Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123847300

Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology

2nd Edition

Editors: Carl Batt Carl A. Batt
Editor-in-Chiefs: Richard Robinson
eBook ISBN: 9780123847331
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 2nd April 2014
Page Count: 3248
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out Price includes VAT/GST
133300.00
1750.00
1386.00
1118.00
Unavailable
Price includes VAT/GST
× Read this ebook on your PC, Mac, Apple iOS and Andriod mobile devices and eReader

This ebook is protected by Adobe Content Server digital rights management.

For more information on how to use .acsm files please click the Ebook Format Help link.

Institutional Access

Secure Checkout

Personal information is secured with SSL technology.

Free Shipping

Free global shipping
No minimum order.

Description

Written by the world's leading scientists and spanning over 400 articles in three volumes, the Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology, Second Edition is a complete, highly structured guide to current knowledge in the field. Fully revised and updated, this encyclopedia reflects the key advances in the field since the first edition was published in 1999

The articles in this key work, heavily illustrated and fully revised since the first edition in 1999, highlight advances in areas such as genomics and food safety to bring users up-to-date on microorganisms in foods. Topics such as DNA sequencing and E. coli are particularly well covered.

With lists of further reading to help users explore topics in depth, this resource will enrich scientists at every level in academia and industry, providing fundamental information as well as explaining state-of-the-art scientific discoveries.

Key Features

  • This book is designed to allow disparate approaches (from farmers to processors to food handlers and consumers) and interests to access accurate and objective information about the microbiology of foods.
  • Microbiology impacts the safe presentation of food. From harvest and storage to determination of shelf-life, to presentation and consumption. This work highlights the risks of microbial contamination and is an invaluable go-to guide for anyone working in Food Health and Safety.
  • Has a two-fold industry appeal (1) those developing new functional food products and (2) to all corporations concerned about the potential hazards of microbes in their food products.

Readership

Academic and professional/industrial microbiologists; industry and public analysts in Food Health and Safety; under-post graduate students, teachers, lecturers in all areas of Food Science (including Nutritionists and Dieticians).

