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Encyclopedia of Endocrine Diseases - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780128121993, 9780128122006

Encyclopedia of Endocrine Diseases

2nd Edition

Editor in Chief: Ilpo Huhtaniemi
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128121993
eBook ISBN: 9780128122006
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 12th September 2018
Page Count: 4252
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Encyclopedia of Endocrine Diseases, Second Edition, comprehensively reviews the extensive spectrum of diseases and disorders that can occur within the endocrine system. It serves as a useful and comprehensive source of information spanning the many and varied aspects of the endocrine end metabolic system. Students will find a concise description of the physiology and pathophysiology of endocrine and metabolic functions, as well as their diseases. Each article provides a comprehensive overview of the selected topic to inform a broad spectrum of readers, from advanced undergraduate students, to research professionals.

Chapters explore the latest advances and hot topics that have emerged in recent years, such as the molecular basis of endocrine and metabolic diseases (mutations, epigenetics, signaling), the pathogenesis and therapy of common endocrine diseases (e.g. diabetes and endocrine malignancies), new technologies in endocrine research, new methods of treatment, and endocrine toxicology/disruptors.

Key Features

  • Covers all aspects of endocrinology and metabolism
  • Incorporates perspectives from experts working within the domains of biomedicine (e.g. physiology, pharmacology and toxicology, immunology, genetics) and clinical sciences to provide readers with reputable, multi-disciplinary content from domain experts
  • Provides a ‘one-stop’ resource for access to information as written by world-leading scholars in the field, with easy cross-referencing of related articles to promote understanding and further research


Students, clinicians, and researchers in the field of endocrinology seeking specific information on topics outside their immediate area of expertise, as well as help with diagnosing and treating endocrine patients. The Encyclopedia will be of interest to laboratories, pharmaceutical companies, and graduate, departmental and medical school libraries

Table of Contents

Adrenal Cortex, Development


Hypertension, Overview


Hypertension, and Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

Normetanephrine and Metanephrine

Renal Vein Renin Measurement

Renin and Prorenin

ACTH, Melanocortin Receptors and Accessory Proteins

Family of peptides: Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone

Glucocorticoid Receptor

Glucocorticoid Resistance Syndromes and States

Incidentaloma, Adrenal

Adrenergic Mechanisms

Novel insights in beta adrenergic receptor signaling

Hypertension, Endocrine

Hypertension, Neurogenic

Hyporeninemic Hypoaldosteronism



Stroke in metabolic and endocrine diseases

Tissue ACE-Angiotensin-AT1 Receptor Axis and Repair in the Heart

Baroreceptor Responses

Primary Adrenal Hypoplasia and ACTH Resistance Syndromes

Adrenal Insufficiency: Etiology and Diagnosis

X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy/Adrenomyeloneuropathy

Aldosterone in Congestive Heart Failure


Adrenal Surgery

Adrenocortical carcinoma genetics and molecular markers

Post-operative evaluation of CD remission/relapse

Somatic mutations of Gsa in adrenal tumors

Bilateral Adrenalectomy for Cushing's Disease

Glucocorticoid metabolism and activation

Long term complications of hypercortisolism

Steroid replacement adrenal insufficiency

Licorice and 11bHSD2

Somatic mutations B-catenin and WNT signaling in adrenal tumors

Pituitary surgery for Cushing's disease


Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists

Hypertension,Target Organ Damage

Effects of glucocorticoids on the brain

Aldosteronism, primary:epidemiology and screening

Phaechromocytoma/Paraganglioma: genetic and clinical follow up

Apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME)

Molecular genetics of Cushing's disease

Adrenal Cortex, Physiology

Adrenal Venous Sampling For Primary Aldosteronism

Liddle's syndrome


Cushing's syndrome unilateral adrenal adenoma

Regulation of POMC and ACTH secretion

Adrenocortical carcinoma: diagnosis and therapy

Aldosterone: synthesis and metabolism

Bartter's and Gitelman's syndromes

Impact of glucocorticoid receptor polymorphisms on glucocorticoid action

Renin-angiotensin system,inhibitors

Phaechromocytoma/Paraganglioma: diagnosis and treatment

Mineralocorticoids and Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndromes: Clinical Aspects

Regulation of Potassium Homeostasis

Radiotherapy for Cushing's disease


Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Suppression

Cushing's Syndrome screening and differential diagnosis

Angiotensinogen and angiotensins


Aldosterone: action and function

CAH 21 hydroxylase deficiency in adults

Glucocorticoids and Immunity

Adrenal steroidogenesis

Bone Structure and Biomechanics


Kidney Stones

Bone Mass Measurement

Bone Remodeling, Dynamics of

Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP)

Physiology of Calcitonin and Its Therapeutic Uses

Paget's Disease of Bone

Skeletal Development during Childhood and Adolescence, Peak bone mass

Bone as an endocrine organ

Hypercalcemia, other causes than primary hyperparathyroidism

Bone Cells: Osteoblast / Osteoclast / Osteocyte

Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis

Bone Metastases, clinical aspects

The Epidemiology of Fractures

Vitamin D


Bone Turnover Markers

Nutrition and bone

Bone Metastases, medical treatment

Hyperparathyroidism, primary

Regulation of Calcium

Osteoporosis, Treatment: anabolics (teriparatide,romosozumab, aboloparatide)

Osteoporosis, Prevention/Treatment: Ca - Vitamin D

Myeloma bone disease

Diabetes and bone

Osteoporosis / bone loss: role of sex steroids

X-ray based Imaging Methods to Assess Bone Quality

Osteoporosis in premenopausal women

Osteoporosis, secondary causes (including GIOP)

