Heterophyes heterophyes

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics

Important Species

H. nocens

H. dispar

Clinical Manifestations

Virulence Factors and Pathogenesis

Epidemiology

Analytical Methods

Control/Preventive Measures

Research Needs

See also

Further Reading

Helminth-Trematode: Metagonimus yokogawai

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics

Important Species

Clinical Manifestations

Virulence Factors and Pathogenesis

Epidemiology

Analytical Methods

Control/Preventive Measures

Research Needs

See also

Further Reading

Helminth-Trematode: Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus

Abstract

Glossary

Geographical Distribution

Taxonomy and Morphology

Pathogenesis, Pathology, and Morbidity

Liver Flukes and Cancer

Prevention, Treatment, and Control

Conclusions and Future Perspectives

See also

Further Reading

Helminth-Trematode: Paragonimus westermani and Paragonimus Species

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics

Clinical Manifestations

Pathology and Pathogenesis

Epidemiology of Human Paragonimiasis

Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography

Analytical Methods

Diagnosis

Treatment

Prevention and Control

Research Needs

See also

Further Reading

Spirochetes

Spirochetes: Leptospira

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

History of Disease

The Pathogen

Transmission

Biological Hazards

Epidemiology

Clinical Presentation

Prevention

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Viruses

Viruses: Hantavirus

Abstract

Glossary

Characteristics

Clinical Manifestation

Pathogenesis

Epidemiology

Analytical Methods

Control and Preventive Measures

Research Needs

See also

Further Reading

Viruses: Hepatitis A Virus

Abstract

Glossary

Historical Background

Characteristics of Hepatitis A Virus (Taxonomy, Structure of the Virus, Genome Organization, and Virus Strains)

Course of HAV Infection

Epidemiology

Analytical Methods for HAV Detection

Virus Survival in Food

Control and Preventive Measures for HAV Contamination of Foods

See also

Further Reading

Viruses: Hepatitis E Virus

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Characteristics of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV)

Epidemiology

Outbreaks of Foodborne Hepatitis E

Detection Methods for HEV in Foods

Lack of Information

See also

Further Reading

Viruses: Lassa Fever Virus

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics

Pathogenesis

Replication

Clinical Manifestation

Diagnosis

Epidemiology

Control and Preventive Measures

Conclusion

Further Reading

Viruses: Nipah Virus

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Characteristics

Clinical Manifestations

Virulence Factors

Pathogenesis

Epidemiology

Analytical Methods

Control/Preventive Measures

Research Needs

See also

Further Reading

Viruses: Norovirus

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Historical Information

Nomenclature, Taxonomy, and Classification

Nomenclature

NoV Morphology

NoV Replication

NoV Pathology

Clinical Manifestation (Disease)

NoV Immunology and Genetic Susceptibility

Epidemiology

Reservoirs for NoV, Vehicles for Transmission, and Examples of Implicated Foods

Methods for NoV Diagnosis and Detection

Prevention of Contamination of Foods

Viral Inactivation in Foods

Virus Infectivity Reducing Treatments for Surfaces

Regulatory Measures

See also

Further Reading

Organisms of Concern but not Foodborne or Confirmed Foodborne

Organisms of Concern but not Foodborne or Confirmed Foodborne: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Etiology, and Characteristics of FMDV

Clinical Manifestation in Animals

Epidemiology and Risks of Transmission to Humans

Diagnostic Methods

Control/Preventive Measures

See also

Further Reading

Organisms of Concern but not Foodborne or Confirmed Foodborne: Classical Swine Fever Virus

Abstract

Glossary

Background and History

The Virus

The Genome

The Target Host Cell

Clinical Signs of the Disease

Prevention and Control

Public Health

Diagnosis

Epidemiology

See also

Further Reading

Organisms of Concern but not Foodborne or Confirmed Foodborne: Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (Machupo Virus)

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

The Pathogen

Management, Prevention, and Control

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Organisms of Concern but not Foodborne or Confirmed Foodborne: African Swine Fever Virus

Abstract

Glossary

Background and History

The Virus

The Genome

The Target Host Cell

Clinical Signs of the Disease

Prevention and Control

Public Health

Diagnosis

Epidemiology

See also

Further Reading

Organisms of Concern but not Foodborne or Confirmed Foodborne: Spoilage Microorganisms

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Food Spoilage – Overview

Meat and Poultry

Seafood

Raw and Pasteurized Milk

Minimally Processed Vegetables

Microbial Pathogens as Spoilage Microorganisms

Interactions between Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms

See also

Further Reading

Natural Toxicants

Natural Toxicants: Alkaloids

Abstract

Glossary

Alkaloids

Food Safety Issues

Analysis

Alkaloids Present Naturally in Food

Alkaloids that Contaminate Food

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Natural Toxicants: Naturally Occurring Toxins of Plant Origin

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Cyanogenic Glycosides

Saponins

Glucosinolates

Phytohemagglutinins (Kidney Bean Lectins)

Ricin

Neurotoxic Amino Acids

Oxalic Acid

Minor Plant Toxins

Nutmeg

Conclusions

Further Reading

Natural Toxicants: Mushrooms and Toadstools

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

General Safety

Toxicity

Amatoxin Poisoning

Orellanine: Cortinarius Poisoning

Monomethylhydrazine Poisoning

Antabuse Syndrome

Tryptamine Hallucinogens

Muscimol and Ibotenic Acid

Muscarine

Unsaturated Norleucine Amino Acids

Analytical Methods

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Natural Toxicants: Tetrodotoxin