Table of Contents

  • Editor-in-Chief
  • Editor
  • Editorial Advisory Board
  • How to Use the Encyclopedia
    • Contents
    • Cross-references
    • Index
  • Foreword
  • Notes on the Subject Index
  • Article Titles
    • A
      • Acetobacter
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Genus Acetobacter
        • Methods of Detection
        • Identification
        • Importance to the Food Industry
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Acinetobacter
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Genus
        • Acinetobacter Species
        • Ecology
        • Methods of Detection and Enumeration of Acinetobacters in Foods
        • Identification at the Genus Level and Metabolic Characteristics
        • Identification at the Genomic Species Level
        • Epidemiological Typing
        • Acinetobacters in Foods
        • Acinetobacters in Water and Soil
        • Acinetobacters in the Clinical Environment
        • Biotechnological Applications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Adenylate Kinase
        • Abstract
        • General Introduction of Adenylate Kinase
        • AK as the Detection Target in ATP Bioluminescence Assay
        • Application of AK in ATP Regeneration for Ultrasensitive Bioluminescence Assay
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • AEROMONAS | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Genus Aeromonas
        • Clinical Relevance
        • Molecular versus Phenotypic Identification
        • Epidemiology
        • Virulence Factors
        • Virulence Genes and Complete Genomes
        • Detection of Virulence in Food Isolates
        • Preservation and Control
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • AEROMONAS | Detection by Cultural and Modern Techniques
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Detection by Culturing
        • Nonselective Approach to Culturing
        • Enrichment Techniques
        • Most Probable Numbers Technique
        • Identification of Aeromonas
        • Molecular Methods
        • Other Methods
        • Future Perspectives
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Alcaligenes
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Biotechnological Applications of Alcaligenes
        • Relevance to the Food Industry
        • Food Microbiology
        • Detection Methods
        • Genomics
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Alicyclobacillus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Characteristics of Alicyclobacillus Genus
        • Alicyclobacillus Species
        • Spoilage of Foods by Alicyclobacillus
        • Occurrence of Alicyclobacillus in Raw Materials, Ingredients, and Final Products
        • Inactivation of Alicyclobacillus in Foods
        • Detection and Quantification of Alicyclobacillus
        • Final Remarks
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Alternaria
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Taxonomy
        • Secondary Metabolites Production by Alternaria
        • Ecophysiology
        • Occurrence of Alternaria and Alternaria Mycotoxins in Foods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Arcobacter
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Genus
        • Isolation Protocols
        • Importance of Arcobacter in Livestock and Foods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Arthrobacter
        • Abstract
        • General Characteristics
        • Ecology
        • Culture Media
        • Metabolism and Enzymes
        • Genetics and Bacteriophages
        • Role in Foods
        • Vegetables
        • Meat, Eggs, and Fish
        • Milk and Cheese
        • Miscellaneous Biotechnological Potentialities
        • Biodegradation of Agrochemicals and Pollutants
        • Involvement in Clinical Specimens
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ASPERGILLUS | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Aspergillus flavus
        • Aspergillus oryzae
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ASPERGILLUS | Aspergillus flavus
        • Abstract
        • Biology and Habitat of A. flavus
        • Diversity in A. flavus Populations
        • Evolution of A. flavus
        • Methods for Detection of A. flavus in Foods and Feeds
        • Economic Significance of A. flavus
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • ASPERGILLUS | Aspergillus oryzae
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Species
        • Importance in the Food Industry
        • Method for Detection and Identification of A. oryzae
        • Molecular Characterization of Nonaflatoxigenicity of A. oryzae
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ATP Bioluminescence: Application in Meat Industry
        • Introduction
        • The ATP Bioluminescence Reaction
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Aureobasidium
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Genus
        • Method of Detection
        • Importance of Aureobasidium as Spoiler for Food Industry
        • Health Impact of Aureobasidium in Food
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • B
      • BACILLUS | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Taxonomy
        • Genetics
        • Growth and Survival
        • Metabolism
        • Significance in Food Spoilage
        • Foodborne Disease
        • Insect Control
        • Probiotics
        • Enzyme Production
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • BACILLUS | Bacillus anthracis
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Species
        • Detection
        • Regulations
        • Importance to the Food Industry
        • Importance to the Consumer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • BACILLUS | Bacillus cereus
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Species
        • Methods of Detection
        • Genomics
        • Regulations
        • Importance to the Food Industry
        • Importance to the Consumer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • BACILLUS | Geobacillus stearothermophilus (Formerly Bacillus stearothermophilus)
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Species
        • Methods of Detection
        • Regulations
        • Importance to the Food Industry
        • Importance to the Consumer
        • Further Reading
      • BACILLUS | Detection by Classical Cultural Techniques
        • Abstract
        • Species – Scope
        • Choice of Tests
        • Test Procedures
        • Advantages and Limitations of Methods
        • Collaborative Evaluations and Validations
        • See also
        • Appendix: Formulations
        • Further Reading
      • BACILLUS | Detection of Toxins
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Foodborne Illness
        • Bacillus cereus Diarrheal Syndrome
        • Bacillus cereus Emetic Syndrome
        • Factors Affecting Emetic Toxin Formation
        • Other B. cereus Toxins
        • Toxins of Other Bacillus Species
        • Detection of B. cereus Toxins
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • BACTERIA | The Bacterial Cell
        • Introduction
        • Types of Morphology
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • BACTERIA | Bacterial Endospores
        • Abstract
        • Problems and Advantages of Bacterial Spores in the Food Industry
        • Endospore Formation and Structure
        • Dormancy and Longevity of Endospores
        • Heat Resistance of Endospores
        • Resistance to Other Stresses
        • Spore Germination
        • Control of Spore-Forming Bacteria and Spores in Food
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • BACTERIA | Classification of the Bacteria: Traditional
        • Abstract
        • Phenotypic Analysis
        • Microbial Species
        • Classification and Nomenclature
        • Description of New Species
        • Bergey’s Manual and The Prokaryotes
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • BACTERIA | Classification of the Bacteria – Phylogenetic Approach
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Ribosomal RNAs, Housekeeping Genes, and Genomes
        • Sequence Determination, Sequence Alignment, Treeing Methods, and Databases
        • The Limited Significance of Genes Sequences for Taxonomic Delineations
        • Links with ‘Traditional’ Bacteriology
        • New Approaches for Delineating Taxonomic Ranks
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • BACTERIOCINS | Potential in Food Preservation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Bioprotection or Biopreservation
        • Microbial Defense System
        • Bacteriocins
        • Classification
        • Mode of Action
        • Gram-Positive Bacteriocins
        • Gram-Negative Bacteriocins
        • Bacteriocins from Archaea
        • Nisin
        • Bacteriocins and Potential for Food Preservation
        • Application in Dairy Foods
        • Application in Poultry and Muscle Foods
        • Application in Seafood
        • Application in Other Foods and Beverages
        • Advantages of Bacteriocins as Food Additives
        • Limitations of Bacteriocins as Food Additives
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • BACTERIA | Nisin
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Structure and Biosynthesis
        • Solubility and Stability
        • Applications
        • Antagonistic Factors
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Bacteriophage-Based Techniques for Detection of Foodborne Pathogens
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Bacteriophage Characteristics
        • Applications of Bacteriophages for the Identification of Bacterial Pathogens
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Bacteroides and Prevotella
        • Abstract
        • Classification, Cultivation, and Genomics
        • Dominant Bacteroidetes Found in the Human Large Intestine
        • Changes in Bacteroidetes Populations in Humans with Diet, Obesity, and Life Stage
        • Fermentative Metabolism
        • Factors Likely to Influence Survival of Bacteroides and Prevotella in the Gut
        • Metabolism of Food Components and Host-Derived Products
        • Bacteriocins, Phages, and Gene Transfer
        • Bacteroides Interactions with Host Cells
        • Bacteroidetes in Health and Disease
        • Importance in Agriculture
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Beer
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Beer-Brewing Processes
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Bifidobacterium
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Historical Perspective
        • Enumeration and Isolation Methods
        • Intestinal Ecology
        • Prebiotics
        • Probiotics and Implied Health Benefits of Bifidobacteria
        • Bifid-Amended Foods and Beverages
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Further Reading
      • BIOCHEMICAL AND MODERN IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • BIOCHEMICAL AND MODERN IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES | Enterobacteriaceae, Coliforms, and Escherichia Coli
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Principles and Types of Commercially Available Tests
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • BIOCHEMICAL AND MODERN IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES | Food-Poisoning Microorganisms
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Phenotypic Identification Methods
        • Genotypic Methods Identification Methods
        • Range of Food Applications
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • BIOCHEMICAL AND MODERN IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES | Food Spoilage Flora
        • Abstract
        • Biochemical Diagnostic Markers
        • Fungal Metabolite Profiling
        • Immunological Techniques
        • Evaluation of Commercial Techniques and Tests
        • Molecular Techniques
        • Electrophoretic Karyotyping
        • RFLP and DNA Amplification Techniques
        • Critical Evaluation of Techniques
        • Molecular over Biochemical
        • Advantages and Limitations of Biochemical over Other Techniques
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • BIOCHEMICAL AND MODERN IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES | Microfloras of Fermented Foods
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Microbial Composition of Fermented Foods
        • Importance of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods
        • Parameters for the Study of Fermented Foods
        • Phenotypic Identification
        • Biochemical Identification
        • Modern or Molecular Identification
        • Culture-Dependent and Culture-Independent Techniques
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Biofilms
        • Abstract
        • Biofilm Formation
        • Extracellular Polymeric Substances
        • Physiological Status of Attached Bacteria
        • Reducing Biofilm Buildup
        • Cleaning and Disinfection
        • Biofilm Detection in Food-Processing Plants
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Biophysical Techniques for Enhancing Microbiological Analysis
        • Basic Concepts
        • Particle Motion in Inhomogeneous AC Electric Fields: Dielectrophoresis
        • Particle Motion in Rotating Electric Fields: Electrorotation
        • Particle Motion in Traveling Wave Electric Fields
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Biosensors – Scope in Microbiological Analysis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Biosensor Introduction
        • Biosensor Definitions
        • Caveats
        • Assessment of the Future Use of Biosensors
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Botrytis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Taxonomy, Evolutionary Relationships, Genetic Characteristics
        • Culture
        • Identification
        • Detection and Assessment
        • Pathogenicity
        • Positive Relationship in Wine Production
        • Control
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • BSE-Related Diseases
        • Diagnosis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • BREAD | Bread from Wheat Flour
        • Abstract
        • Bread
        • Bread Ingredients and Their Functions
        • Flour
        • Yeast
        • Bread-Making Technology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • BREAD | Sourdough Bread
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Contemporary Use of Sourdough and Pattern of Consumption
        • Raw Materials and Methods of Production
        • Traditional Sourdough Fermentation
        • Microbiology
        • Biochemistry of Sourdough Fermentation
        • Technological Effects of Sourdough Fermentation on Bread Quality
        • Sourdough Starter Cultures
        • Related Cereal Fermentations
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brettanomyces
        • Abstract
        • General Characters
        • Physiological Properties
        • Genomic Analysis
        • Ecological Distribution
        • Implications in Fermented Food and Beverages
        • Methods of Detection
        • Interactions with Other Microorganisms
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Brevibacterium
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Taxonomy and General Characteristics
        • Brevibacterium and Cheese
        • Further Reading
      • Brochothrix
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Brochothrix thermosphacta Characteristics
        • Comparison of Brochothrix Species
        • Isolation and Enumeration
        • Alternative Rapid Detection of Brochothrix
        • International Guideline for Brochothrix Enumeration
        • Importance to the Food Industry
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • BRUCELLA | Characteristics
        • Abstract
        • Brucella Species
        • Morphology and Physiology
        • Epidemiology of the Disease
        • Brucellae in Foods
        • Routes of Human Infection
        • Pathogenicity and Symptomatology
        • Detection Methods
        • Treatment of Disease
        • Disease Control and Prevention
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • BRUCELLA | Problems with Dairy Products
        • Abstract
        • Factors Affecting Survival and Growth in Milk Products
        • Eradication and Control of Brucella in Foods
        • Brucellosis in Humans
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Byssochlamys
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Genus
        • Methods of Detection
        • Importance to the Food Industry
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • C
      • CAMPYLOBACTER | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Guillain–Barré Syndrome
        • Reactive Arthritides (Reactive Arthritis and Reiter's Syndrome)
        • Taxonomy
        • General Physiology
        • Ecology
        • Species Other than C. jejuni and C. coli
        • Pathogenicity
        • Typing of Campylobacter spp.
        • Methods of Control
        • Viable but Nonculturable Forms
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • CAMPYLOBACTER | Detection by Cultural and Modern Techniques
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Campylobacter Gastroenteritis
        • Sources of Infection
        • Detection of Campylobacteria
        • Methods of Generating Microaerobic Atmosphere
        • Selective Media
        • Membrane Filtration Method
        • Enrichment Media
        • Detection of Arcobacters
        • Microaerobic Atmosphere for Enrichment of Thermophilic Campylobacters
        • Isolation of Thermophilic Campylobacters from Foods
        • Isolation of Less Common Campylobacteria
        • Confirmation and Speciation
        • Rapid Detection Methods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • CAMPYLOBACTER | Detection by Latex Agglutination Techniques
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Brief Principles and Types of Commercial Tests
        • Detailed Protocols of Tests and Their Points of Application in the Cultural Techniques for Campylobacter
        • Regulations, Guidelines, and Directives
        • Detection Limits
        • Advantages and Limitations of Latex Agglutination Tests and Other Techniques
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • CANDIDA | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Genus Candida
        • Physiological Properties
        • Habitats
        • Pathogenic Yeasts of the Genus Candida
        • Methods of Isolation and Identification
        • Importance to the Food Industry
        • Food Spoiling
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • CANDIDA | Yarrowia lipolytica (Candida lipolytica)
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • General Characteristics
        • Methods for Identification in Foods
        • Isolation from Meat Products
        • Isolation from Dairy Products
        • Involvement in Spoilage of Foods
        • Conversion of Fats, Oils, and Hydrocarbons
        • Production of Enzymes, Organic Acids, and Lipids
        • Production of Specialty Chemicals
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Carnobacterium
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Characteristics of the Genus and Related Species
        • Isolation, Enumeration, and Identification
        • Importance of the Genus and Individual Species in the Food Industry
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • CHEESE | Cheese in the Marketplace
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition and Classification of Natural Cheese
        • Fundamentals of Cheese Manufacture
        • Popular Cheese Groups
        • Cheese Composition
        • Process Cheese Products
        • Consumer Attributes of Cheese
        • See also
        • References
      • CHEESE | Microbiology of Cheesemaking and Maturation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Typical Composition of Cheese Milk
        • Microbiological Quality of Milk
        • Principles of Cheesemaking
        • Starter Bacteria, Starter Adjuncts, and Nonstarter Lactic Acid Bacteria in Cheese
        • Microbiological Changes during Cheesemaking
        • Microbiological Changes during Cheese Maturation
        • Defects of Bacterial and Fungal Origin
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • CHEESE | Microflora of White-Brined Cheeses
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Microbiological Quality of White Cheese
        • Composition of Cheese in Relation to Starter Culture Activity
        • Contaminants in White-Brined Cheeses
        • Microbial Defects in White-Brined Cheeses
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • CHEESE | Mold-Ripened Varieties
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Diversity and History of Mold-Ripened Cheeses
        • Manufacture of Mold-Ripened Cheeses
        • Microbial Flora
        • Fungal Growth
        • Fungal Metabolism
        • Control of Ripening
        • Spoilage and Defects in Mold-Ripened Cheeses
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • CHEESE | Role of Specific Groups of Bacteria
        • Abstract
        • Propionibacterium
        • Metabolic Activity during Eye Formation
        • Brevibacterium linens
        • Action of Brevibacterium during the Maturation of Smear-Coated Cheeses
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • CHEESE | Smear-Ripened Cheeses
        • Abstract
        • Manufacture
        • Microbiology
        • Defined Cultures
        • Source of the Bacteria
        • Flavor Development
        • Color Development on Cheese
        • Pathogens
        • Control of Listeria
        • Further Reading
      • CHILLED STORAGE OF FOODS | Principles
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Refrigerated Foods
        • Microbiology of Refrigerated Foods
        • Microorganisms and Growth Temperatures
        • Effect of Chilled Temperature on Microorganisms
        • Good Chilled Storage Practices
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • CHILLED STORAGE OF FOODS | Food Packaging with Antimicrobial Properties
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Packaging Containing Essential Oils
        • Packaging Containing Organic Acids
        • Packaging Containing Bacteriocins
        • Nanocomposite Systems as Food Packaging
        • Future Trend of Antimicrobial Packaging
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cider (Cyder; Hard Cider)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Cider Production
        • The Microbiology of Apple Juice and Cider
        • Some Special Fermentation and Other Processes
        • Biochemical Changes during Cidermaking
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • CLOSTRIDIUM | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Selected Clostridial Species
        • Recommended Methods of Detection and Enumeration in Foods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • CLOSTRIDIUM | Clostridium acetobutylicum
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Description of the Species
        • Enrichment and Isolation
        • History of the ABE Fermentation Industry
        • The Industrial Fermentation Process
        • Physiology of the ABE Fermentation
        • Recent Progress in ABE Research
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • CLOSTRIDIUM | Clostridium botulinum
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Characteristics of C. botulinum
        • Control of C. botulinum in Foods
        • Clinical Features of Botulism
        • Properties and Detection of BoNT
        • Botulinum Toxin as a Pharmaceutical
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • CLOSTRIDIUM | Clostridium perfringens
        • Abstract
        • Clostridium perfringens Food Poisoning
        • Characteristics of C. perfringens
        • Classification
        • Clinical Features of Disease
        • Mechanism of Intoxication
        • Detection and Enumeration
        • Enterotoxin Detection
        • Regulations to Control C. perfringens Hazard
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • CLOSTRIDIUM | Clostridium tyrobutyricum
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Species
        • Detection Methods
        • MPN Procedures
        • Antibody and DNA-Based Detection Methods
        • Importance in the Food Industry
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • CLOSTRIDIUM | Detection of Enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringens
        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin and C. perfringens Food Poisoning
        • Importance of C. perfringens Food Poisoning
        • Identification of C. perfringens Food Poisoning
        • C. perfringens Enterotoxin Assays
        • Counterimmunoelectrophoresis
        • Latex Agglutination Tests
        • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays
        • Detection of Enterotoxigenic C. perfringens
        • Advantages and Limitations of the CPE Detection Methods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • CLOSTRIDIUM | Detection of Neurotoxins of Clostridium botulinum
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cocoa and Coffee Fermentations