Abstract

Glossary

History and Background

Occurence of Tetrodotoxin

Synthesis of Tetrodotoxin

Structure and Mode of Action

Toxicity

Clinical Manifestations

Prognosis

Hazard Characterization

Risk Management

Methods of Analysis

See also

Further Reading

Mycotoxins

Mycotoxins: Mycotoxins – General

Abstract

Glossary

Mycotoxins and History

Chemical Characterization

Hazard Identification and Characterization

Fungal Sources

Categorizing Mycotoxins

Major Mycotoxins

Minor Mycotoxins

Mycotoxins of Less Importance

Chemical Analysis

Occurrence and Control of Mycotoxins in Foods

See also

Further Reading

Mycotoxins: Aflatoxins

Abstract

Glossary

Chemical Characterization

Fungal Sources, Physiology, and Ecology

History

Hazard Identification and Characterization

Exposure Assessment

Risk Characterization

Chemical Analysis

Levels in Foods

Management Options – Limits in Foods

See also

Further Reading

Mycotoxins: Deoxynivalenol and Other Trichothecenes

Abstract

Glossary

Chemical Characterization

Fungal Sources, Physiology, and Ecology

History

Hazard Identification

Hazard Characterization

Exposure Assessment

Risk Characterization

Chemical Analysis

Levels in Foods

Management

Further Reading

Mycotoxins: Fumonisins

Abstract

Glossary

Chemical Characterization

Fungal Sources, Physiology, and Ecology

History

Hazard Identification and Characterization

Exposure Assessment

Risk Characterization

Chemical Analysis

Levels in Foods

Management Options – Limits in Foods

See also

Further Reading

Mycotoxins: Ochratoxin A

Abstract

Glossary

Chemical Characterization

Fungal Sources, Physiology, and Ecology

History

Hazard Identification and Characterization

Exposure Assessment

Risk Characterization

Chemical Analysis

Levels in Foods

Management Options

See also

Further Reading

Mycotoxins: Patulin

Abstract

Introduction

Hazard Identification

Hazard Characterization

Exposure Assessment and Risk Characterization

Chemical Analysis

Risk Management

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Mycotoxins: Zearalenone

Abstract

Chemical Characterization

Fungal Sources

History

Toxicology

Chemical Analysis

Occurrence and Regulation

Management

See also

Further Reading

Environmental Contaminants

Environmental Contaminants: Dioxins, Furans, and Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls

Abstract

Introduction

Toxicology and Health Consequences

Analytical Methods

Treatment and Interpretation of Analytical Data

Methods for Estimating Dietary Exposure

Tolerable Intakes

Legislation

The UK TDS

Vegetables, Fruits, Pulses, and Grain

Animal Products

Fish

Miscellaneous Oils and Fats

Food Processing and Cooking

Time Trends

Animal Feeding Stuffs

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Environmental Contaminants: Environmental Estrogens – Hazard Characterization

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Molecular Basis of Estrogen Action

Phytoestrogens

Xenoestrogens

Metalloestrogens

Considerations of Exposure and Bioavailability

Consideration to Effects on Human Health

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Environmental Contaminants: Nitrate and Nitrite

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Legislation

Analytical Techniques, Occurrence in Food Sources, and Exposure Assessment

Toxicology and Health-Based Guidance Values

Conclusions and Future Perspectives

Further Reading

Environmental Contaminants: Perchlorate

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Hazard Identification and Characterization

Method of Analysis

Exposure

Risk Characterization

See also

Further Reading

Toxic Metals

Toxic Metals: Arsenic

Abstract

Glossary

Chemical

Background

Hazard Identification and Characterization

Methods of Analysis

Exposure

Risk Characterization

See also

Further Reading

Toxic Metals: Cadmium

Abstract

Glossary

Chemical Names

Background

Hazard Identification and Characterization

Methods of Analysis

Exposure

Risk Characterization

See also

Further Reading

Toxic Metals: Lead

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Hazard Identification and Characterization

Methods of Analysis

Exposure

Risk Characterization

 

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Toxic Metals: Mercury

Abstract

Glossary

Chemical Names

Background

Hazard Identification and Characterization

Methods of Analysis

Exposure

Risk Characterization

See also

Further Reading

Toxic Metals: Trace Metals – Chromium, Nickel, Copper, and Aluminum

Abstract

Glossary

Background and Nutritional Aspects

Hazard Identification and Characterization

Methods of Analysis

Exposure

Risk Characterization

See also

Further Reading

Processing Contaminants

Processing Contaminants: Acrylamide

Abstract

Glossary

History, Background, and Sources

Chemistry, Industrial Use, and Factors Influencing the Formation

Hazard Identification and Characterization

Methods of Analysis of Acrylamide in Foods

Levels in Foods and the Total Diet

Exposure Assessment

Risk Characterization

Managing the Risk

See also

Further Reading

Processing Contaminants: Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs)

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

What are Advanced Glycation End Products or AGEs?

AGEs' Interaction Leading to OS and Inflammation

Food-Derived AGEs

In Vitro Data

Experimental Data

Human Data

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Processing Contaminants: Benzene

Abstract

Glossary

Contaminant Definition

Toxicity

Use and Occurrence in Environment

Occurrence in Food

Analysis

Levels of Benzene in Foods

Mitigation

Exposure

Health Risk

Risk Management

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Processing Contaminants: Biogenic Amines

Abstract

Glossary

Biogenic Amines: Classification and Origin

Relevance of Biogenic Amines in Food

Legislation

Analytical Methods

Control Measures

See also

Further Reading

Processing Contaminants: Chloropropanols and Related Esters

Abstract

Glossary

Chloropropanols

Chloropropanols in Food

Food Safety Issues

Exposure

Formation

Analysis

See also

Further Reading

Processing Contaminants: Furan

Abstract

Furan

Occurrence

Food Safety Issues

Exposure

Effects of Domestic Cooking

Formation

Analysis

Control

See also

Further Reading

Processing Contaminants: Hydroxymethylfurfural

Abstract

Glossary

Description

Health Concerns

Food Sources

Mitigation

Analytical Methods

Legislation

Further Reading

Processing Contaminants: N-Nitrosamines

Abstract

Introduction

Occurrence in Food

Food Safety Issues

Exposure

Formation

Analysis

Control

See also

Further Reading

Processing Contaminants: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Occurrence in Food

Health Concerns

Analysis

Mitigation and Biomonitoring

Guidelines to Reduce PAHs in Food

Acknowledgment

See also

Further Reading

Hazards of Food Contact Material

Hazards of Food Contact Material: Bisphenol A and Endocrine Disruption

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Overview of EDCs

Endocrine Disruptors in Food

Overview of BPA

BPA in Food and Food Packaging

Nondietary Sources of BPA

Controversies about BPA

Can Information Gained from Studying BPA Be Applied to Other EDCs?