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Cocoa
        • Nature of the Crop
        • Cacao Fruit
        • Harvesting
        • Fermentation
        • Procedures of Fermentation
        • Microflora Active in Cocoa Fermentation
        • Other Microorganisms Present During Fermentation and Drying
        • Effect of Fermentation on Product Quality
        • Flavor-Developing Compounds
        • Drying
        • Coffee
        • Nature of the Crop
        • Coffee Fruit
        • Harvesting
        • Fermentation
        • Procedure of Coffee Mucilage Removal
        • Biochemistry of Coffee Fermentation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cold Atmospheric Gas Plasmas
        • Abstract
        • The Nature of Gas Plasmas and Cold Gas Plasmas
        • The Biological Effects of Gas Plasmas
        • Gas Plasmas in the Food Industry
        • Future Prospects
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Confectionery Products – Cakes and Pastries
        • Abstract
        • What Are Cakes and Pastries?
        • Effects of Baking
        • Effects of Postbake Operation
        • Factors Affecting Microbial Growth
        • Foodborne Disease and Incidence of Pathogens
        • Spoilage
        • Preservation Methods
        • Microbial Specifications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Corynebacterium glutamicum
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • History
        • Taxonomy
        • Genome
        • Proteome
        • Metabolic Pathway for Glutamate Production by C. glutamicum
        • Anaplerotic Pathways in C. glutamicum
        • Metabolic Flux Distribution during Glutamate Synthesis
        • Leakage Model for Glutamate Efflux by C. glutamicum
        • Lysine Production Pathway in C. glutamicum
        • Industrial Application of C. glutamicum
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Costs, Benefits, and Economic Issues
        • Abstract
        • Costs
        • Benefits
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Coxiella burnetii
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History of C. burnetii Discovery
        • Cultivation and Isolation of C. burnetii
        • Biology of C. burnetii
        • Epidemiology of Q Fever
        • Clinical Manifestations of Q Fever
        • Serological Tests for Diagnosis
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cronobacter (Enterobacter) sakazakii
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Characteristics of the Species
        • Detection Methods
        • Importance to the Food Industry and Consumer
        • Conclusion and Future Studies
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cryptosporidium
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Genus
        • Species in the Genus
        • Life Cycle
        • Infectivity and In Vitro Culture
        • Detection and Identification
        • Foodborne Transmission
        • Methods of Detection in Food, Water, and Other Liquids
        • Nucleic Acid–Based Methods for Detection and Identification
        • Determination of Viability
        • Importance to the Food and Water Industries
        • Control and Disinfection
        • Importance to the Consumer
        • Regulations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Culture Collections
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Mission, Scope, and Content of Culture Collections
        • Deposit, Access to, and Distribution of Strains
        • Preservation and Long-term Storage
        • The Impact of Legislation on the Handling, Storage, and Distribution of Organisms
        • Management and Operational Standards
        • Networking Collections: Improving Access to Strains and Addressing Common Challenges
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Cyclospora
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Genus and Relevant Species
        • Methods of Detection in Foods
        • Importance to the Food Industry
        • Importance to the Consumer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • D
      • Debaryomyces
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Genus and Relevant Species
        • Physiological and Biochemical Properties
        • Significance in Foods
        • Pathogenic Behavior
        • Enumeration, Detection, and Identification
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant websites
      • Direct Epifluorescent Filter Techniques (DEFT)
        • Principles of the Test
        • Equipment
        • Procedures
        • Microcolony Count
        • Direct Viable Count (DVC)
        • Alternative DEFT Stains
        • Viability Stains
        • Ab-DEFT and Immunomagnetic Separation
        • Automated Methods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Dried Foods
        • Abstract
        • Dried Foods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • E
      • ECOLOGY OF BACTERIA AND FUNGI IN FOODS | Effects of pH
        • Abstract
        • The Concept of pH and Its Relevance in Food Products
        • Effect of pH on Food Microorganisms
        • pH Homeostasis
        • Effect of pH According to the Physiological State
        • Use of pH as a Microbial Control Tool
        • Modeling of pH and Weak Acids Incidence on Microbial Growth
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ECOLOGY OF BACTERIA AND FUNGI IN FOODS | Influence of Available Water
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Concept of Water Activity and Available Water
        • Factors Affecting Water Activity
        • Levels in Typical Foods
        • General Responses of Bacteria, Yeasts, and Mycelial Fungi
        • Effect of Water Activity on Intracellular Structures and Chemical Composition of Cells
        • Compatible Solutes
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ECOLOGY OF BACTERIA AND FUNGI IN FOODS | Influence of Redox Potential
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • The Concept of Redox Potential
        • Redox Potential Determination in Biological Systems
        • Redox and Microbial Growth
        • Redox Potentials in Foods
        • Applications of Redox Potential in Food Microbiology
        • Bacterial Redox Homeostasis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ECOLOGY OF BACTERIA AND FUNGI IN FOODS | Influence of Temperature
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Microbial Ecology of Foods: Evolution of Specific Microbiota
        • Effect of Temperature on Microbial Growth
        • Interpretation of the Effect of Temperature on Microbial Growth
        • Effects of Temperature on Metabolism
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • EGGS | Microbiology of Fresh Eggs
        • Abstract
        • Structure and Composition of Fresh Eggs
        • Antimicrobial Defense Systems
        • Contamination of Eggs with Salmonellae
        • Implications for Human Health
        • Reducing Infection of Flocks and the Risks in Storage
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • EGGS | Microbiology of Egg Products
        • Abstract
        • Effects of Processing on Microorganisms
        • Pasteurization of Liquid Egg
        • Dried Eggs
        • Glucose Removal
        • Product Innovation
        • Processed Egg Products
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ELECTRICAL TECHNIQUES | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Impedance, Conductance, and Capacitance
        • Indirect Impedimetry
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ELECTRICAL TECHNIQUES | Food Spoilage Flora and Total Viable Count
        • Abstract
        • Nonspecific Impedance Technique: TVC
        • Estimation of Food Spoilage Microorganisms
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ELECTRICAL TECHNIQUES | Lactics and Other Bacteria
        • Abstract
        • Range of Food Applications
        • Electrical Media
        • Techniques and Protocols
        • Interpretation and Presentation of Results
        • Advantages and Limitations of Electrical Techniques
        • Recent Development of ET
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Enrichment
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Primary Enrichment (Pre-enrichment)
        • Secondary Enrichment (Selective Enrichment)
        • Universal Selective Enrichment Broth
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Enrichment Serology: An Enhanced Cultural Technique for Detection of Foodborne Pathogens
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Original Enrichment Serology Method
        • Commercial ES Methods
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • ELECTRICAL TECHNIQUES | Enterobacter
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Nomenclature
        • Physiological Description
        • Environmental Niches
        • Clinical Implications
        • Detection
        • Control
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ENTEROBACTERIACEAE, COLIFORMS AND E. COLI | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Enterobacteriaceae
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ENTEROBACTERIACEAE, COLIFORMS AND E. COLI | Classical and Modern Methods for Detection and Enumeration
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definitions
        • Classical Methods
        • Most Probable Number
        • Membrane Filtration Methods
        • Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filter
        • Presence–Absence with Enrichment Step
        • Petrifilm
        • Fluorogenic and Chromogenic Media
        • Rapid Automated Method (Growth-Based Methods)
        • Molecular Methods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Enterococcus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Taxonomy and Physiology
        • Habitat
        • Ecology in Foods
        • Functional Properties of Enterococci in Foods
        • Enterococci: Health Issues
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Enzyme Immunoassays: Overview
        • Abstract
        • Immunoassay
        • Components of Immunoassay
        • Immunoreaction
        • Methods of Immunoassay
        • Enzyme Immunoassay
        • Application of Immunoassays
        • Immunoassay in Food
        • Advantages and Disadvantages of ELISA for GMO Testing
        • Modifications of Standard Immunoassay
        • Current Advances in the Field of Immunoassay
        • Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay
        • Optoelectronic Immunosensor–Based Assays
        • Application of Computer-Assisted Molecular Modeling in Immunoassay
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ESCHERICHIA COLI | Escherichia coli
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Species
        • Serology
        • Virulence
        • Toxins
        • Other Toxins
        • Genomics
        • Foodborne Illness
        • Detection of E. coli
        • Use of E. coli as a Fecal Indicator
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ESCHERICHIA COLI | Pathogenic E. coli (Introduction)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Intestinal Pathogenic E. coli
        • Extraintestinal Pathogenic E. coli
        • Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic E. coli in Food
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ESCHERICHIA COLI | Detection of Enterotoxins of E. coli
        • Abstract
        • ETEC Enterotoxins: Genetics and Epidemiology
        • Diagnostics
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ESCHERICHIA COLI | Enteroaggregative E. coli
        • Abstract
        • Overview
        • Virulence Factors
        • Genomics
        • EAEC: Pathogen in Search of a Disease
        • Outlook
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ESCHERICHIA COLI | Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), Including Non-O157
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathogenicity
        • Symptoms of Infection
        • EHEC Serogroups
        • Detection
        • Sources
        • EHEC Carriage in Cattle
        • EHEC and the Environment
        • EHEC in Foods
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ESCHERICHIA COLI | Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli: Introduction and Detection by Classical Cultural and Molecular Techniques
        • Abstract
        • The Pathogen
        • Pathogenesis
        • EIEC in Foods
        • Detection of EIEC from Foods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ESCHERICHIA COLI | Enteropathogenic E. coli
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Introduction
        • Clinic and Pathology
        • Adherence
        • Translocation
        • Genomics
        • Diarrhea Mechanisms
        • Diagnosis
        • Epidemiology
        • Atypical EPEC
        • Transmission and Reservoirs
        • Food Safety
        • Outlook
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ESCHERICHIA COLI | Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Escherichia coli
        • Virulence Groups
        • ETEC
        • ETEC Infection
        • ETEC Diarrhea
        • The Enterotoxins
        • LT
        • STs
        • Prevention
        • Treatment
        • Vaccine
        • Recent Outbreaks of ETEC
        • Bioassays
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 | E. coli O157:H7
        • Abstract
        • History and Origins
        • Clinical Features
        • Sources of E. coli Infection
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 | Escherichia coli O157 and Other Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli: Detection by Immunomagnetic Particle-Based Assays
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Detection and Isolation of E. coli O157 and Non-O157 STEC Using IMS Technology
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 | Detection by Latex Agglutination Techniques
        • Abstract
        • General Principles
        • Procedures
        • Advantages and Limitations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant websites
    • F
      • FERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Basic Considerations
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Types of Fermentation
        • Factors Influencing Fermentations
        • Submerged Fermentations
        • Solid-State Fermentations
        • Safe Fermentation Practice
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Control of Fermentation Conditions
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Control Systems
        • Measuring Equipment
        • Biomass Concentration
        • Biosensors
        • Indirect Measurement
        • Neural Networks
        • Control Systems
        • Solid-State Fermentations
        • Submerged Fermentations
        • Future Perspectives
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Media for Industrial Fermentations
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sources of Utilizable Carbon
        • Sources of Utilizable Nitrogen
        • Sources of Inorganic Ions
        • Sources of Growth Factors
        • Design and Preparation of Food Fermentation Media
        • Inocula Preparation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Production of Amino Acids
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Production of L-glutamic Acid
        • Production of L-lysine
        • Production of L-threonine
        • Production of L-isoleucine
        • Production of Aromatic Amino Acids
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Production of Colors and Flavors
        • Abstract
        • Colors from Fermentation
        • Flavors from Biotechnology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Production of Oils and Fatty Acids
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Lipids
        • Commercial Oils and Fats
        • Oleaginous Microorganisms
        • Biochemistry of Oleaginicity
        • Metabolic Pathway
        • Patterns of Lipid Accumulation in Fermentations
        • Substrates for Oleaginous Fermentation
        • Fatty Acids, Soap Stocks, and Oils
        • Other Substrates
        • Microbial Production Systems
        • Fermentation Media for Lipid Biosynthesis
        • Fermentative Production Processes
        • Factors Influencing Lipid Biosynthesis
        • Growth Rate
        • Substrate Concentration
        • Growth Substrate
        • Temperature
        • Oxygen
        • pH and Salinity
        • Genetic Engineering
        • Metabolic Engineering
        • Other Factors
        • Recovery and Purification
        • Oil Extraction
        • Oil Refining
        • Commercial Importance
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Production of Some Organic Acids (Citric, Gluconic, Lactic, and Propionic)
        • Abstract
        • Citric Acid
        • Gluconic Acid
        • Lactic Acid
        • Other Organic Acids Produced by Fermentation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Production of Xanthan Gum
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Structure
        • Properties
        • Applications
        • Microbial Production of Xanthan Gum
        • Economics
        • Some Important Manufacturers of Xanthan Gum
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • FERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Recovery of Metabolites
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Disintegration of Microbial Cells
        • Recovery of Metabolites
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FERMENTED FOODS | Origins and Applications
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History, Development, and Uses of Fermented Foods
        • Benefits and Importance of Fermented Foods
        • Applications of Fermentation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FERMENTED FOODS | Beverages from Sorghum and Millet
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Raw Materials
        • Storage
        • Millets
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FERMENTED FOODS | Fermentations of East and Southeast Asia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Alcohol Fermentation
        • Vegetable, Fruit, and Cereal Fermentation
        • Fermented Condiment
        • Fermentation of Fish and Marine Products
        • Meat Fermentation
        • Fermented Milk
        • Other Fermented Food
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FERMENTED FOODS | Traditional Fish Fermentation Technology and Recent Developments
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Basics of Fermented Fish
        • Important Fermented Fish Products and Developmental Scenario
        • Beneficial Factors Associated with Fermentation
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FERMENTED FOODS | Fermented Meat Products and the Role of Starter Cultures
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Ecology of Fermentation
        • Functional Properties of Bacterial Starter Cultures
        • Safety of Bacteria Involved in Meat Fermentation
        • See also
        • Further Readings
      • FERMENTED FOODS | Fermented Vegetable Products
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Microbiota of Raw Vegetables and Fruits
        • Fermentation of Vegetable Products
        • Main Fermented Vegetable Products
        • Lactic Acid Fermentation of Vegetable Juices
        • Innovative Vegetable-Based Fermented Products
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FERMENTED MILKS | Range of Products
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Classification of Fermented Milks
        • Mesophilic Lactic Fermentations
        • Thermophilic Lactic Fermentations
        • Milks Fermented with Selected Intestinal Bacteria
        • Yeast–Lactic Fermentations
        • Mold–Lactic Fermentations
        • Derived Products
        • Aims and Benefits of Fermented Milks
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FERMENTED MILKS | Northern European Fermented Milks
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Microorganisms in Northern European Fermented Milks
        • Metabolism of Mesophilic Starter Cultures in Milk
        • Fermented Milk Products
        • Ropy Fermented Milk Products
        • Drained Fermented Milk Products
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FERMENTED MILKS | Products of Eastern Europe and Asia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Kefir
        • Koumiss
        • Tarhana
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FERMENTED MILKS | Fermented Milks and Yogurt
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition, Characteristics, and Legislation
        • History
        • Yogurt Manufacture
        • Recent Developments in Yogurt-Related Products
        • Conclusion and Outlook
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FISH | Catching and Handling
        • Abstract
        • Anatomy and Physiology of Fish
        • Composition of Body Tissues
        • Microbiology of Fish
        • Flora of Newly Caught Fish
        • Role of Handling on Bacterial Spoilage
        • High-Pressure Processing
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FISH | Spoilage of Fish
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Role of Autolysis, Lipid Oxidation, and Microorganisms
        • Fish as Substrate for Microbial Growth and Metabolism
        • Spoilage of Different Types of Fish Products
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Flavobacterium spp. – Characteristics, Occurrence, and Toxicity
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of Flavobacterium Species
        • Occurrence
        • Toxicity
        • See also
        • References
      • Flow Cytometry
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History of Flow Cytometry and Microbiological Applications
        • Advantages of Flow Cytometry as a Whole-Cell Technique
        • Flow Cytometric Analysis
        • Data Analysis, Formatting, and Reporting
        • Multiparameter Analysis
        • Enumeration of Cells
        • Cell Sorting
        • Fluorescent Stains
        • Nonspecific Fluorescent Stains
        • Cell-Specific Fluorescent Stains
        • Challenges
        • Selected Applications of Flow Cytometry in Food Microbiology
        • Commercially Available Instruments
        • Next-Generation and Specialized Instrumentation
        • Conclusion and Future Perspectives
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Food Poisoning Outbreaks
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology and Control
        • Investigation of Foodborne Disease
        • Reporting of Foodborne Disease
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Food Safety Objective
        • Abstract
        • Food Safety Objective Concept
        • FSO Terminology
        • Risk Analysis
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FREEZING OF FOODS | Damage to Microbial Cells
        • Abstract
        • Effect of Freezing on the Microbial Environment Provided by Foods
        • Injury of Microorganisms by Freezing and Thawing
        • Cryoprotectants
        • Effects of Freezing on Microorganisms in Foods
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FREEZING OF FOODS | Growth and Survival of Microorganisms
        • Abstract
        • Temperature and Microbial Growth
        • Prefreezing Operations and Microbial Growth
        • Effect of Freezing on Microbial Growth
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FRUITS AND VEGETABLES | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Overview of Fruits and Vegetables Disease Outbreaks
        • Main Sources of Contamination of Fruits and Vegetables by Foodborne Pathogens
        • Mechanisms of Fruits and Vegetables Contamination by Foodborne Pathogens
        • Survival and Growth of Pathogens in Fruits and Vegetables
        • Control of Contamination of Fruits and Vegetables by Foodborne Pathogens
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FRUITS AND VEGETABLES | Advances in Processing Technologies to Preserve and Enhance the Safety of Fresh and Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Chemical Treatments
        • Cold Plasma
        • Irradiation
        • Ultraviolet Light
        • Modified Atmosphere Packaging
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FRUITS AND VEGETABLES | Fruit and Vegetable Juices
        • Abstract
        • Microorganisms Associated to the Contamination of Fruit and Vegetables Juices
        • Contamination of Vegetable Beverages by Microorganisms
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • FRUITS AND VEGETABLES | Sprouts
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sprouts
        • Interventions during the Sprouting Process
        • Postharvest Treatments for Matured Sprouts
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FUNGI | Overview of Classification of the Fungi
        • Features Used to Define a True Fungus
        • Features Used in Classification
        • Phylum Chytridiomycota
        • Phylum Zygomycota
        • Phylum Ascomycota
        • Phylum Basidiomycota
        • Mitosporic Fungi
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FUNGI | The Fungal Hypha
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgement
        • Introduction
        • The Fungal Cell
        • Special Vegetative Structures
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • FUNGI | Classification of the Basidiomycota