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Hazards of Food Contact Material: Food Packaging Contaminants

Abstract

Glossary

Definition

Types of Food Packaging Materials and Market Share

Relevance of Food Packaging as Food Contaminant Source

Migration

Chemical Migrants

Release

Scalping

Detection of Chemical Contaminants from Food Packaging

Risk Assessment and Management in the EU, Japan, and USA

See also

Further Reading

Hazards of Food Contact Material: Phthalates

Abstract

Glossary

Chemical Name and Structure

Uses

Hazard Characterization

Calculation of the Reference Dose

Risk Assessment

Risk Characterization

See also

Further Reading

Hazards of Food Contact Material: Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials

Abstract

Glossary

Description and Definitions

Historical Context

Safety Concerns

Novel Characteristics of Nanomaterials

Regulation

See also

Further Reading

Food Additives

Food Additives: Food Additives – General

Abstract

Glossary

Food Additives and History of Use

Chemical Characterization

Control of Food Additives

Hazard Identification and Characterization

Exposure Assessment

Risk Characterization

Specifications and Methods of Analysis

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Food Additives: Antioxidants

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

History of BHA and BHT

Acknowledgment

See also

Further Reading

Food Additives: Colorants

Abstract

Glossary

Overview

Ponceau 4R

Quinoline Yellow

Sunset Yellow FCF

Acknowledgment

See also

Further Reading

Food Additives: Flavors and Flavor Enhancers

Glossary

Monosodium L-glutamate

See also

Further Reading

Food Additives: Preservatives

Abstract

Introduction

History of Nitrate and Nitrite

See also

Further Reading

Food Additives: Natural Preservatives

Abstract

Glossary

Background to Food Preservatives

Natural Preservatives

See also

Further Reading

Food Additives: Sweeteners

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Aspartame

Saccharin (Including Sodium and Calcium Saccharin)

Steviol Glycosides

See also

References

Further Reading

Volume 3: Foods, Materials, Technologies and Risks

 

Pesticide Residues

Pesticide Residues: Conazoles

Abstract

Glossary

Chemical Group(s) and Mode of Pesticidal Action

Uses

Relevant Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion Characteristics

Relevant Toxic Effects From Acute Exposure and Repeated Exposure

Occurrence in Food

See also

Further Reading

Pesticide Residues: Dithiocarbamates

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Sources and Uses of Dithiocarbamates

See also

Further Reading

Pesticide Residues: Herbicides

Abstract

Glossary

Chemical Groups and Modes of Pesticidal Actions

Uses

Relevant absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) Characteristics

Relevant Toxic Effects: From Acute Exposure and Repeated Exposure

Occurrence in Food

See also

Further Reading

Pesticide Residues: Inorganic and Other Metal-Containing Compounds

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Chemical Groups and Modes of Pesticidal Actions

Uses

Relevant Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion Characteristics

Relevant Toxic Effects: From Acute Exposure and Repeated Exposure

Occurrence in Food

See also

Further Reading

Pesticide Residues: Organophosphates and Carbamates

Abstract

Glossary

Chemical Groups and Modes of Pesticidal Action

Uses

Relevant ADME Characteristics

Relevant Toxic Effects: From Acute Exposure and Repeated Exposure

Occurrence in Food

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Pesticide Residues: Organochlorines

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Uses of OCPs

Relevant Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion Characteristics

Occurrence in Food

Monitoring of OCPs in Food

Health Effects of OCPs

Risk Management of OCPs

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Pesticide Residues: Pyrethroids

Abstract

Glossary

Chemical Groups and Modes of Pesticidal Action

Uses

Relevant Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion Characteristics

Relevant Toxic Effects: From Acute Exposure and Repeated Exposure

Occurrence in Food

See also

Further Reading

Veterinary Drugs Residues

Veterinary Drugs Residues: Veterinary Drugs – General

Abstract

Glossary

Veterinary Drugs and History of Use

Drug Use in Food-Producing Animals

Veterinary Drug Residues and Food Safety

Toxicological Testing

Systemic Toxicity Testing

Reproduction Toxicity Testing

Developmental Toxicity Testing

Genotoxicity Testing

Carcinogenicity Testing

Testing for Effects on the Human Intestinal Flora

ADI Determination

MRL Determination

Establishing Withdrawal Periods

Risk Management at the International Level

See also

Further Reading

Veterinary Drugs Residues: Antibacterials

Abstract

Glossary

Use of Antibacterial Compounds in Food-Producing Animals

Discovery of Antibacterial Drug Classes, Their Mode of Action, and Use in Food-Animal Production

Antibacterial Resistance and Public Health

Residues of Antibacterial Drugs in Food Matrices

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Veterinary Drugs Residues: Anthelmintics

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Anthelmintic Toxicity and Legislation

Pharmacokinetics of Anthelmintics

Analytical Methodology

Conclusions and Future Trends

Acknowledgments

See also

Further Reading

Veterinary Drugs Residues: Anabolics

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Somatotropins

Steroid Hormones Used in Food-Producing Animals

Hormones in Beef Trade Controversy

International Risk Assessment and Management

Use of Ractopamine in Swine and Beef

Illegal Use of Anabolics in Food-Producing Animals

Conclusion

Disclaimer

See also

Further Reading

Veterinary Drugs Residues: Coccidiostats

Abstract

Glossary

Coccidiosis

Coccidiostats or Anticoccidials Drugs Used in Poultry

Drug Residues from Coccidiostat Use

See also

Further Reading

Veterinary Drugs Residues: Ectoparasiticides

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Summary of Each of the Individual Drug Classes

Ectoparasiticide Resistance to Drugs and Impact on Public Health

Control of Drug Residues in Food of Animal Origin

Analysis of ML Residues

See also

Further Reading

Veterinary Drugs Residues: Control of Helminths

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Summary of the Individual Drug Classes