        • Abstract
        • General Considerations in the Classification of Life
        • Taxonomy, Systematics, and Classification of Basidiomycetes
        • Classification and the Origins of Fungi (Basidiomycetes)
        • Classification of Basidiomycota as a Phylum in Kingdom Fungi
        • Classification of Basidiomycetes
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FUNGI | Classification of the Deuteromycetes
        • Abstract
        • Defining Features of the ‘Class’
        • Organizational Framework for Mitosporic Fungi
        • Genera Involved in Food Microbiology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FUNGI | Classification of the Eukaryotic Ascomycetes
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Defining Features of the Ascomycetes
        • General Features of Ascomycetes
        • Basis for Division of Ascomycetes
        • Commercial Importance of Ascomycetes
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FUNGI | Classification of the Hemiascomycetes
        • Abstract
        • Conidium Ontogeny
        • Saccharomycetales
        • Dipodascales
        • Ecological Importance
        • Kloeckera
        • Debaryomyces
        • Hansenula
        • Importance to the Consumer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FUNGI | Classification of the Peronosporomycetes
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Class Diagnosis
        • Features of the Class: Commercial Importance
        • Biochemistry
        • General Morphology: Characters Used in Taxonomy
        • Characteristics of the Subclasses and the More Important Orders
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • FUNGI | Classification of Zygomycetes: Reappraisal as Coherent Class Based on a Comparison between Traditional versus Molecular Systematics
        • Abstract
        • Nomenclatural Considerations
        • Morphological Considerations: Which Structures Exhibit Phylogenetic Relevance?
        • An Ordinal Structure of the Zygomycota: Historical Outline of Its Revision
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • FUNGI | Foodborne Fungi: Estimation by Cultural Techniques
        • Abstract
        • The Challenge of Quantifying Fungal Growth
        • Enumeration Techniques
        • Choosing a Suitable Medium
        • Techniques for Heat-Resistant Fungi
        • Techniques for Yeasts
        • Media Formulations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Fusarium
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics
        • Methods of Detection
        • Methods of Identification
        • Regulations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • G
      • Genetic Engineering
        • Abstract
        • History
        • Basic Tools
        • Food-Grade Recombinant Bacteria
        • Microbial Products
        • Further Reading
      • Geotrichum
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Importance of Geotrichium in the Food Industry
        • Methods of Detection and Enumeration
        • Pathogenicity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Giardia duodenalis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Waterborne and Foodborne Transmission
        • Waterborne Giardiasis
        • Foodborne Giardiasis
        • Inactivation of Giardia Cysts in Water and Food
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Gluconobacter
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Genus Gluconobacter
        • Methods of Detection
        • Importance to the Food Industry
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Good Manufacturing Practice
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Human Resources
        • Finance and Investment
        • Facilities
        • Materials and Food Ingredients
        • Manufacturing Control
        • Laboratory Control
        • Documentation
        • Transportation
        • New Product Development
        • Product Information and Consumer Awareness
        • Legislation and GMP
        • Future Developments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • H
      • Hafnia, The Genus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Taxonomy
        • Isolation and Identification
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenicity
        • Clinical Significance in Humans
        • Importance in Foods
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hansenula: Biology and Applications
        • Abstract
        • The Genus Hansenula: Taxonomy and Morphology
        • Hansenula Species Causing Human Diseases
        • Hansenula Species Involved in Food Production
        • Hansenula polymorpha: A Model Organism for Fundamental Studies
        • Hansenula polymorpha in Applied Research and Production
        • See also
        • References
      • HAZARD APPRAISAL AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) | The Overall Concept
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The History of the HACCP System
        • Hazard Analysis
        • Critical Control Points
        • Monitoring
        • Verification and Documentation
        • The Role of HACCP
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • HAZARD APPRAISAL AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) | Critical Control Points
        • Abstract
        • Determination of Critical Control Points
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • HAZARD APPRAISAL AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) | Establishment of Performance Criteria
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Prerequisite Programs
        • Implementation Steps of HACCP: Critical Limits
        • Microbial Criteria and Microbial Sampling
        • Risk-Based Food Safety Management: Process Criteria and Product Criteria
        • Sources of Information
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • HAZARD APPRAISAL AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) | Involvement of Regulatory Bodies
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Hazard Appraisal in the Context of Risk Analysis
        • Hazards of Concern in Foods
        • The Regulatory Bodies' Role in Hazard Appraisal
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • HEAT TREATMENT OF FOODS | Action of Microwaves
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • EM Waves
        • Microwave versus Conventional Heating
        • Interaction with Food
        • The Microwave Oven
        • Microwave Heating Quantification
        • Microwave Phenomena
        • Microwaves and Microbiology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • HEAT TREATMENT OF FOODS | Principles of Canning
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Introduction
        • Microbiological Viewpoint
        • Canned Food Production
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • HEAT TREATMENT OF FOODS | Principles of Pasteurization
        • Abstract
        • Historical Origins
        • Basic Aims of Pasteurization
        • Thermal Death of Microorganisms
        • Modern Pasteurization Processes
        • Estimating the Lethality of a Pasteurization Process
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • HEAT TREATMENT OF FOODS | Spoilage Problems Associated with Canning
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Canning Process
        • Spoilage of Canned Foods
        • Quality Assurance of Canned Foods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • HEAT TREATMENT OF FOODS | Synergy Between Treatments
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Possible Combinations of Treatments
        • Evidence of Combination Effects
        • Effects on Microorganisms
        • Possible Applications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • HEAT TREATMENT OF FOODS | Ultra-High-Temperature Treatments
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Review of Kinetic Parameters
        • Continuous Processing Options
        • Safety and Spoilage Considerations
        • Controlling the Process
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Helicobacter
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Characteristics of the Genus Helicobacter
        • Methods to Test for H. Pylori
        • Routes of Transmission
        • Presence in Foods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Helminths
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Nematodes
        • Cestodes
        • Trematodes
        • Prevention and Cure of Infection with Foodborne Helminth Parasites
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • High-Pressure Treatment of Foods
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Nature of the Process
        • Applications in the Food Industry
        • Effect on Microbial Cells
        • Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Affecting Sensitivity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • History of Food Microbiology (A Brief)
        • Abstract
        • Methods
        • Toxins
        • Microbiological Control
        • Treatments
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hurdle Technology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Principles of Hurdle Technology
        • Multitarget Preservation Using Hurdle Technology
        • Applications of Hurdle Technology
        • Limitations to Hurdle Technology
        • The Future for Hurdle Technology
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filter Techniques
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Principles of HGMF
        • Counting Colonies on HGMF
        • Ensuring Validity of MPN
        • Calculating MPN per Gram
        • Precision of MPN
        • History of HGMF
        • Applications of HGMF to Food Microbiology
        • Culture-Based Applications
        • Coliform and E. coli Count
        • Yeast and Mold Count
        • Salmonella
        • Immunological and Colony Hybridization Applications
        • Other Possible Applications
        • Advantages and Limitations of HGMF
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • I
      • Ice Cream: Microbiology
        • Abstract
        • Raw Materials: Major Components and Additives
        • Production Process
        • Microbial Changes During Storage
        • Ice Cream and Foodborne Diseases
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Why Identification?
        • Types of Microorganisms to be Identified in Food
        • Identification Approaches in Food Microbiology
        • Biochemical Identification
        • Molecular Identification
        • Strain Typing
        • Culture-Independent Identification
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Chromogenic Agars
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Culture-Independent Techniques
        • Abstract
        • Recent Trends in Food Microbiology
        • The Culture-Independent Methods
        • Applications in Food Microbiology
        • High-Throughput Sequencing and Metagenomics
        • Future Perspectives
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • IDENTIFICATION METHODS | DNA Fingerprinting: Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Subtyping of Foodborne Pathogens
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Restriction Fragment-Length Analysis
        • Technical Overview of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis
        • Contour-Clamped Homogenous Electric Field
        • Basic Principles
        • Reproducibility and Standardization
        • Documentation of Data and Interpretation PFGE Patterns
        • Relevance in Foodborne Disease Investigations and Surveillance
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • IDENTIFICATION METHODS | DNA Fingerprinting: Restriction Fragment-Length Polymorphism
        • Abstract
        • Overview
        • Genetic Basis of RFLP
        • RFLP Fingerprinting of Chromosomal DNA
        • RFLP Fingerprinting of Chromosomal DNA with Probe Hybridization
        • RFLP of PCR-Amplicons
        • Applications for RFLP Fingerprinting
        • Conclusion and Future Perspectives
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Bacteria RiboPrint: A Realistic Strategy to Address Microbiological Issues outside of the Research Laboratory
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Manual Ribotyping
        • Automated Ribotyping
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Application of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms–Based Typing for DNA Fingerprinting of Foodborne Bacteria
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Hybridization-Based SNP Typing
        • Primer Extension–Based SNP Typing
        • Other Types of Assays
        • Examples of SNP-Typing Applications in Food Microbiology
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Identification Methods and DNA Fingerprinting: Whole Genome Sequencing
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Microbial Functions Fingerprinting
        • Strain Fingerprinting
        • Species Fingerprinting
        • Genome In Silico Reconstruction from Metagenomic Data
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Multilocus Sequence Typing of Food Microorganisms
        • Abstract
        • Design of an MLST Scheme
        • Isolate Collection
        • Housekeeping Gene Selection
        • Oligonucleotide Design
        • Isolate Characterization Using MLST
        • MLST Databases
        • Advantages and Limitations of MLST Typing Schemes
        • Population Studies
        • MLST in Food Microbiology
        • Foodborne Pathogens
        • Bacteria Involved in Food Fermentation
        • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • IDENTIFICATION METHODS | DNA Hybridization and DNA Microarrays for Detection and Identification of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Principle of Microarrays and Hybridization
        • Fabrication and Types of Microarrays
        • Printed Microarrays
        • Suspension Bead Arrays
        • In Situ Synthesized Oligonucleotide Microarrays
        • Experimental Procedure
        • Applications of DNA Microarray for the Detection of Foodborne Pathogens
        • Applications of DNA Microarrays for Gene Expression Studies in Foodborne Bacteria
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Immunoassay
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Types and Uses of Immunoassays for Microbial Detection
        • Conclusion
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Identification of Clinical Microorganisms with MALDI-TOF-MS in a Microbiology Laboratory
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • MALDI-TOF-MS
        • Identification by MALDI-TOF-MS in the Routine Medical Microbiology Laboratory
        • Outlook and Development
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • MLEE Principle and Methodology
        • Contribution of MLEE in Population Genetics and Epidemiology of Microorganisms
        • Identification and Strain Typing of Pathogens by MLEE
        • Present Scenario of MLEE in the Molecular Era
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • IDENTIFICATION METHODS | Real-Time PCR
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Real-Time PCR Detection Strategies
        • Principles of qPCR-Based Quantitative Detection
        • Diagnostic Real-Time PCR Parameters
        • Implementation of Real-Time PCR in Food Microbiology Diagnostics
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Immunomagnetic Particle-Based Techniques: Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Principles of Immunomagnetic Separation Systems
        • Types of Magnetizable Particles
        • Immobilization of Antibodies and Types of IMS
        • Blocking Proteins and Antibody Immobilization
        • Magnetic Particle Concentrators
        • Factors Affecting the Performance of Immunomagnetic Separation Systems
        • Incubation During IMS
        • Washing During IMS
        • Principles of Combination Techniques for Foodborne Pathogens
        • Food Sample Preparation
        • Water Sample Preparation
        • Detection Methods
        • Advantages and Limitations
        • Future Perspectives
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Indicator Organisms
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Target and Role of Indicator Microorganisms
        • Indicator Microorganisms for Food Quality
        • Indicator Microorganisms for Food Safety
        • Most Commonly Used Indicator Organisms in Foods
        • Other Indicators
        • Indicator Microorganisms Used in Microbiological Laboratories
        • Surrogate Microorganisms
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Injured and Stressed Cells
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Injury of Microorganisms
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Intermediate Moisture Foods
        • Abstract
        • Principles Behind Formulation of IM Foods
        • Traditional and Commercial IM Foods
        • Advantages of IM Foods
        • Processing Technologies of IM Foods
        • The Future
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • International Control of Microbiology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Enforcement and Control Agencies and Their Role
        • Standardization
        • Future Development
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • K
      • Klebsiella
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Definition and General Physiological Properties of Klebsiella spp.
        • Isolation and Identification
        • Description of the Diseases
        • Occurrence of Klebsiella in Humans, Foods, Waters, and Environments
        • Role in Foodborne Outbreaks
        • Selected Virulence Factors of Klebsiella
        • Other Virulence Factors
        • Industrial Importance of Klebsiellae
        • Antimicrobial Resistance
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Kluyveromyces
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Species
        • Biotechnological Importance of Kluyveromyces
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • L
      • Laboratory Design
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Design Objectives for the Food Microbiology Laboratory
        • Design Documentation
        • Laboratory Layout
        • Essential Services and Equipment
        • Other Types of Equipment
        • Management Organization
        • Personnel Requirements
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Laboratory Management Systems: Accreditation Schemes
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Accreditation Standards and Legislation
        • Benefits and Drawbacks of Laboratory Accreditation
        • Implementation of Laboratory Management Systems
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • LACTOBACILLUS | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Species
        • Genomics
        • Importance to the Food Industry
        • Importance to the Consumer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • LACTOBACILLUS | Lactobacillus acidophilus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Taxonomy
        • Metabolism and Products
        • Identification and Differentiation
        • Genomics
        • Growth and Culture Conditions
        • Probiotic Capacity of Lactobacilli
        • Selection Criteria
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • LACTOBACILLUS | Lactobacillus brevis
        • Abstract
        • Taxonomy
        • Methods of Detection and Enumeration of L. brevis in Foods
        • Culture Maintenance and Conservation
        • Importance in the Food Industry
        • Importance for the Consumer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • LACTOBACILLUS | Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus
        • Abstract
        • Taxonomy
        • Methods of Detection and Enumeration of L. bulgaricus in Foods
        • Culture Maintenance and Conservation
        • Importance in the Food Industry
        • Importance for the Consumer
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • LACTOBACILLUS | Lactobacillus casei
        • Abstract
        • General Characteristics of the Species
        • Metabolism and Enzymes
        • Genetics and Bacteriophages
        • Application in Food Fermentations
        • Food Spoilage
        • Probiotics
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • LACTOCOCCUS | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics
        • Genomics
        • Importance to the Food Industry
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • LACTOCOCCUS | Lactococcus lactis Subspecies lactis and cremoris
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • General Information
        • Ecological Considerations
        • Health, Disease, and Safety
        • Taxonomy, Genetic, Genomic, Transcryptomic, and Proteomic
        • Metabolism of Lc. lactis
        • Growth Conditions in Milk, Culture Media
        • Roles of Lc. lactis in Technology
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Lasers: Inactivation Techniques
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Applications
        • Laser Characteristics
        • Protocols, Methodologies, and Results
        • Scanning Laser Beams
        • Laser Inactivation and Substrate Material
        • Effect of Environmental Parameters on Laser Inactivation
        • Laser and Combined Treatments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Leuconostocaceae Family
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Taxonomy of the Leuconostocaceae
        • Leuconostocaceae in their Natural Environment
        • Detection and Enumeration of Leuconostocaceae in Beverages and Foods
        • Importance of Leuconostocaceae in the Food Industry
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • LISTERIA | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Species
        • Genome
        • Methods of Detection
        • Regulations
        • Importance to the Food Industry
        • Importance to the Consumer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • LISTERIA | Detection by Classical Cultural Techniques
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Detection of L. monocytogenes by Cultural Methods
        • Implementation of Detection and Enumeration of L. monocytogenes in Food
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • LISTERIA | Detection by Colorimetric DNA Hybridization
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Principle of the DNAH Assays for the Genus Listeria and for L. monocytogenes
        • Protocols for the DNAH Detection of Listeria Species or L. monocytogenes and Point of Application in the Cultural Techniques
        • Advantages and Limitations of the Colorimetric DNA Hybridization Method Compared with other Techniques
        • Validated Results
        • Summary
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • LISTERIA | Detection by Commercial Immunomagnetic Particle-Based Assays and by Commercial Enzyme Immunoassays
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Methods of Detection
        • Immunosensors for Listeria Detection
        • Future Trends
        • Acknowledgment
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • LISTERIA | Listeria monocytogenes
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Species
        • Virulence
        • Occurrence in Food
        • Foodborne Illness
        • Detection of L. monocytogenes
        • Serology
        • Other Typing Methods
        • Genomics
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • LISTERIA | Listeria monocytogenes – Detection by Chemiluminescent DNA Hybridization
        • Abstract
        • Principle of the Gen-Probe Assay for L. monocytogenes
        • Protocol for the Detection of L. monocytogenes and Point of Application in the Cultural Techniques
        • Advantages and Limitations of the Chemiluminescent Probe Compared with Other Techniques
        • Results and Reported Data on Collaborative Evaluations and Validations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • M
      • MEAT AND POULTRY | Curing of Meat
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Historical Background
        • Curing Reaction in Meats
        • Mechanism of Action against Microorganisms
        • Processing Methods
        • Naturally Cured Products
        • Preservation of Cured Meat Products
        • Shelf-Stable
        • Cured Meat and Human Health
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MEAT AND POULTRY | Spoilage of Cooked Meat and Meat Products
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Heat Processed Meat
        • Processed Meats
        • Packaged Meat Products
        • Chemical Spoilage
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MEAT AND POULTRY | Spoilage of Meat
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Special Problems Associated with Meat
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • METABOLIC PATHWAYS | Lipid Metabolism
        • Abstract
        • Lipids in Fungi and Bacteria
        • Major Lipid Classes
        • Biochemical Mechanisms of Uptake
        • Transformations Within the Cell
        • Incorporation of Fatty Acids into Triglycerides and other Intracellular Structures
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • METABOLIC PATHWAYS | Metabolism of Minerals and Vitamins
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Uptake of Minerals by Bacteria
        • Mechanisms for Incorporation of Minerals into Enzymes
        • Heavy-Metal Efflux Systems and Metallothionein
        • Biosynthesis and Uptake of Vitamins
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • METABOLIC PATHWAYS | Nitrogen Metabolism
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Inorganic Nitrogen Metabolism
        • Amino Acid Metabolism
        • Nucleotide Metabolism
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • METABOLIC PATHWAYS | Production of Secondary Metabolites of Bacteria
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Effect of Secondary Metabolites on Food Products and Foodborne Illness
        • Beneficial Effects of Bacterial Secondary Metabolites
        • Assembly of NRP Molecules
        • Type I Polyketide Synthases
        • Type II Polyketide Synthase
        • Type III Polyketide Synthase
        • Shikimate Pathway
        • β-Lactam Ring Synthetic Pathways
        • Conclusion
        • Disclaimer
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • METABOLIC PATHWAYS | Production of Secondary Metabolites – Fungi
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Characteristics of Secondary Metabolites
        • Metabolic Pathway for Secondary Metabolites
        • Transformation within Cells
        • Antibiotics
        • Penicillins
        • Synthetic Pathway and Regulation of Penicillin Formation
        • Industrial Production of Penicillin
        • Cephalosporins
        • Synthetic Pathway of Cephalosporins in Fungi
        • Industrial Production of Cephalosporins
        • Fusidic Acid
        • Biosynthetic Pathway of Fusidic Acid
        • Applications of Fusidic Acid
        • Griseofulvin
        • Biosynthesis of Griseofulvin
        • Commercial Production
        • Applications of Griseofulvin
        • Pleuromutilin (Tiamulin)
        • Production of Pleuromutilin
        • Applications of Pleuromutilin
        • Other Secondary Metabolites
        • Fungal Secondary Metabolites in Fermented Foods
        • Meat Products
        • Production of Secondary Metabolites in Meat Products
        • Cheeses
        • Secondary Metabolites in Cheese
        • Secondary Metabolites in Soy Sauce
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • METABOLIC PATHWAYS | Release of Energy (Aerobic)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Transport into the Cell
        • Active Transport: Symport of Sugars
        • Group Translocation: PTS
        • EMP Pathway
        • ED Pathway
        • Pentose-Phosphate (PP) and Pentose-Phosphoketolase Pathways
        • Pentose-Phosphoketolase Pathway
        • Glycolytic Pathways in Archaea
        • Energy Balance and Distribution of the Glucose-Degrading Pathways
        • Oxidation of Pyruvate to Acetyl-Coenzyme A
        • The Citric Acid Cycle
        • Other Substrates as Sources for Metabolic Activity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • METABOLIC PATHWAYS | Release of Energy (Anaerobic)
        • Abstract
        • Metabolism and Microorganisms
        • Bacterial Growth during Fermentation
        • Substrates Utilized by Bacteria and Fungi
        • Mechanisms of Uptake
        • Pathways Involved in Catabolism
        • The Monophosphate Shunt
        • ED Pathway
        • Anaerobic Respiration
        • Fermentation
        • Sites of Activity (Mitochondria and Membrane)
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Methanogens
        • Abstract
        • Diversity and Taxonomy
        • Methanogenic Bioreactors
        • Methanogenesis in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Animals
        • Genomic Studies for Methanogens
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Microbial Risk Analysis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Components of Microbial Risk Analysis
        • The Role of Food Safety Metrics in the Context of Risk Analysis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Microbiological Reference Materials
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Availability of (C)RMs
        • Preparation of RMs
        • Routine Use of RMs
        • Use of CRMs
        • Some Statistical Aspects of the Use of RMs
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Microbiology of Sous-vide Products
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Processing of Sous-vide Foods
        • Physicochemical Characteristics of Sous-vide Foods
        • Bacteria in Sous-vide Foods
        • Recommendations and Regulations
        • Future Developments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Micrococcus
        • Abstract
        • Taxonomic Status of Micrococcus and Micrococcaceae
        • Main Habitats and Pathogenicity
        • Detection, Enumeration, and Identification Methods
        • Occurrence of Micrococcus and Micrococcaceae in Foods
        • Applications of Micrococcus and Micrococcaceae in Foods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MICROFLORA OF THE INTESTINE | The Natural Microflora of Humans
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Progression of Gut Microbiota Signatures from Infants to Aging
        • Lifestyle and Environmental Factors Influencing the Pattern of Gut Microbiota
        • Gut Microbiota at Genomic and Proteomic Levels
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MICROFLORA OF THE INTESTINE | Biology of Bifidobacteria
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Role of Bifidobacteria in the Intestine
        • Colonization of the Intestine, Causes of Depletion, and Possible Effects
        • Growth-Promoting Factors
        • Health-Promoting Potentials
        • Intestinal Bifidobacterial Counts and Dietary Supplementation
        • Available Products
        • Characterization/Survival of Bifidobacteria in Dairy Products
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MICROFLORA OF THE INTESTINE | Biology of Lactobacillus acidophilus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Lactobacilli Colonization in the Gastrointestinal Tract
        • Role of L. acidophilus in the Intestine
        • Mucosal Interaction
        • Causes of Depletion and Possible Effects
        • Advantages of Dietary Supplementation
        • Diarrhea
        • Lactose Digestion
        • Cholesterol Reduction
        • Cancer Suppression
        • Constipation
        • Immune System Stimulation
        • Available Products and Survival until Consumption
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MICROFLORA OF THE INTESTINE | Biology of the Enterococcus spp.
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Role of Enterococci in the Human Intestinal Indigenous Microbiota
        • Functional Properties of Enterococci
        • Pathogenetic and Toxicogenic Activities of Enterococci
        • Use of Enterococci in the Food Industry
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MICROFLORA OF THE INTESTINE | Detection and Enumeration of Probiotic Cultures
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Traditional Approaches for Detection and Enumeration of Probiotics
        • Culture-Dependent Traditional Approaches for Detection and Enumeration of Probiotics
        • Characterization by Microscopic Analysis
        • Characterization by Biochemical Analysis
        • Modern Approaches for Detection of Probiotics
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • MICROSCOPY | Atomic Force Microscopy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Principles of AFM
        • Atomic Force Microscopic Imaging in Food Microbiology
        • Measuring Forces of Interaction in Food Microbiology
        • Future Prospects
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MICROSCOPY | Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy
        • Abstract
        • A Brief History
        • Why Use CLSM in the Field of Food Microbiology?
        • Principle of CLSM
        • Staining and Mounting the Sample
        • CLSM Multimodal Image Acquisition
        • Related CLSM Techniques
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MICROSCOPY | Light Microscopy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Principles of Light Microscopy
        • Cytological Light Microscopy
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MICROSCOPY | Scanning Electron Microscopy
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Scanning Electron Microscope
        • Sample Preparation
        • Mounting the Specimen
        • Cryo-SEM
        • Variable Pressure SEM
        • Sputter Coating
        • Imaging
        • Detectors
        • Magnification, Resolution, and Scale Bars
        • X-Ray Elemental Analysis by SEM
        • Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy
        • Conclusion
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MICROSCOPY | Sensing Microscopy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Chemical-Imaging Sensor (pH-Sensing Microscope)
        • Application
        • Observation of Microorganisms
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MICROSCOPY | Transmission Electron Microscopy
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Transmission Electron Microscope
        • How the TEM Works
        • Instrument Alignment
        • Methods and Techniques in TEM
        • Ultramicrotomy
        • Negative Stain
        • Immuno-EM
        • Electron Cryomicroscopy
        • Single-Particle Analysis
        • Cryoelectron Tomography
        • Conclusion
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS | Microbiology of Liquid Milk
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sources of Contamination
        • Bacteriological Standards for Raw and Pasteurized Milk
        • Collection and Storage of Raw Milk
        • Microbiology of Pasteurized Milk
        • Other Methods for Controlling Microorganisms in Raw Milk
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS | Microbiology of Cream and Butter
        • Abstract
        • Cream
        • Butter
        • Microbiological Standards for Cream and Butter
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS | Microbiology of Dried Milk Products
        • Abstract
        • Manufacturing Processes
        • Raw Milk
        • Milk Processing
        • Skim Milk Powder
        • Environmental Contamination
        • Process Monitoring
        • Suggested Standards
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MINIMAL METHODS OF PROCESSING | Manothermosonication
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History of Manothermosonication
        • Basic Principles
        • Effects of Ultrasonic Waves on Microbial Cells
        • Hurdle Preservation Involving MTS
        • Enzyme Inactivation
        • Industrial Applications of MTS
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MINIMAL METHODS OF PROCESSING | Potential Use of Phages and Lysins
        • Abstract
        • The Nature of Phages for Pathogens
        • Characteristics of the Phages
        • Phages Replication
        • Problems of Employing Phages for Control of Pathogens in Food
        • Nature of Lysins and Their Production
        • Potential for Commercial Use of Lysins, Including Production In Vitro and Related Problems
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant websites
      • MOLECULAR BIOLOGY | An Introduction to Molecular Biology (Omics) in Food Microbiology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Genome Sequencing; Genomics
        • 454 Pyrosequencing
        • Illumina/Solexa Sequencing
        • The SOLiD Sequencing Approach
        • Ion-Torrent (Semiconductor) Sequencing
        • Nanopore Sequencing
        • Genomewide Transcript Analysis
        • Proteomics Analysis
        • Metabolism Metabolomics
        • Bioinformatics and Outlook
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MOLECULAR BIOLOGY | Genomics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • A Brief History of Bacterial Genome Sequencing and Technologies
        • Genomics of Lactic Acid Bacteria
        • Lactobacillus Genomics
        • Gene Annotation: Approaches and Challenges
        • Prospects and Conclusion
        • Annex 1: Interpretation of a Genome Atlas
        • Annex 2: Visualization of Whole Genome Alignments to Assess Overall Sequence and Organizational Similarity.
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MOLECULAR BIOLOGY | Metabolomics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Methodology
        • Current Trends
        • Applications in Food Microbiology
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MOLECULAR BIOLOGY | Microbiome
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Composition of the Microbiome
        • Methods Used to Study the Microbiome
        • The Biological Function of the Microbiome
        • The Microbiome and Diseases
        • The Microbiome as a Therapy Target
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MOLECULAR BIOLOGY | Proteomics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Proteomics Technologies for the Identification and Quantification of Proteins
        • Proteomics of Lactic Acid Bacteria
        • Probiotics
        • Bacterial Secretome and Proteomics of Biofilm Formation
        • Proteomics of Yeasts
        • Metabolic Engineering
        • Metaproteomics
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • MOLECULAR BIOLOGY | Transcriptomics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Transcriptomics of Foodborne Pathogens
        • Transcriptomics of Spoilage Microorganisms
        • Transcriptomics of Food-Grade Microorganisms
        • Methods Employed in Transcriptomics
        • Challenges
        • Advances in Food Transcriptomics
        • Further Reading
      • MOLECULAR BIOLOGY | Molecular Biology in Microbiological Analysis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Microbiological Analysis of Foods
        • Nucleic Acid-Based Tests
        • Direct Hybridization Assays
        • Amplification-Based Methods
        • Polymerase Chain Reaction
        • Application of PCR in Food Samples
        • Future Developments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Monascus-Fermented Products
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Red Mold Rice
        • Secondary Metabolites of RMR
        • Applications of Monascus-Fermented Products on Iatrical Prevention
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Moraxellaceae
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Moraxella
        • Acinetobacter
        • Psychrobacter
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Mucor
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Importance of Mucor in the Food Industry
        • Methods of Detection and Enumeration
        • Pathogenicity
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Mycobacterium
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Genus
        • Tuberculosis in Birds
        • Tuberculosis in Ruminants, Swine, and Horses
        • Tuberculosis in Elephants
        • Government Regulations
        • Mycobacteria Species of Public Health Importance
        • Habitat
        • Isolation of the Agent
        • Identification of the Agent – Methods of Detection
        • Ziehl–Neelsen Stain
        • Colonial Morphology
        • Growth Rate and Pigment Production
        • Differential Characteristics of Commonly Isolated Mycobacteria
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MYCOTOXINS | Classification
        • Abstract
        • What Is a Mycotoxin?
        • The Toxins
        • The Mycotoxin-Producing Molds
        • Contamination of Foods by Mycotoxins
        • Toxicity and Biological Effects of Mycotoxins
        • Mycotoxins of Greatest Concern and Their Effects on Animal and Human Health
        • Mycotoxins of Lesser Concern
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MYCOTOXINS | Detection and Analysis by Classical Techniques
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Description of Analytical Methods
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • References
      • MYCOTOXINS | Immunological Techniques for Detection and Analysis
        • Abstract
        • Mycotoxins
        • Important Mycotoxins in Food
        • Mycotoxin Assay
        • Use of Immunoaffinity Columns
        • Immunological Methods for Detection and Analysis of Mycotoxins
        • Radioimmunoassays
        • Immunoradiometric Assays
        • Enzyme-Linked Immunoassays for Mycotoxins
        • Direct Competitive ELISA
        • Indirect Competitive ELISA
        • Noncompetitive ELISA
        • Enzyme-Linked-Immuno-Magnetic-Electrochemical-array (ELIME)
        • Lateral Flow Devices
        • Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunobiosensors
        • Fiber-Optic Immunosensor
        • Fluorescent Polarization
        • Other Methods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • MYCOTOXINS | Natural Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Food
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Mycotoxins – Their Role and Importance
        • Factors Determining Biosynthesis of Mycotoxins
        • Sources of Mycotoxins
        • Division of Mycotoxins
        • Methods to Prevent Mycotoxin Formation
        • See also
        • References
      • MYCOTOXINS | Toxicology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Aspergillus Toxins
        • Fusarium Toxins
        • Penicillium Toxins
        • Alternaria Toxins
        • Combined Effects of Mycotoxins
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • N
      • Nanotechnology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Properties of Nanoparticles
        • Nanotechnology in Food Safety, Food Processing and Packaging, and Targeted Delivery
        • Food and Agriculture Safety
        • Food Processing and Packaging
        • Vitamins and Phytochemicals Delivery (Nanoencapsulation Technology for Better Absorption, Stability, or Targeted Delivery)
        • Application of Nanotechnology in Other Areas of Food Microbiology
        • Other Relevant Uses of Nanotechnology
        • Health Concerns
        • Nanomaterial Waste and Its Effect on Plant Growth
        • Nanotechnology Oversight
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgments
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • NATIONAL LEGISLATION, GUIDELINES & STANDARDS GOVERNING MICROBIOLOGY | Canada
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Microbiological Standards
        • Microbiological Guidelines
        • Health Canada’s Compendium of Analytical Methods
        • Health Canada Guidelines
        • Canadian Food Inspection Agency
        • Processed Eggs Regulations
        • Egg Regulations
        • Dairy Products Regulations
        • Processed Products Regulations
        • Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Regulations
        • Meat Inspection Regulations
        • Fish Inspection Act and Fish Inspection Regulations
        • Power of Recall
        • The Canadian Shellfish Sanitation Program
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • NATIONAL LEGISLATION, GUIDELINES & STANDARDS GOVERNING MICROBIOLOGY | European Union
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Food Safety Criteria
        • Process Hygiene Criteria
        • Rules for Sampling
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • NATIONAL LEGISLATION, GUIDELINES & STANDARDS GOVERNING MICROBIOLOGY | Japan
        • Abstract
        • Food Safety Basic Law
        • Food Sanitation Law
        • Enforcement Order and Enforcement Regulation of the Food Sanitation Law
        • Microbiological Standards
        • Test Methods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • NATIONAL LEGISLATION, GUIDELINES & STANDARDS GOVERNING MICROBIOLOGY | US
        • Abstract
        • US Governmental Organization
        • US Department of Agriculture
        • US Department of Health and Human Services
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • NATURAL ANTI-MICROBIAL SYSTEMS | Antimicrobial Compounds in Plants
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Range of Antimicrobial Compounds in Plants
        • Reduction of Spoilage by Antimicrobial Compounds
        • Response of Plants to Infection
        • Role of Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns
        • Phytoalexin Biosynthesis
        • Mode of Action of Phytoalexins
        • Detoxification of Phytoalexins
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • NATURAL ANTI-MICROBIAL SYSTEMS | Lactoperoxidase and Lactoferrin
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Lactoperoxidase System
        • Antimicrobial Effect of the LP System
        • Effects of the LP System on Milk Components
        • Lactoferrin
        • Antimicrobial Effects of LF
        • Antiviral and Antiprotozoan Effects of Lactoferrin
        • Effect of LF on Dairy Products
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • NATURAL ANTI-MICROBIAL SYSTEMS | Lysozyme and Other Proteins in Eggs
        • Abstract
        • Occurrence
        • Structure
        • Properties
        • Mode of Action
        • Importance in Avian Eggs
        • Importance in Food and Pharmaceutical Applications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • NATURAL ANTI-MICROBIAL SYSTEMS | Preservative Effects During Storage
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • An Ecological Concept of Food Preservation
        • Antimicrobial Systems Naturally Present in Foods
        • Yeasts
        • Killer Toxins
        • Ethanol
        • Antimicrobial Compounds Produced by Plants
        • Chelating Agents
        • Enzymes
        • Bacteriophages
        • Future Developments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • NON-THERMAL PROCESSING | Cold Plasma for Bioefficient Food Processing
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition of Plasma
        • Plasma Sources
        • General Aspects of Inactivation Mechanisms
        • Inactivation of Microorganisms Attached to Model Systems
        • Inactivation of Microorganisms Attached to Food Matrices
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • NON-THERMAL PROCESSING | Irradiation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Irradiation Process Dose and Dosimetry
        • Irradiation Equipment
        • Special Benefits of Food Irradiation
        • Applications of Ionizing Radiation in the Food Industry
        • Radiation Levels for Control of Foodborne Microorganisms
        • Effects of Radiation on Selected Food Components
        • Effects of Radiation on Food-Packaging Materials
        • Antimicrobial Mechanism of Action
        • Factors Affecting Inactivation of Microorganisms by Irradiation
        • Microbial Repair of Damage from Irradiation
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • NON-THERMAL PROCESSING | Microwave
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Electromagnetic Radiation
        • Microwave
        • Principles of Microwave Radiation
        • Thermal Effects of Microwaves
        • Nonthermal Effects of Microwave
        • Use of Microwave as Nonthermal Processing
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • NON-THERMAL PROCESSING | Pulsed Electric Field
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Technological Aspects of the Pulsed Electric Field
        • Mechanisms of Microbial Inactivation by the Pulsed Electric Field
        • Factors Affecting Microbial Inactivation by Pulsed Electric Fields
        • Kinetics of Microbial Inactivation by Pulsed Electric Field
        • Microbial Inactivation by Combined Processes Including Pulsed Electric Fields
        • Industrial Application Based on Microbial Inactivation by Pulsed Electric Field
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • NON-THERMAL PROCESSING | Pulsed UV Light
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pulsed UV Light Generation and Emission Spectrum
        • Pulsed UV Light Devices
        • Processing Parameters
        • Mechanism of Microbial Inactivation
        • Inactivation Kinetics
        • Factors Determining the Efficacy of PUV Treatments
        • Potential Applications of PUV Technology and Main Limitations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • NON-THERMAL PROCESSING | Steam Vacuuming
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Meat-Processing Industry
        • Meat Contamination
        • Meat Sanitation
        • Steam Vacuuming as a Carcass Intervention Method
        • Steam-Vacuuming Equipment
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • NON-THERMAL PROCESSING | Ultrasonication
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Mechanisms of Action in the Sound Field
        • Stimulation of Living Cells
        • Ultrasound Pretreatment in Analytical Microbiology
        • Inactivation of Microorganisms
        • Conclusion and Future Trends
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Nucleic Acid–Based Assays: Overview
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Gene Probes
        • Amplification of Target Sequences
        • Other Amplification Reactions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • P