Anthelmintic Resistance to Drugs and Impact on Public Health

Control of Anthelmintic Drug Residues in Food of Animal Origin

Residue Findings and Implications

See also

Further Reading

Nutriential Hazards

Nutriential Hazards: Micronutrients: Vitamins and Minerals

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Minerals

Vitamins

See also

Further Reading

Nutriential Hazards: Macronutrients: Essential Fatty Acids

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Dietary Evolution of PUFAs

Dietary Sources and Recommended Intake of PUFAs

Metabolism of PUFAs

The Role of PUFAs in Chronic Disease and Inflammation

LC-PUFAs, Populational Differences, and Nutrigenomics

Safety Considerations of PUFAs

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Other Significant Hazards

Other Significant Hazards: Food Allergies and Intolerances

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Nonimmune-Mediated Adverse Reactions

Immune-Mediated Adverse Reactions

The Future

Risk Management Measures

See also

Further Reading

Other Significant Hazards: Food-Related Choking

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Identification of Hazard Factors for Airway Obstruction by Food

Creation of a Hazardous Condition

Direct Hazard

Mitigation of Hazard

Injury and Fatality Data

Cognitive Development

Injury Location and its Effect on Severity

Physical Development

Dental Development

The Swallowing Process

Oral Preparatory Phase

Oral Phase

Pharyngeal Phase

Esophageal Phase

Mechanism of Injuries from Food

Protective Mechanisms

Evaluation of the Hazard Levels of Foods

Prevention of Food-Related Choking

See also

Further Reading

Other Significant Hazards: Physical Hazards in Foods

Abstract

Glossary

Foreign Matter Complaints in the Food Industry

Hazards Caused by Foreign Matter

The Control of Foreign Matter

Sources of Foreign Matter

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Food Technologies

Food Technologies: Aseptic Packaging

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Significance and Advantages

Basics of Sterilization

Aseptic Processing

Product Processing

New Technologies for Product Sterilization

Packaging Technology

Packaging Materials

Composite Materials

Package Sterilization

Filling Systems

Sealing

Safety Aspects

Insufficient Plant Sterilization

Under Processing

Filling and Sealing

Risk Prevention

Further Reading

Food Technologies: Biopreservation

Abstract

Glossary

Definitions and Scope

Mechanisms of Biopreservation

Applications

Legal Aspects

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Food Technologies: Chilling

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Chilling Process

Effect of Chilling on Food Safety

Effect of Chilling Rate

Chilling Operations

Chilling Systems

Transportation

Retail Display

Domestic Handling

Temperature Measurement and Monitoring

Conclusions

See also

References

Relevant Websites

Food Technologies: Cleaning and Disinfection Technologies (Clean-In-Place, Clean-Out-of-Place)

Abstract

Glossary

Cleaning and Sanitizing Operations in Food Processing Facilities

CIP Cleaning Background

COP Cleaning

Environmental Cleaning

Cleaning of Allergens

Cleaning of Facilities Producing Dry or Low Moisture Foods

Cleaning and Sanitizing Chemistry

Application of Sanitizers in Food Processing Facilities

Cleaning Validation and Verification Technology

Conclusions

See also

References

Further Reading

Food Technologies: Drying

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Classification of Dryers

Drying Techniques that have the Potential in Minimizing and Eliminating Microbial Load

Superheated Steam Drying

Pulse Combustor Dryers

Microwave Drying

Microwave-Assisted Convective Drying

Microwave-Assisted Freeze Drying

Microwave Vacuum Drying

High Temperature Drying

Low Temperature Drying at Subzero Condition – Sublimation Drying

Pretreatment

Coating of Photocatalyst

Good Manufacturing Practice in Drying to Avoid Contamination

Concluding Remarks

See also

References

Further Reading

Food Technologies: Fermentation

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Types of Food Fermentations

Antimicrobial Principles Formed During Fermentation, Contributing to Food Safety

Potential Hazardous Effects Related to Substandard Processing

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Food Technologies: Food Irradiation

Abstract

Glossary

Background

Applications of Food Irradiation

Quality Matters

Technical Aspects

Irradiation Costs/Economic Feasibility

Legislation of Food Irradiation

See also

Further Reading

Food Technologies: Freezing

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Freezing Process

Effect of Freezing on Food Safety

Effect of Refreezing on Food Safety

Freezing Operations

Freezing Equipment

Blast Air Freezers

Batch Air Freezers

Continuous Air Freezers

Plate Freezers

Belt Freezers

Scraped Surface Freezers

Immersion/Spray Freezers

Cryogenic Freezers

Frozen Storage

Thawing and Tempering Systems

Transportation

Overland Transport

Sea Transport

Retail Display

Domestic Handling

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Food Technologies: High Pressure Processing

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Effects of High Pressure on Microbial Cells

Factors Affecting the Microbiological Safety of Pressure-Treated Foods

Commercial Applications of HPP

Future Prospects for HPP

See also

Further Reading

Food Technologies: Microwave Heating

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Physical Principles

Microwave Heating Equipment

Microwave-Specific Safety and Quality Aspects for Foods

See also

Further Reading

Food Technologies: Nanotechnology and Food Safety

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Authenticity and Traceability of Foods

Food Contact Materials

Ingestion of Nanoparticles

Definitions, Regulation, and Labeling

Environmental Concerns

See also

Further Reading

Food Technologies: Packaging

Abstract

Glossary

Food Packaging

Packaging Materials

Special Packaging Technologies

Product-Specific Packaging Materials and Technologies – Shelf Life and Food Safety Aspects

Conclusion

See also

References

Further Reading

Food Technologies: Pasteurization

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Scope

Heat Resistance of Microorganisms

Factors Influencing Thermal Resistance

Methods and Equipment

Modes of Pasteurization

See also

Further Reading

Food Technologies: Pulsed Ultraviolet Radiation Processing

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Historical Background

UVC Source Technologies

Mechanisms of UV Disinfection

Applications of Pulsed UVC (PUVC) Radiation in Food Sanitation

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Further Reading

Food Technologies: Pulsed Electric Field Technology

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Microbial Inactivation by PEF

Technical Aspects Relevant for Safety Considerations

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Food Technologies: Sterilization