      • PACKAGING | Active Food Packaging
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Active Packaging Techniques
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PACKAGING | Controlled Atmosphere
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History of CA and MA
        • Gases Used for CA and MA Packaging
        • Applications of CA Packaging and Storage
        • Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PACKAGING | Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Foods
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Gases Used in MAP
        • MAP Applications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Packaging of Foods
        • Abstract
        • Preservation Requirements of Common Food Categories
        • Package Materials and Structures
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pantoea
        • Abstract
        • Taxonomy and Systematics of Pantoea spp.
        • Sources of Pantoea spp.
        • Phenotypic Description, Identification, and Detection of Pantoea spp.
        • Pantoea as Part of the Microbiota in Food Fermentation
        • Use of Pantoea as Microbial Temperature Indicator
        • Exopolysaccharide Production by P. agglomerans
        • Use of Pantoea spp. to Control Plant Infections and to Improve Plant Health and Growth
        • Biocontrol with P. agglomerans
        • Biosafety Assessment of Pantoea Biocontrol Preparation
        • Risk of Infection
        • Risk of Allergy and Environmental Risks
        • Further Reading
      • PCR Applications in Food Microbiology
        • Abstract
        • Polymerase Chain Reaction – The Method
        • Sample Preparation, a Prerequisite to Reliable PCR Detection of Pathogens in the Food Laboratory
        • PCR Is Currently an Accepted Method in the Food Microbiology Laboratory
        • Validated PCR Methods for Foodborne Pathogens
        • Application of PCR in Food Microbiology – Examples
        • Conclusion and Perspectives
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pediococcus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • General Characteristics and Physiology
        • Metabolism
        • Nutrition
        • Genomics
        • Pediocins
        • Genetic Modification
        • Bacteriophage
        • Methods of Detection and Enumeration
        • Bacteriological Media
        • DNA-Based Methods of Identification
        • Immunological-Based Methods of Identification
        • Some Practical Applications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PENICILLIUM | Penicillium and Talaromyces:: Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Taxonomy
        • Teleomorphs (Sexual States)
        • The Sexual State in Penicillium Species
        • Talaromyces
        • Enumeration and Isolation
        • Physiology
        • Penicillium Species Important in Foods
        • Talaromyces Species Important in Foods
        • Mycotoxins
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PENICILLIUM | Penicillium/Penicillia in Food Production
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Fermented Meat Sausages
        • Pork Ham and Faroan Lamb Meat
        • White-Fermented Cheeses
        • Blue-Fermented Cheeses
        • Flavors of Penicillium
        • Features of Some Penicillia That Are Used as Real or Can Be Potential Starter Cultures
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Petrifilm – A Simplified Cultural Technique
        • Abstract
        • Available Commercial Products
        • Range of Food Product Applications
        • General Method and Procedures
        • Procedures Specified in Regulations, Guidelines, and Directives
        • Advantages and Limitations
        • Interpretation and Presentation of Results
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Phycotoxins
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Toxins Produced by Dinoflagellates and Diatoms
        • Saxitoxins Group
        • Okadaic Acid Group
        • Brevetoxin Group
        • Ciguatera Toxin Group
        • Domoic Acid Group
        • Azaspiracid Group
        • Palytoxin Group
        • Others
        • Toxins Produced by Cyanobacteria
        • Toxins of Bacterial Origin Associated with Algae
        • Tetrodotoxin
        • Controlling Phycotoxin Poisoning
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROFLORAS | Centrifugation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Principle of Centrifugation
        • Operating Parameters
        • Applications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROFLORAS | Filtration
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Principles of Filtration
        • Factors Affecting Filtration Processes Performance
        • Materials and Systems for Food Uses
        • Applications in the Food Industry
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pichia pastoris
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Species
        • History
        • Advantages of Using P. pastoris
        • The Pichia Expression System
        • Pichia Strains and Plasmids
        • Construction of Recombinant Strains
        • Protein Expression
        • Posttranslational Modification of Expressed Proteins
        • Importance to the Food Industry
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Plesiomonas
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Taxonomy and Habitats
        • Clinical Features
        • Pathogenicity and Virulence Factors
        • Plesiomonas in Food
        • Control
        • Detection and Identification of P. shigelloides
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Polymer Technologies for the Control of Bacterial Adhesion – From Fundamental to Applied Science and Technology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • SAMs as Model Systems for Bacterial Adhesion Research
        • Parameters Influencing Bacterial Adhesion
        • Nonfouling and Antimicrobial Surfaces
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Predictive Microbiology and Food Safety
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Past and Present
        • Theory and Philosophy of Mathematical Modeling
        • Model Types
        • Model Performance
        • Existing Technology and the Future
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PRESERVATIVES | Classification and Properties
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Need for Preservatives
        • Properties of Preservatives
        • Classification
        • Antimicrobial Properties
        • Uses
        • Toxicology and Regulatory Status
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PRESERVATIVES | Permitted Preservatives – Benzoic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Foods to Which Benzoic Acid May Be Added
        • Behavior of Benzoic Acid in Food
        • Antimicrobial Action of Benzoic Acid
        • Importance of Species and Strain Tolerance
        • Interaction with Other Preservative Treatments
        • Dietary Exposure, Metabolism, and Toxicology
        • Concerns
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PRESERVATIVES | Permitted Preservatives – Hydroxybenzoic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Range of Foods to Which Parabens May be Added
        • Behavior and Antimicrobial Action of Different Forms in Foods
        • Metabolism and Toxicology of Parabens
        • Assay Techniques for Parabens
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PRESERVATIVES | Permitted Preservatives – Natamycin
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Structure and Properties
        • Toxicology and Legislation
        • Natamycin as a Cheese Preservative
        • Natamycin for Fermented Sausages
        • Natamycin as a Yogurt Preservative
        • Natamycin Control of Yeast Spoilage in Wine
        • Natamycin to Control Spoilage of Fruit Juices
        • Potential Applications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PRESERVATIVES | Permitted Preservatives – Nitrites and Nitrates
        • Abstract
        • Foods to Which Nitrates and Nitrites May Be Added
        • Regulation of Nitrate and Nitrite Addition
        • Behavior of Nitrites in Food
        • Antimicrobial Action of Nitrite
        • Mechanism of Action of Nitrite
        • Importance of Species and Strain Tolerance
        • Toxicology
        • Interaction of Nitrite with Other Preservatives
        • Transformation of Nitrite to Nitrosamines
        • Consumer Concern about Amines
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PRESERVATIVES | Permitted Preservatives – Propionic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Foods Permitted to Contain Propionic Acid
        • Behavior of Propionic Acid in Food
        • Antimicrobial Action of Propionic Acid
        • Metabolism and Toxicology of Propionates
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PRESERVATIVES | Permitted Preservatives – Sorbic Acid
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Methods of Detection
        • Behavior of Sorbate in Food
        • Foods to Which Sorbic Acid or Sorbate May Be Added
        • Antimicrobial Action of Sorbic Acid
        • Importance of Species-Strain Tolerance
        • Interaction with Other Preservative Treatments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PRESERVATIVES | Permitted Preservatives – Sulfur Dioxide
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sulfur Compounds
        • Salts of Sulfurous Acid
        • Liquid Sulfur Dioxide
        • Range of Foods to Which Sulfites May Be Added
        • Antimicrobial Action of Sulfur Dioxide
        • Factors Influencing Antimicrobial Action
        • Behavior of Sulfur Dioxide in Foods
        • Inhibition of Enzymic Discoloration
        • Inhibition of Nonenzymic Browning
        • Antioxidant Properties
        • Reducing and Bleaching Actions
        • Losses from Binding to Food Constituents
        • Importance of Species and Strain Tolerance
        • Toxic Effects in Humans
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PRESERVATIVES | Traditional Preservatives – Oils and Spices
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Range of Extracted Oils and Spices Available
        • Mode of Action on Microbial Cells
        • In Vitro and In Situ Studies
        • Factors Affecting Antimicrobial Action
        • Recent Developments in the Application of EO in Food Industries
        • References
      • PRESERVATIVES | Traditional Preservatives – Organic Acids
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Organic Acid–Based Acidification of Foods
        • Toxicity
        • Behavior of Various Organic Acids in Foods
        • Effect of Organic Acids on Microbial Cells
        • Effects of Organic Acids on Microbial Populations and Spoilage
        • Sublethal Effects, Species–Strain Variability, and Interaction with Other Factors
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PRESERVATIVES | Traditional Preservatives – Sodium Chloride
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • NaCl Suppression of Growth
        • Mechanisms of NaCl Suppression of Growth
        • Salt Tolerance
        • Mechanisms of Salt Tolerance
        • NaCl Effects on Heat Resistance
        • Effect of NaCl on Spores
        • Salt-Induced Microbial Selection
        • Direct Preservation by Salt
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PRESERVATIVES | Traditional Preservatives – Vegetable Oils
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Vegetable Oil Preservatives
        • Examples of Vegetable Oil Preservatives
        • Oils from Vegetables as Possible Preservatives
        • Major Component of Vegetable Oil That Makes It a Self-Preservative
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PRESERVATIVES | Traditional Preservatives – Wood Smoke
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Range of Smoked Foods
        • African Smoked Fish
        • Active Antimicrobial Constituents of Wood Smoke
        • Effect of Deposition on Microbial Cells and Microflora
        • Likely Preservative Effect of Smoking
        • Possible Risks to the Consumer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Prions
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Molecular Mechanism of Prion Diseases
        • Prion Diseases and Other Proteinopathies
        • The History of Prion Diseases
        • The Host Range of Different Prion Diseases
        • Prion Diseases Relevant for Food Hygiene
        • TSE Pathogenesis
        • Inactivation of TSE Agents
        • Consumer Protection Measures Based on Our Actual Knowledge on Prion Diseases
        • Diagnostic Methods
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Probiotic Bacteria: Detection and Estimation in Fermented and Nonfermented Dairy Products
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Microflora of Probiotic Products
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PRESERVATIVES | Overall Approach to Hygienic Processing
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Microbial Risks
        • Hygiene Management
        • Personal Hygiene
        • Hygienic Design of Plant and Equipment
        • Hygienic Practices
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PROCESS HYGIENE | Designing for Hygienic Operation
        • Abstract
        • Nature of the Product and Scale of Operation
        • Equipment, Vats, Pipework, and Other Plant Items
        • Critical Points of High Contamination Risk
        • Risk from the Environment
        • Building
        • Air
        • Water
        • Soil
        • Personnel
        • See also
        • Reference
        • Further Reading
      • PROCESS HYGIENE | Hygiene in the Catering Industry
        • Abstract
        • Sanitization of Fresh-Cut Produce
        • Quality Changes in Fresh-Cut Produce during Distribution
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PROCESS HYGIENE | Involvement of Regulatory and Advisory Bodies
        • Abstract
        • General Introduction
        • International Level
        • Europe
        • The United States
        • Australia and New Zealand
        • Canada
        • Scandinavia
        • Japan
        • China
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PROCESS HYGIENE | Modern Systems of Plant Cleaning
        • Abstract
        • Clean-in-Place
        • The Cleaning Problem
        • CIP System Design Guidelines
        • CIP Chemicals
        • Typical Cleaning Sequence
        • System Configuration and Layout
        • Automation
        • Validation of Cleaning Operations
        • CIP in the Biopharmaceutical Industry
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PROCESS HYGIENE | Risk and Control of Airborne Contamination
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Presence, Transport, and Sedimentation of Microorganisms
        • Quantification of Contamination with Airborne Microorganisms
        • Methods to Determine the Concentration of Microorganisms in Air
        • Slit Sampler
        • Andersen Perforated Disc Sampler
        • Impinger
        • Filtration
        • Centrifugation
        • Reduction of Airborne Microbial Contamination
        • Inactivation by Heat
        • Inactivation by Ultraviolet Light
        • Inactivation Using Chemical Agents
        • Removal of Particles from Air
        • Prevention of Recontamination
        • Validation, Assurance, and Maintenance of Air Filters
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PROCESS HYGIENE | Disinfectant Testing
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Testing Protocols for Chemical Agents Used in Environmental Contamination Control
        • Testing Protocols for Hand Sanitizers
        • Testing Protocols for Food Rinses
        • Contemporary Issues in Disinfectant Testing
        • See also
        • References
      • PROCESS HYGIENE | Types of Sterilant
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Basic Definitions
        • How Sanitizers Exert Their Germicidal Activity
        • How Bacteria Build up Resistance to Sanitizers
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Proficiency Testing Schemes – A European Perspective
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Why Are PT Schemes Necessary?
        • Who Organizes and Accredits PT Schemes?
        • What Range of Tests Is Included in PT Schemes?
        • Sample Preparation, Distribution, Analysis, and Assessment
        • Data Analyses
        • Interpretation and Reporting of Results
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Propionibacterium
        • Abstract
        • Taxonomic Approach
        • Ecological Niche
        • Enumeration and Culture Procedures
        • Use of Propionibacteria in Industry
        • Genetic Improvement of Propionibacteria
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Proteus
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Genus
        • Habitat
        • Proteus and Food
        • Susceptibility to Physical and Chemical Agents
        • Pathogenicity and Virulence
        • Detection and Isolation of Proteus
        • Identification
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PSEUDOMONAS | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Genus
        • Pseudomonas in Foods and Food Production Environments
        • Methods of Detection
        • Importance to the Food Industry
        • Importance to the Consumer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • PSEUDOMONAS | Burkholderia gladioli pathovar cocovenenans
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Characteristics of the Organism
        • Toxins
        • Significance in Foods
        • Control
        • Isolation and Detection
        • See also
        • Reference
        • Further Reading
      • PSEUDOMONAS | Pseudomonas aeruginosa
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Biological Characteristics of P. aeruginosa
        • Recommended Methods for Detection and Enumeration of Pseudomonas and Procedures Specified in International Guidelines
        • Medical Aspects of P. aeruginosa
        • Relevance of P. aeruginosa in the Food Sector
        • Industrial Aspects and Bioremediation Properties of P. aeruginosa
        • Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm and Quorum Sensing
        • Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacteriocins
        • Multidrug-Resistant P. aeruginosa: A Public Health Issue Worldwide
        • References
      • Psychrobacter
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Taxonomy
        • Detection and Enumeration in Foods
        • Applications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • R
      • Rapid Methods for Food Hygiene Inspection
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Food Hygiene Inspection
        • Training of Inspection Staff
        • Hygiene Monitoring
        • Microbiological Examination of Foods
        • Methodological Requirements
        • Rapid Methods
        • Classical Cultural Methods
        • Biochemically Based Enumeration Methods
        • Microscopic-Based Enumeration Methods
        • Immunoassays
        • Bacteriophage-Based Detection Methods
        • Microscopically Based Detection Methods
        • Molecular-Based Detection Methods
        • Biosensors
        • Selection Criteria for Alternative Rapid Methods
        • Validation of Methods
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Resistance to Processes
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Innate Resistance to Processing
        • Microbial Physiology and Resistance to Processing
        • Dormancy of Processing Resistance
        • How Do Foodborne Microorganisms Develop Resistance to Processing?
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Rhizopus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • General Characteristics of Rhizopus
        • Metabolism and Metabolites
        • Utilization of Complex Substrates and Enzyme Production
        • Cultivation
        • Genetic Analysis and Manipulation
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Rhodotorula
        • Abstract
        • The Genus Rhodotorula
        • Pathogenicity
        • The Association of Rhodotorula with Foods
        • The Occurrence of Rhodotorula in Foods and Beverages
        • Rhodotorula in Specific Types of Food Products
        • Industrial Applications of Rhodotorula Species
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • S
      • SACCHAROMYCES | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Genus
        • Identification of Saccharomyces Species
        • Molecular Methods to Differentiate Species
        • Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction
        • Detection, Isolation, and Cultivation
        • Importance to the Food Industry
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • SACCHAROMYCES | Brewer's Yeast
        • Abstract
        • Brewer's Yeast Strains
        • Wort Fermentation
        • Wort Sugar Uptake
        • Wort Nitrogen Metabolism
        • Oxygen and Yeast Lipids
        • Flavor Products
        • Yeast Flocculation Properties
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • SACCHAROMYCES | Saccharomyces cerevisiae
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Species
        • Physiological and Biochemical Properties
        • Importance to the Food Industry
        • Production of Fermented Foods and Beverages
        • Spoilage of Foods and Beverages
        • Processing of Food Waste
        • Source of Food Ingredients and Processing Aids
        • Methods of Detection and Identification in Foods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • SACCHAROMYCES | Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sake Yeast)
        • Abstract
        • Taxonomy and Characteristics
        • Importance of Sake Yeast in the Sake Industry
        • Detection of Contaminating Yeast in Moromi
        • Breeding of Sake Yeast
        • Recent Progress in Understanding the Molecular Biology of Sake Yeast
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • SALMONELLA | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of Salmonella
        • Taxonomic Considerations
        • Physiology
        • Virulence Factors
        • Pathogenesis
        • Significance to the Food Industry
        • Concepts in Detection
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • SALMONELLA | Detection by Classical Cultural Techniques
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Detection of Salmonella in Foods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • SALMONELLA | Detection by Immunoassays
        • Abstract
        • Antigenic Makeup of Salmonella
        • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
        • Enzyme-Linked Fluorescent Assay
        • Lateral Flow Immunoassay (LIA)
        • Latex Agglutination Assay
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • SALMONELLA | Salmonella Enteritidis
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of Species
        • Methods for Detection in Foods
        • Conventional Methods
        • Rapid Methods
        • Importance in the Food Industry
        • Overall Economic Impact
        • Contamination of Raw Foods
        • Contamination of Nonpoultry Raw and Processed Foods
        • Importance to the Consumer
        • Purchasing
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • SALMONELLA | Salmonella typhi
        • Abstract
        • Classification
        • Introduction
        • Characteristics
        • Pathogenesis and Disease
        • Importance in the Food Industry
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Sampling Plans on Microbiological Criteria
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sampling and Sample Preparation
        • Sampling Plans
        • Further Reading
      • Sanitization
        • Abstract
        • What is Sanitization?
        • Type of Food-Contact Surfaces
        • Type of Microorganisms on Food Surfaces
        • Type of Soiling on Food-Contact Surfaces
        • Sanitization Processes
        • Irradiation
        • Heat
        • Resistance to Sanitizers
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Schizosaccharomyces
        • Abstract
        • Taxonomy, Morphology, and Physiology of Schizosaccharomyces spp.
        • Physiological and Biochemical Properties
        • Significance in Foods and Beverages
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Serratia
        • Abstract
        • Characterization of the Genus
        • Methods of Detection
        • Importance of Genus
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • SHELLFISH (MOLLUSCS AND CRUSTACEA) | Characteristics of the Groups
        • Abstract
        • Mollusks
        • Crustacea
        • See also
        • References
      • SHELLFISH (MOLLUSCS AND CRUSTACEA) | Shellfish Contamination and Spoilage
        • Abstract
        • Microbial and Chemical Contaminations
        • Management and Mitigation
        • PHP for Viruses
        • Oyster Quality and Shelf Life
        • Future Challenges and Perspectives
        • Disclaimer
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Shewanella
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Characteristics of the Food Spoilage Shewanella