Abstract

Glossary

Scope

Fundamentals of Thermal Death of Microorganisms

Heat Resistance of Microorganisms

Factors Influencing Thermal Resistance

Determination of Heat Process Requirement

Conventional Thermal Sterilization

Equipment for Heat Sterilization

Canning

See also

Further Reading

Foods, Materials and Risks

Safety of Food and Beverages

Safety of Food and Beverages: Fruits and Vegetables

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Preharvest Contamination

Harvest and Postharvest Contamination

Outbreaks: Sources, Transmission, and Examples

Data on Incidence of Pathogenic Contamination of Produce

Microbial Attachment, Colonization, Survival, and Transmission

Risk and Control Measures

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Seafood

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Pathogens

Parasites

Decomposition

Marine Toxins

Chemical Contaminants

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Safety of Food and Beverages: Meat and Meat Products

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Contamination of Meat Products

Food Safety Concerns in Meat Products

Biological Hazards in Meat and Meat Products

Meat-Borne Illness Episodes

Control of Biological Hazards in Meat Products

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Poultry and Eggs

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Poultry Meat: Conventional Production

Poultry Meat: Organic Production

Poultry Meat Processing: Transport, Stunning, Bleeding, Scalding, Plucking, Evisceration, Meat Inspection, Cooling Technology, and Packaging

Egg Production: Laying Hens

Eggs and Egg Processing

Risk and Control Measures

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Milk and Dairy Products

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Pathogens of Special Relevance

Chemical Hazards

Possible Procedures to Minimize the Risks of Feed and Milk Contamination

Physical Hazards

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Dairy Products: Cheese

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Microbial Contamination of Cheese

The Most Threatening Pathogenic Bacteria in Cheese

Presence of Chemical Residues and Contaminants in Cheese

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Cereals and Derived Products

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Effects of Processing and Storage

Inherent Microflora

Heavy Metal in Cereal Grains

Mixed Weeds in Cereal Grains

Acrylamide

Cereal-Derived Products

Gluten versus Gluten Free

See also

Reference

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Oils and Fats

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Contaminants in Crude Oils and Fats

Refining Process Validation for Contaminant Removal

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Spices and Seasonings

Abstract

Glossary

Definition and Classification

Production and Primary Processing Methods

Antimicrobial Properties

Microbiological Contamination and Safety

Chemical Safety

Other Naturally Occurring Toxicants

Control Measures

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Oilseeds and Legumes

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Sources of Oilseed and Legume Contamination

A Food Safety Perspective on Novel Foods

Mycotoxins and Food Safety

The Safety Issue of Pesticide Residues in Food

Oilseeds

Legumes

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Nuts

Abstract

Introduction

Worldwide Tree Nut Consumption

Sources of Nut Contamination

Pistachio

Almond

Brazil Nut

Cashew

Walnut

Pecan

Hazelnut

Macadamia Nut

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Water (Bottled Water, Drinking Water) and Ice

Abstract

Chemical Safety of Drinking Water

Current Issues

Emerging Issues

Assessing the Risks

Microbial Safety of Drinking Water

Waterborne Pathogens

Influence of Industrial Processes on Waterborne Pathogens

Microbial Indicators

Assessing Microbiological Risks

Concluding Remarks

See also

References

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

What Constitutes a Soft Drink?

What Constitutes a Fruit Juice?

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Alcoholic Beverages

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Beer

Wine

Spirits

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Coffee, Tea and Herbals, Cocoa and Derived Products

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Manufacture

Hazards and Control Measures

Tea and Herbals

Cocoa and Derived Products

Manufacture

Hazards and Control Measures

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Packaging Material and Auxiliary Items

Abstract

Glossary

Aim of Packaging and Required Features

Packaging Materials and Structures

Food Packaging Interactions

Special Applications and Perspectives

Processing of Packaging and Packaging Lines

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Safety of Food in Vending Machines

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

The Steps in the Vending Business

Traceability

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Promotional Material

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Lessons Learnt

Ensuring Quality, Safety, and Compliance of Promotional Items

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Risks of Food Adulteration

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Food Protection

The Food Fraud Risk

The Scope of the Food Fraud Risk

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Safety of Organic Foods

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Defining Organic Food

Certification of Organic Production Systems

Quality of Organic Produce

Safety of Organic Produce

Conclusion

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Safety Consideration in Developing Functional Foods

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Attempts to Define Functional Foods

Functional Components

Validity of Health Claims

Safety Assessment of Functional Foods

Postmarket Surveillance

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Probiotics and Prebiotics

Abstract

Glossary

Current Trends of Functional Foods

Concept and Selection Criteria

Health Benefits and Mechanisms of Action

Risks and Safety Assessment

See also

References

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Safety of Probiotics and Prebiotics

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Safety Concerns Linked to the Probiotic Microorganisms

Safety Issues Linked to Prebiotics

Discrimination between the EFSA Health Claim Regulation and Safety Issues

Use of Probiotic Bacteria/LAB to Increase the Safety of a Product

See also

References

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Safety of Irradiated Foods

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Definition of Wholesomeness

Role of Overall Average Dose

General Aspects of Chemical Changes

Particular Chemical Changes

Biological Changes

Radiological Safety

Toxicological Safety

Microbiological Safety

Nutritional Adequacy

Expert Evaluations of Wholesomeness

Concerns about Food Irradiation

An Example: The Polyploidy Issue

Regulations and Wholesomeness

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Safety of Genetically Modified Foods

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

The Use of GM Technology in Agriculture and Foods

GM Microorganisms

GM Animals

Products Derived from GMOs

Positions of Proponents and Critics

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Safety of Regional Specialities – Korean Fermented Foods

Abstract

Glossary

Soybean Sauce and Soybean Paste

Fermented Fish Products

Fermented Vegetable Products

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Safety of Human Milk: Microbiological Aspects

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

The Value of Human Milk

Bioactive Factors

The Mucous Membranes as Barriers

The Process of Human Milk Feeding

Human Milk Banking

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Safety of Human Milk: Chemical Aspects

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Hazard Identification and Characterization of POPs in Human Milk