        • Biochemical and Physiological Attributes
        • Applications
        • Clinical Relevance
        • Tolerance of Conditions in Foods
        • Methods of Detection and Enumeration in Foods
        • Importance of Shewanella Species in the Food Industry
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Shigella: Introduction and Detection by Classical Cultural and Molecular Techniques
        • Abstract
        • The Pathogen
        • Pathogenesis
        • Shigella in Foods
        • Detection of Shigella from Foods
        • Impact on Industry and the Consumer
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • SINGLE CELL PROTEIN | Mycelial Fungi
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Significance of Single-Cell Protein
        • Choice of Mycelial Fungi in Biotechnology
        • Texture and Flavor of Mycoprotein
        • Commercial Exploitation of Mycelial Fungi
        • Features of Commercial Exploitation of Fungi
        • Growth Rates of Fungi
        • Composition of Fungi and Nutritional Values
        • SCP Production Method
        • RNA Reduction Processes
        • Recovery of Biomass from Culture Broths
        • Drying
        • General Product Specifications for SCP as Human Food
        • Digestibility (D)
        • Biological Value (BV)
        • Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER)
        • Preservation of Mycoprotein
        • Commercial Production of Mycelial Protein
        • Technical Development of Mycoprotein and Quorn
        • Commercial Production of Mycoprotein Food Products
        • Characteristics of Mycoprotein Products
        • Mineral and Vitamin Composition
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • SINGLE CELL PROTEIN | The Algae
        • Abstract
        • Description
        • Organisms
        • Production
        • Nutritional Value and Human Consumption
        • Toxicological Problems
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • SINGLE CELL PROTEIN | Yeasts and Bacteria
        • Abstract
        • Description
        • Historical Developments and Implementation of SCP Production
        • Suitable Organisms and Substrates
        • Production Processes
        • Nutritional Value
        • Toxicological Aspects
        • Cell Disruption and Protein Isolation
        • Utilization for Human Food
        • Prospects
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • SPOILAGE OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS | Microbial Spoilage of Eggs and Egg Products
        • Abstract
        • Eggshell Spoilage
        • Egg Product Spoilage
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • SPOILAGE OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS | Microbial Milk Spoilage
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of Milk Spoilage
        • Main Species Involved in Spoilage of Milk
        • Enzymatic Activities Involved in Milk Spoilage
        • Analytical Methods Used to Detect or Predict Milk Spoilage
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • SPOILAGE OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS | Seafood
        • Abstract
        • Microbiota of Seafood
        • Components of Seafood That Support Microbial Growth
        • Substrate Conversion to Spoilage Compounds
        • Chemical Changes under Reduced Oxygen Conditions
        • Biogenic Amines
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • SPOILAGE OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS | Spoilage of Plant Products: Cereals and Cereal Flours
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Spoilage before Harvest
        • Spoilage during Storage
        • Spoilage of Flours and Cereal-Based Products
        • Control of Spoilage from Farm to Table
        • Further Reading
      • SPOILAGE PROBLEMS | Problems Caused by Bacteria
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Meat Spoilage
        • Bacterial Spoilage of Milk and Milk Products
        • Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables
        • Spoilage of Wines and Beer
        • Spoilage in Commercial Fermentation Facilities
        • Spoilage of Cereal Products and Bakery Goods
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • SPOILAGE PROBLEMS | Problems Caused by Fungi
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Spoilage of Living Plant–Derived Foods
        • Spoilage of Fresh Fruits
        • Vegetables
        • Spoilage of Fresh Dairy Foods and Nondairy Spreads
        • Spoilage of Stored and Processed Foods
        • Spoilage of Dried Foods
        • Spoilage of Low-Water-Activity, High-Sugar Foods
        • Spoilage of Salted Foods
        • Spoilage of Intermediate-Moisture Processed Meats
        • Fungal Spoilage of Cheese
        • Fungal Spoilage of Heat-Processed Acid Foods
        • Fungal Spoilage of Preserved Liquid Foods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • STAPHYLOCOCCUS | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Staphylococcal Food Poisoning
        • Staphylococcal Enterotoxins
        • Isolation and Detection
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • STAPHYLOCOCCUS | Detection by Cultural and Modern Techniques
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Taxonomy
        • Conditions Leading to an SFP Outbreak
        • Sources of Enterotoxin-Producing Staphylococci
        • Detection Methods for S. aureus
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • STAPHYLOCOCCUS | Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins
        • Abstract
        • Types and General Properties of the Staphylococcal Enterotoxins
        • Food Implicated and Major Outbreaks
        • Bioassays
        • Molecular Methods
        • Mass Spectrometry–Based Methods
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • STAPHYLOCOCCUS | Staphylococcus aureus
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Species
        • Toxins and Adhesion Molecules
        • Resistance to Antibiotics
        • Methods of Detection and Enumeration of S. aureus in Foods
        • Procedures Specified in National and International Regulations or Guidelines
        • Staphylococcus aureus Secreting SEs in the Food Industry
        • Importance of LA-MRSA Emergence for Human Health
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • STARTER CULTURES | Employed in Cheesemaking
        • Abstract
        • Primary Cultures
        • Secondary Cultures
        • Bacteriocins
        • Exopolysaccharide Production
        • Proteolysis
        • Lactate Production
        • Diacetyl, Acetate, and CO2 Production
        • Acetaldehyde
        • Plasmids and Genetics
        • Production of Bulk Cultures
        • Bacteriophage
        • Control of Phage
        • Role of Starter Cultures in Cheese Ripening
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • STARTER CULTURES | Importance of Selected Genera
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Bacteria Used as Starters
        • Other Bacteria
        • Fungi Used as Starters
        • Functions of Starters in Food Fermentations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • STARTER CULTURES | Molds Employed in Food Processing
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Physiological Characteristics of Molds
        • Industrial Importance of Molds
        • Use of Molds in Cheese-Making
        • Application of Molds in the Manufacture of Oriental Foods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • STARTER CULTURES | Uses in the Food Industry
        • Abstract
        • Fermented Foods
        • Inoculation
        • Performance Properties of Food Cultures
        • Microorganisms Used as Food Cultures
        • Regulatory Environment for Microbial Food Cultures
        • Sources of Microbial Food Cultures
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • STREPTOCOCCUS | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Genus
        • Habitats and Taxonomy
        • Isolation and Cultivation
        • Streptococci in Foods
        • Human Diseases
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • STREPTOCOCCUS | Streptococcus thermophilus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • General Properties
        • Ecology of S. thermophilus
        • Methods for Cultivation and Enumeration of S. thermophilus
        • Carbohydrate Metabolism by S. thermophilus
        • Pathways for Sugar Metabolism
        • Protein Metabolism
        • Use of S. thermophilus in the Production of Dairy Foods
        • Production of Exopolysaccharides by S. thermophilus
        • Bacteriophages and S. thermophilus
        • Genomics of S. thermophilus
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Streptomyces
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of the Genus
        • Thermophilic Streptomyces
        • Isolation of Streptomyces
        • Pigment Production in Streptomyces
        • Spore Formation in Streptomyces
        • Chromosomes and Plasmids of Streptomyces
        • Phages of Streptomyces
        • Sigma Factors in Streptomyces
        • Plant Diseases Caused by Streptomyces
        • Streptomyces Associated with Humans and Animals
        • Streptomyces as Source of Antibiotics, Antitumor, and Insecticidal Compounds
        • Streptomyces as a Biocontrol Agent
        • Programmed Cell Death in the Developmental Cycle of Streptomyces
        • Spoilage of Food by Streptomyces
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • T
      • THERMAL PROCESSES | Commercial Sterility (Retort)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Microbial Inactivation Kinetic
        • In-Package Thermal Process
        • Calculating Microbial Inactivation – Weibull Kinetic
        • Optimization
        • Retorts
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • THERMAL PROCESSES | Pasteurization
        • Abstract
        • Introduction to Food Pasteurization and Historical Aspects
        • Heat Transfer
        • Microbial Kinetics of Pasteurization Process
        • Food Product Quality Evaluation
        • Designing Pasteurization Processes
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Torulopsis
        • Abstract
        • Characterization of Torulopsis Yeasts
        • Regulation and Methods of Detection
        • Importance to the Food Industry
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Total Counts: Microscopy
        • Abstract
        • The Direct Microscopic Clump Count
        • Enumeration of Microorganisms Using Counting Chambers
        • Direct Epifluorescence Filter Technique
        • Digital Image Analysis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • TOTAL VIABLE COUNTS | Metabolic Activity Tests
        • Abstract
        • Dye Reduction Tests
        • Adenosine Triphosphate Assay
        • Catalase Test
        • Electrical Impedance Test
        • Microcalorimetry
        • Radiometry
        • Pyruvate Estimation
        • Nitrogen Reduction and Glucose Dissimilation Test
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • TOTAL VIABLE COUNTS | Microscopy
        • Abstract
        • Dye Exclusion
        • Direct Viable Count
        • Dye Uptake and Enzyme Activity
        • Two-Fluorochrome Staining
        • Microcolony Epifluorescence Microscopy, Antibody-MEM, and Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization-MEM
        • Microautoradiography
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • TOTAL VIABLE COUNTS | Most Probable Number (MPN)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Range of Media for Aerobic Counts
        • Recent Developments
        • User Interpretation of Results
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • TOTAL VIABLE COUNTS | Pour Plate Technique
        • Abstract
        • Pour Plate Method
        • Preparation of Culture Medium
        • Formulas of Buffers and Diluents
        • Preparation of Sample for Dilution and Pour Plate
        • Sample Dilution
        • Pour Plate Procedure
        • Counting Pour Plates
        • Further Reading
      • TOTAL VIABLE COUNTS | Specific Techniques
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Aerobic Plate Count Method
        • 3M™ Petrifilm™ Plate Method
        • Spiral Plate Method
        • 3M™ Redigel™ Test Method
        • SimPlate Total Plate Count Method
        • Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filter Method
        • Plate Loop Count Method
        • Drop-Plate Method
        • TEMPO® TVC Automated Total Vial Count
        • Future of TVC Determination
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • TOTAL VIABLE COUNTS | Spread Plate Technique
        • Abstract
        • Preparing Spread Plates
        • Spread Plate Procedure
        • Counting, Computing, and Reporting Spread Plate Counts
        • Further Reading
      • Trichinella
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Biology
        • Classification and Distribution
        • Human Trichinellosis
        • Prevalence in Animals and Humans
        • Epidemiology
        • Legislation and Control
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Trichoderma
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Characteristics
        • Enzymes
        • Secondary Metabolites
        • Green Mold of Mushrooms
        • Trichoderma in Biocontrol of Plant Fungal Pathogens
        • Medical Uses
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Trichothecium
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Classification of Trichothecium
        • Characteristic Features
        • Relatedness to Other Species
        • Phytopathogenic Potential
        • Mycotoxins Produced by Trichothecium
        • Detection of Trichothecenes
        • Toxicity
        • Other Metabolites of T. roseum
        • Biocontrol
        • Biotechnological Applications
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • U
      • Ultrasonic Imaging – Nondestructive Methods to Detect Sterility of Aseptic Packages
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Potential Nondestructive Sterility Test Methods
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ultrasonic Standing Waves: Inactivation of Foodborne Microorganisms Using Power Ultrasound
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Power Ultrasound
        • Inactivation of Microorganisms
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Ultraviolet Light
        • Abstract
        • Nature of the Emission
        • Sources for Industrial Use
        • Biological Effects
        • Practical Applications
        • Induced Effects in Fresh Produce
        • Hazards and Adverse Effects
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • V
      • Vagococcus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Description of the Genus
        • Characterization of the Species
        • Importance of the Genus in Animal and Human Diseases: Importance for the Food Industry and Potential Hazard for the Consumer
        • Suggested Laboratory Procedures for Isolation and Identification
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Detection by Commercial Enzyme Immunoassays
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Safety Considerations
        • Commercial Immunoassays
        • Sample Preparation and Enrichment
        • Manual Immunoassays Protocol
        • Automated Immunoassay Protocol
        • Advantages and Limitation of Commercial Immunoassays
        • Appendix 1 Manufacturer Websites
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Viable but Nonculturable
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Factors Inducing the VBNC State
        • Environmental Significance of VBNC Cells
        • Methods for Detection of VBNC Cells
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • VIBRIO | Introduction, Including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Other Vibrio Species
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Vibrio parahaemolyticus
        • Vibrio vulnificus
        • Vibrio cholerae Non-O1
        • Other Vibrio Species
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • VIBRIO | Standard Cultural Methods and Molecular Detection Techniques in Foods
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Culture-Based Isolation and Detection
        • Molecular Detection Methods
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • VIBRIO | Vibrio cholerae
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • V. cholerae Identity
        • Epidemiology of V. cholerae Infection
        • The Seventh Pandemic El Tor Biotype
        • V. cholerae Pathogenicity
        • Transmission and Disease Severity
        • Diagnosis, Treatment, and Control of V. cholerae Infection
        • Antibiotic Resistance of V. cholerae
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Vinegar
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Industrial Output
        • The Production Process
        • Alcoholic Fermentation
        • Acetic Acid Bacteria
        • The Acetification Process
        • Postfermentation Processing
        • Uses of Vinegar
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • VIRUSES | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgement
        • History of Virology
        • Viruses Transmitted via Food and the Environment
        • Assessment of Risk from Viruses
        • Fecal–Oral Transmission of Viruses and Public Health
        • Control
        • Summary
        • Further Reading
      • VIRUSES | Detection
        • Abstract
        • Sample Size
        • Release of Viruses from the Foodstuff
        • Removal of Food Substances
        • Concentration of Viruses
        • Nucleic Acid Extraction
        • Detection Assay
        • The Issue of Infectivity
        • Quality Controls
        • Future Developments and Requirements
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • VIRUSES | Foodborne Viruses
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction to Human Enteric Viruses
        • Foodborne Viruses of Epidemiological Significance
        • Other Viruses with Potential for Foodborne Transmission
        • Barriers to the Study of Human Enteric Viruses
        • Foodborne Transmission of Human Enteric Viruses
        • Role of Environmental Persistence in Foodborne Viral Disease
        • Foodborne Viral Disease Outbreaks
        • Foodborne Viral Disease Outbreak Surveillance
        • Detection of Viruses in Food
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • VIRUSES | Hepatitis Viruses Transmitted by Food, Water, and Environment
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Hepatitis A Virus
        • Hepatitis E Virus
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • VIRUSES | Norovirus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Structure, Genetics, and Biology
        • Immunity
        • Surrogates
        • Clinical Disease
        • Foodborne Disease
        • Control and Prevention
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • W
      • Water Activity
        • Abstract
        • Minimum Water Activity Values for Growth of Microorganisms
        • Importance of Water Activity in Foods
        • Consequences of Lowering the Water Activity
        • Methods of Measuring Water Activity
        • Role of Humectants
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT | Modern Microbiological Techniques
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Detection, Identification, and Quantification of Microorganisms
        • Molecular Methods
        • DNA Microarray
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT | Routine Techniques for Monitoring Bacterial and Viral Contaminants
        • Abstract
        • Global Population Trends and Water Demands
        • Importance of Water Quality and Public Health
        • Water Quality and Food Safety
        • Microbial Pathogens and Fecal Indicator Organisms
        • Water Sampling
        • International and National Water Quality Standards
        • Microbial Detection Methods
        • Monitoring of Bacterial Contaminants
        • Monitoring of Viral Contaminants (Enterovirus and Norovirus)
        • Monitoring of Protozoa Contaminants (Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp.)
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • WATERBORNE PARASITES | Detection of Food- and Waterborne Parasites: Conventional Methods and Recent Developments
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Food- and Waterborne Parasites of Medical Importance
        • Detection Matrices
        • Conventional Detection Methods
        • Modern Detection Methods
        • Emerging Techniques
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • WATERBORNE PARASITES | Entamoeba
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Characteristics of the Organism
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prevention and Importance in the Food Industry
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • WINES | Microbiology of Winemaking
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Winemaking
        • Microflora Involved in Winemaking
        • Role of Yeasts
        • Yeast Starter Cultures
        • Role of LAB
        • Biotechnological Developments of Wine Yeast
        • Microbial Spoilage of Wine
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • WINES | Production of Special Wines
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sweet White Wines
        • Port Wine
        • Sherry
        • Sparkling Wines
        • Yeast in Winemaking Fermentations
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • WINES | Malolactic Fermentation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Malolactic Fermentation
        • Microflora Involved in Malolactic Fermentation
        • Consequences of Malolactic Fermentation
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • WINES | Wine Spoilage Yeasts and Bacteria
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Description of the Main Spoilage by Yeast and Bacteria
        • Control of Microbial Populations in Wines
        • Microbiological Monitoring
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • X
      • Xanthomonas
        • Abstract
        • General Introduction
        • Taxonomy
        • Xanthomonas campestris
        • Morphological Features
        • Xanthomonadins
        • Biochemical Features
        • Industrial Application: Xanthan Gum
        • Xanthomonas as Food Spoiler
        • Pathogenicity
        • Molecular Basis of Pathogenicity
        • Genetic Diversity
        • Stress Adaptability: Programmed Cell Death
        • Laboratory Analysis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Xeromyces: The Most Extreme Xerophilic Fungus
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Fungal Description
        • Fungal Physiology
        • Taxonomy
        • Ecology and Sources
        • Isolation Techniques
        • Incubation Conditions
        • Preservation and Strains Supplying
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • Y
      • Yeasts: Production and Commercial Uses
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Classification
        • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
        • Commercial Production of Bakers' Yeast
        • Growth Requirements
        • Manufacturing Processes Used for Bakers' Yeast
        • Yeast Products and Uses
        • Future Developments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • YERSINIA | Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Characteristics of the Genus
        • Characteristics and Pathogenesis of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis
        • General Characteristics of Other Yersinia Species
        • General Aspects of Detection and Isolation Procedures
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • YERSINIA | Yersinia enterocolitica
        • Abstract
        • Detection of YEP+ Strains
        • Dye-Binding Techniques for Detection
        • Recovery of YEP+ Clones by CR-Binding
        • Isolation of Pathogenic YEP+ Strains from Foods
        • Direct Detection, Isolation, and Maintenance of Pathogenic YEP+ Serotypes
        • Effect of Freeze-Stress on the Enrichment, Isolation, and Virulence of YEP+ in Food
        • Disclaimer
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Further Reading
    • Z
      • Zygosaccharomyces
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Taxonomy, Morphological Characteristics, and Ecology of Zygosaccharomyces spp.
        • Physiological Traits of Zygosaccharomyces spp. Associated with Their Spoilage Capacity
        • Resistance Characteristics
        • Mechanisms of Resistance to Food Preservatives
        • Mechanisms of Resistance to High Osmotic Pressure
        • Heat Resistance
        • Spoilage in Food and Beverages
        • Beneficial Biological Activities of Zygosaccharomyces spp.
        • Recovery, Enumeration, and Identification of Zygosaccharomyces spp.
        • Genetic Tools and Functional Genomic Analysis
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Zymomonas
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics
        • Method of Detection and Isolation
        • Importance to the Food Industry
        • Importance to the Biofuel Industry
        • See also
        • Further Reading
  • Subject index
  • Author Index

Details

No. of pages:
3248
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780123847331

About the Editor

Carl Batt

Editor-in-Chief of Academic Press Food Microbiology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Cornell University, Department of Food Science, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A.

Carl A. Batt

Affiliations and Expertise

Leatherhead Food Research Association, Surrey, U.K.

About the Editor-in-Chief

Richard Robinson

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Food Science and Technology, The University of Reading, Berkshire, U.K.

Reviews

"...a multi-author comprehensive treatise on the very specific field of food microbiology--the preparation of fermented foods, food preservation, and the analysis and prevention of food spoiling. Substantial articles or groups of articles are devoted to each of the different groups of microorganisms involved, each of the various analytical and preparative techniques, and each of the various foods...Clear and authoritative presentations cover the expected topics..." —D. Goodman in CHOICE (September 2000)

"Food microbiology is a topic of increasing concern to the general public; everything from the genetic modification of crops to food safety in packing plants is now in the news. This three-volume encyclopedia pulls it all together for those with a casual interest in how cheese is produced to those looking for information on the effectiveness of ultrasound in killing salmonella on chicken skin...Essential for any library supporting the food industry or related research fields; larger public libraries that have the budget should also acquire." —Eric D. Albright, Duke Medical Center Library, for LIBRARY JOURNAL (April 2000)

Ratings and Reviews