Exposure Assessment of POPs in Human Milk

Risk Characterization of POPs in Human Milk

Risk Management of POPs in Human Milk

Risks Posed by Lead in Human Milk

Risks Posed by Mercury in Human Milk

Special Considerations When Undertaking Studies Involving Human Milk

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Halal Food Requirements

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Basis of Halal Food Laws

The Halal Market

Discussion on Halal Food Laws

Prohibited and Permitted Animals

Prohibition of Blood

Proper Slaughtering of Permitted Animals

Meat of Animals Killed by Christians or Jews

Prohibition of Alcohol and Intoxicants

Food Preparation, Processing, and Sanitation

Gelatin

Biotechnology

Dealing with Halal Supervision Agencies

Animal Welfare Issues

See also

Further Reading

Safety of Food and Beverages: Kosher Food Requirements

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

The Kosher Laws

The Kosher Market

Kosher

Kosher: Special Foods

Kosher: Other Processing Issues

Tithing and Other Israeli Agricultural Laws

Kosher and Allergies

Special Issues

Regulatory

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Volume 4: Food Safety Management

 

Public Health Measures

Public Health Measures: Modern Approach to Food Safety Management: An Overview

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction – Historical Background

Concept of Food Safety and its Definition

Food Safety Management: Shared Responsibility

Principles of Food Safety Management

Elements of Food Safety Management

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Public Health Measures: Risk Governance

Abstract

Glossary

Food Risks as a Contemporary Governance Challenge

The Concept of Risk Governance

The Relationship Between Risk Assessment and Risk Management

Stakeholder and Public Participation in Risk Governance

The Neglected Challenge of Value Conflicts

Outlook

See also

Further Reading

Public Health Measures: Challenges of Developing Countries in Management of Food Safety

Abstract

Introduction

Food Production System

Food Processing Industry

Recent Trends in International Food Safety Management

Food Safety and Domestic Market

Technical Assistance and Role of International Agencies

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Public Health Measures: Challenges of Industrialized Countries in Food Safety Management

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Essentials of a National Food Safety Program

The Ideal Inspection System

The Ideal Enforcement System

Facing Unexpected Food Safety Challenges

Public and Political Considerations

The Food Safety Imperative

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Public Health Measures: Fundamentals of Food Legislation

Abstract

Key Objectives

Written Food Legislation

The Application of Food Legislation

The Regionalization of Food Legislation

See also

References

Further Reading

Public Health Measures: International Standards and Harmonization of Food Safety Legislation

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Purpose of Food Safety Legislation

Importance of Global Harmonization

Historical Background

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

Global Harmonization Initiative (GHI)

Safe Food International (SFI)

Future Challenges

See also

Further Reading

Public Health Measures: Food Inspections and Enforcement Systems

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Inspection Models, Past and Present

Enforcement

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Public Health Measures: Alerts and Early Warning Systems

Abstract

Glossary

Food Safety and Rapid Alert Systems

Reactive Systems

Proactive Predictive Systems

New Developments and Improvements

International Exchange of Information: FAO/WHO

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Public Health Measures: Monitoring of Contaminants

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction to Monitoring of Chemical Contaminants in Food

The Role of Monitoring in Risk Analysis

Types of Government Monitoring Activities and Other Considerations

National Government Programs for the Monitoring of Food for Contaminants

Case Studies – The Use of Research and Monitoring Data for Contaminants in the National Government Management of Food Safety Risk

Acrylamide in Certain Cooked Foods

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Public Health Measures: Assessment of Novel Foods and Ingredients

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Novel Foods Defined in Legislation

Safety Assessment of Novel Foods and Food Ingredients

Identifying Public Health Hazards

Characterizing the Identified Hazards

Estimating Exposure

Risk Characterization

Authorization Process

Postmarket Monitoring

See also

Further Reading

Public Health Measures: Food Defense: Prevention of Sabotage and Bioterrorism

Abstract

Introduction

Intentional versus Unintentional Contamination

Risk Management

Prevention Strategies

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Public Health Measures: Evaluation of the Efficacy of National Food Control Programs

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Essential Elements of an Effective National FCP

Purpose of FCP Evaluation

Measuring Output and Outcomes in Food Safety Programs

Assessment of Evaluation Outcomes and FCP Improvement

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Public Health Measures: Surveillance of Foodborne Diseases

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction to Public Health Surveillance

Routine Foodborne Disease Surveillance can Gather a Variety of Kinds of Information

General Limitations of Surveillance

Using Surveillance for Public Health Decision Making

The Power of Standardized Molecular Subtyping in Surveillance

The Future of Surveillance

See also

References

Further Reading

Public Health Measures: Foodborne Disease Outbreak Investigation

Abstract

Glossary

Foodborne Outbreaks

Stages in an Outbreak Investigation

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Public Health Measures: Environmental Assessment in Outbreak Investigations

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

FBIO Environmental Investigations

General Systems Theory

Farm-to-Fork Continuum and Food Systems

Food Systems

Environmental Assessment

FBIO Environmental Assessment

Challenges Encountered in an FBIO Environmental Assessment

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Public Health Measures: Safe Use of Wastewater for Agricultural Production

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Health Risks Associated with Wastewater Use

The Stockholm Framework and Health-Based Targets

The Multiple-Barrier Approach to Achieve Health-Based Targets

Risk Assessment and Risk Management Plans

Verification Monitoring Levels

Sociocultural Considerations

Environmental Aspects

See also

References

Further Reading

Public Health Measures: Food Control and Public Health Laboratories

Abstract

Introduction

What is Public Health?

Food and Health – The ‘Farm-to-Fork Life Cycle Approach’

What is Food Control?

Risk-Based Approach for Food Safety Control

Organization of a Food Control Laboratory and Inspectorate

Interactions between Food Control Services and Other Public Health Authorities, Other Governmental Bodies or Societal Institutions

See also

Further Reading

Public Health Measures: Health Education, Information, and Risk Communication

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Importance of Health Education and Information

Selection of Key Behaviors

Implementation of Health Education in Food Safety: Strategy, Plan of Action, and Evaluation

Conclusion

Disclaimer

See also

Further Reading

Public Health Measures: Management of Food Safety in Food Service Sector

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Mass Catering

Management of Food Safety in Mass Catering

Risks and Hazards Associated with Mass Catering

General Risk Management

New Technologies

Institutional Catering

Open Air Catering

Travel Catering

Banqueting

See also

Further Reading

Public Health Measures: Food Safety in Hospitals and Other Healthcare Settings

Abstract

Glossary

Vulnerability of People in Healthcare Settings

Supply of Meals in Healthcare Settings

Main Foodborne Microbiological Hazards

Examples of Outbreaks and Cases of Foodborne Disease in Healthcare Settings

Factors Leading to Foodborne Disease in Healthcare Settings

Prevention of Foodborne Disease in Vulnerable People in Healthcare Settings and in the Community

Conclusion

See also

References

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Food Safety and Quality Management Systems

Glossary

Understanding the Management System Standards

The Food Safety and Quality Management System

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Good Practices in Fisheries and Aquaculture

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Fish- and Seafoodborne Illnesses and Causative Agents

Fish and Seafood Safety and Quality Systems

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Good Animal Husbandry Practice

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

General GAHP

Future Changes in GAHP through the Use of Risk Analysis and Risk Management

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Building Design

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Regulatory Requirements

Retailer's Requirements

Site Selection

Site Layout

Building Design

See also

References

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Hygienic Design of Equipment

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Materials of Construction for Product Contact Surfaces

Elements of Hygienic Design

Design of Product Contact Surfaces

Design for Noncontact Surfaces

Designing for Ease of Maintenance

Verification of Design

Design of Key Items of Equipment

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Infestation Management in Food Production Premises

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Pests of Food Processing and Production Facilities and the Risks they Impose

Minimizing Pest Occurrence in Food Premises

Pest Detection Strategies

Pest Control Strategies

IPM

Emerging Threats for the Successful Maintenance of Pest Management

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Personal Hygiene and Employee Health

Abstract

Glossary

Food Workers as Cause of Enteric Illness

Personal Hygiene and Employee Health

See also

References

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Cleaning and Disinfection

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Wet Cleaning

Fundamentals

Cleaning

Disinfection

Application of Cleaning and Disinfection Agents

Pathogen Resistance to Disinfectants

Sanitation

Dry Cleaning

Allergen Cleaning and Validation

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System (HACCP): Principles and Practice

Abstract

Glossary

An Introduction to the Internationally Agreed Approach to Food Safety Control

The HACCP System and Food Safety Management

The HACCP Application Process

Developing a HACCP Plan

Activities for Implementation of an HACCP Plan

Maintaining HACCP and Food Safety Management Systems

Effective HACCP-Based Food Safety Management

Disclaimer

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Management of Biofilm Risk

Abstract

Glossary

Biofilm Formation

Pathogens in Biofilms

Biofilm Detection

Biofilm Prevention

Biofilm Management

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Microbiological Testing, Sampling Plans, and Microbiological Criteria

Abstract

Glossary

Microbiological Testing

Microbiological Criteria

Two- and Three-Class Sampling Plans

Characteristic Numbers Defining a Sampling Plan

Sampling Plan Cases

Performance of Sampling Plans

Example of Different Aspects of a Sampling Plan

Statistical Aspects

Difference between a Microbiological Criterion and an FSO/PO

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Management of Allergens in Food Industry

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Food Allergy

Food Allergens as Contaminants

Food Safety Systems and Their Requirements and Limitations

Practical Application: What Needs to be Done?

Allergen Management Plans

Evaluating the Risk from Allergens

Allergen Cleaning Validation Studies

Examples of Validation Studies

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Management of Supplier and Raw Material

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

The Organization

The Personnel

The Supplier Management Tools

The Raw Material Management Tools

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Documentation and Record Keeping

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Developing a Document-Control Program

Procedures and Work Instructions

Monitoring and Record Keeping

Corrective Action Records

Record Review

Record Storage and Retention

What is Required for Food Safety

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Labeling and Information for Consumers

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Legal Requirements of Food Labeling

Claims

Additional Labeling for Consumers

Private Labeling Schemes

Exported Foods

Eating Out

Quality Assurance

Additional Information Provision

Disclaimer

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Audits of Food Safety Management Systems

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Definition and Purpose

Scope and Frequency of Audits

Competence of Auditors

Reporting Structure

The Procedure and Methodology

Conclusion

Acknowledgment

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Quality Assurance and Good Laboratory Practice

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction to Quality

The Past: GLP

The Present: QM, QA, and QC

Future

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Investigation of Incidents in Industry

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Impact of Incidents

The Incident Process

Indicators of Incidents

Incident Investigation

See also

References

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Recall Systems and Disposal of Food

Abstract

Background and Scope

Withdrawals and Recalls

The Elements of an Incident Management System

Managing Recall, Withdrawal, and Disposal of Food

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Tampering

Abstract

Introduction

The Extent of the Problem

Two Textbook Cases

Tylenol

Heinz Baby Food

Copycats

Prevention and Control Measures

Investigating the Incident

Foreign Bodies

Chemicals

Integrity of Evidence

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Essentials of Crisis Management

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Crisis Prevention

Crisis Preparedness

Crisis Management

Recovery and Rebuilding after a Crisis

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Root Cause Analysis of Incidents

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Concept of Root Cause Analysis

Tools for Root Cause Analysis

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety Assurance Systems: Food Safety and Ethics

Abstract

Glossary

Food Safety and Ethics

The Precautionary Principle

Ethical Decision Making

Other Aspects of Ethics of Relevance to Food Industry

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Institutions Involved in Food Safety

Institutions Involved in Food Safety: FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC)

Abstract

Glossary

Safe, Good Food for Everyone – The Need for an International Food Code

Codex Alimentarius and Codex Alimentarius Commission

The Role of Codex Standards in International Trade

How the Codex Alimentarius Commission Works

Work on the Codex Alimentarius

Contents of the Codex Alimentarius: Standards, Guidelines, and Codes of Practice

Science base of Codex and Risk Analysis

Collaboration with Standard-Setting and Other Organizations

Ensuring Full and Effective Participation in Codex

The Codex Alimentarius Today and in the Future

See also

Further Reading

Institutions Involved in Food Safety: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

Abstract

Introduction

Provision of Scientific Advice

Development of International Food Standards, Guidelines, and Recommendations (Codex Alimentarius)

Provision of Policy and Operational Advice

Direct Technical Assistance to Developing Countries

EMPRES Food Safety

Voluntary Standards and Schemes

See also

Further Reading

Institutions Involved in Food Safety: World Health Organization (WHO)

Abstract

Glossary

Food Safety as a Health Issue

WHO's Role in the Conceptual Development of Food Safety

Scientific Advice

Providing Scientific Advice That Has Not Been Asked For

International Standards and Guidelines

FBD Burden

Food Safety Emergency Action and Exchange of Experience over Borders

The Future of Food Safety and WHO's Role – Promoting Safer Food and Better Health

See also

Further Reading

Institutions Involved in Food Safety: World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

OIE Involvement: The Animal Production Food Safety Working Group

OIE Involvement in Food Safety with the Veterinary Services

Close Cooperation with the CAC

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Institutions Involved in Food Safety: Consumer Organizations

Abstract

Consumer Organizations Involved in Food Safety and Food-Related Issues

Consumer Organizations in a National Food Safety Context

Consumer Organizations in an International Food Safety Context

Profiles of Individual Consumer Observer Organizations

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Institutions Involved in Food Safety: National Industry Organizations – Case of UK Food and Drink Federation

Abstract

Glossary

Overview of the Food Industry Organizations

Food and Drink Federation

Member Services and Sector Groups

Food and Drink Federation Vision and How We Work

Food Safety

Informing and Consulting Members

Food Safety and Science is Key to Our Work

Link with Food Research Organizations

Compliance with Food Legislation

The Food Chain

Responding to Food Incidents

Partnership

Annex

See also

Relevant Websites

Institutions Involved in Food Safety: International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

Abstract

Glossary

About International Organization for Standardization in General

Food Standardization in International Organization for Standardization

Food Safety Standards of International Organization for Standardization

Availability of International Organization for Standardization Deliverables

Further Reading

Institutions Involved in Food Safety: International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI)

Abstract

Glossary

Purpose and Structure of International Life Sciences Institute

International Life Sciences Institute's Role in Microbial Safety

International Life Sciences Institute's Role in Chemical Food Safety

Food Safety Training and Education Activities

Harmonization across Countries/Regions

See also

Further Reading

Institutions Involved in Food Safety: FoodDrinkEurope

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction to FoodDrinkEurope (formerly CIAA)

17 Major Companies

FoodDrinkEurope Priorities

Work with Food Chain Partners

Emerging Issues

Example: Dealing with Emerging Issues

Research and Innovation

Regulation and Self-Regulation

Involvement in Global Tasks

See also

Relevant Websites

Institutions Involved in Food Safety: International Food Information Council (IFIC) and Other Food Information Organizations

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Why Do we Need Food Information Organizations?

The Fundamental Underpinnings of Food Safety

The IFIC's Food Safety Role

The Need for International Cooperation

IFIC Collaborations

How Do International Food Information Organizations Cooperate?

So Who are Other Key International Food Information Organizations?

See also

Further Reading

Institutions Involved in Food Safety: International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST)

Abstract

Glossary

What is IUFoST?

Origin

Membership

Mission and Activities

IUFoST Involvement in Food Safety Activities

Publications

Further Reading

Institutions Involved in Food Safety: Trust in Animals and Food Safety (TAFS) Forum

Abstract

Relevant Website

Institutions Involved in Food Safety: Global Harmonization Initiative (GHI)

Abstract

Glossary

Introduction

Food Security and Nutrition

Food Safety

Technology and Method Development

Historical Background

Modus Operandi and Activities

Finances and Membership

Awareness

Structure

See also

Further Reading

Glossary Of Selected Terms

Index

Author Index

Details

No. of pages:
2304
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780123786135
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123786128

About the Editor-in-Chief

Yasmine Motarjemi

Yasmine Motarjemi holds a Masters degree in Food Science and Technology from the University of Languedoc, Montpellier, France (1978) and a Doctoral degree in Food Engineering from the University of Lund, Sweden (1988). In 2003, she followed a training at the IMD business school in Lausanne, Switzerland and in 2014 a course on Human Rights at the University of Geneva Switzerland.

After her research and academic career at the University of Lund, in 1990 she joined the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva as Senior Scientist. In WHO, she was responsible for the surveillance and prevention of foodborne illnesses (including education of professional and domestic food handlers), the development of the food safety assurance system (e.g. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system), and for assistance to the WHO Member States in strengthening their national food safety programme and the development of the risk analysis process. She has served in the Secretariat of various sessions of the Codex Alimentarius Commissions and its Committees.

From 2000 to 2011, she held the position of Assistant Vice President in Nestlé and worked as the Corporate Food Safety Manager. In this capacity, she has, among others, developed the Nestlé Food Safety Management system and managed various emerging food safety issues and crises. She was active in several industry organizations, among others FooddrinkEuorpe (formerly Conféderation des Industries Agroalimentaires (CIAA)) where she advised management of international crisis.

She is the author, co-author or editor of numerous peer-reviewed articles, books, training manuals and other publications, including a book on food safety for children. In 2014 she published Encyclopedia on Food Safety and the book Food Safety Management: A Practical Guide for the Food Industry (both published by Elsevier/Academic Press).

Affiliations and Expertise

Editor-in-Chief, FOSA and FOSIN, Nyon, Switzerland

Reviews

"...this authoritative, one-stop reference will be useful for academics, consumers, decision makers, managers, public officials, food industry professionals, and nongovernmental specialists. Summing Up: Recommended" --Choice Reviews Online, 2014

"...there is nothing like this encyclopedia for its comprehensiveness in combining as many food safety related topics as possible less than one source...If you want to expand your knowledge over the whole field of food safety you can look no further than dipping into this encyclopedia." --Journal of Food Quality & Hazards Control,Vol. 1, No. 2, 2014

"With such a collection of information, whoever needs first-hand, reliable and authoritative information on food safety does not need to consult various books, periodicals or websites. All of what is presently known in this domain can be found in this comprehensive work." --Professor Fritz Käferstein, DVM, PhD (Former Director of the Department of Food Safety and Food Aid (1980-1998) World Health Organization).