Calcium-sensing receptor

Bone Muscle Interactions and Exercise

Hypoparathyroidism and other causes of hypocalcemia

Phosphate metabolism, HypoP and HyperP

Osteoporosis, Treatment: sequential and combination therapy

Ossification, calcifications, heterotopic

Bone and bone marrow, interactions

Osteoporosis: Treatment gaps and health economics

Glucose metabolism and hormonal regulation

Diabetes, Type 1

Glucose Physiology, Normal

Glycation- and/or Polyol Pathway-Inducing Complications


Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes

Diabetes, Type 2

Ocular Manifestations Associated With Diabetes

Hypertension and Diabetes

Hypoglycemic State, Non-Diabetic

Insulin Action, Post-Receptor Mechanisms

Kidney Disease in Diabetes

Insulin Secretion: Functional and Biochemical Aspects

Neurological Disease and Diabetes, Autonomic

Carbohydrate Metabolism: Diabetes Mellitus, Genomic Aberrations

Pregnancy and diabetes

Treatment: Alpha glucosidase inhibitors

Insulin pumps and artificial pancreas

Classification and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus

Transplantation: pancreatic and islet cells

Pancreas/beta cells

Male reproductive system


Adipose tissue/obesity

Neuroendocrine disruption

Animal Models for Aging

Aging, Immunology and

Lipid Disorders in the Elderly

Body Weight, Body Composition, and Aging

Premature Aging Syndromes

Ageing and the Thyroid Gland

Oxidative Stress and Aging

Sexual function in aging men

Osteoporosis in the oldest old

Hormonal circadian rhythms and sleep in aging

Abnormalities in water homeostasis in the elderly

Somatotropic axis in human aging

Hypogonadism and testosterone therapy in elderly men

Memory and Epigenetics: Role of Estrogen

Placental Epigenetics and Outcomes in Children

Epigenetics of Endometriosis

Parental Diet/Obesity, Epigenetics and Offspring Metabolism

Epigenetics, the Vascular Wall and Atherosclerosis

Endocrine Epigenetics, Epigenetic Profiling and Biomarkers


Ovarian Androgen-Producing Tumors

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)


Ovarian Failure Treatment Strategies: Egg Donation

Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

Ovarian Stimulation: Clomiphene Citrate

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Implications for Cardiovascular, Endometrial, and Breast Disease

Premature ovarian insufficiency

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

Fertility preservation

Hormonal treatment of breast cancer

Adult care of Turner syndrome

Menopause diagnosis


Menopausal treatment

AMH in the adults

Environmental factors and female reproduction

Uterine fibroids and infertility

SPRM : definition and uses (female contraception, fibromas and interruption of pregnancies)

Sport and menses


Initial evaluation of an infertile couple

Ovulation induction with gonadotropins

Fertility and pregnancy in patients with 21 hydroxylase deficiency

Female Hormonal Contraception

Hormonal treatment of transgender male to female

Obesity and reproduction

Glucagon and Glucagon-like Peptides


GI Hormones Outside the Gut: Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

GI Tract, General Pathology of Endocrine Growths

Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP)

Pancreatic Islet Cell Tumors


GI Hormones in Cancer

GI Tract, General Anatomy (Cells)

Glucagon-like Peptide 2 (GLP-2)

Substance P

GI Hormone Development (Families and Phylogeny)

Peptide Neurotransmitters and Smooth Muscle in the Gut

Peptide YY (PYY)

ECL Cells

Roles of plasma binding proteins in modulation of hormone action and metabolism

Evolution of hormonal mechanisms

Endocrine rhythms

Protein and peptide hormone synthesis

Protein and peptide hormone action

Primary Bilateral Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia

History of Endocrinology


Low HDL/High HDL Syndromes

Life style and nutrition

Binge-eating, bulimia and other disorders

The adipose tissue as endocrine organ

Treatment-bariatric surgery


Body composition

CNS and hypothalamic control of food intake and energy homeostasis

Primary mixed dyslipidemias


Obesity and Food Addiction

Classification of hyperlipemias, dislipidemias

Bariatric surgery

Gastro-intestinal hormones and regulation

Hypertriglyceridemias and treatment

Regulation of food intake

Androgen Biosynthesis and Gene Defects

Defective Spermatogenesis and Male Infertility

Germ Cell Differentiation Signaling Events, Male


Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Actions

Genes and Gene Defects Affecting Gonadal Development and Sex Determination

Prostate Cancer

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Gene, Mutation of

Testes Embryology of: Cellular Molecular Changes

Spermatogenesis, Endocrine Control of

Androgens and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Estrogen and the Male

Testicular Tumors

Male Germ Cell and germ cell transplantation

Male sexual dysfunction


Infertility Male: Genetics

Oncoinfertility, Male




Pineal Tumors

Brain, Effects of Steroid Hormones

Neurotransmitters, Overview

Somatostatin receptor expression in gastrointestinal tumors

VIPoma, Glucagonoma and Somatostatinoma



Carcinoid syndrome

Delayed Puberty and Hypogonadism, Female

Anorexia Nervosa

Gender Assignment and Psychosocial Care

Abnormal growth: GH insensitivity

McCune–Albright Syndrome

Hyperthyroidism, Childhood and Adolescence

Turner Syndrome

Delayed Puberty, Male

Gonadotrophin-Dependent Precocious Puberty

Body Proportions

Androgen insensitivity: Complete AIS

P450-Oxidoreductase deficiency

Congenital hyperinsulinism

Growth and Chronic Disease

Androgen biosynthetic defects: 17beta-HSD and 5alpha-RD deficiencies

Genetic control of fetal sex development

21-hydroxylase deficiency: clinical and biochemical aspects


Prenatal diagnosis and treatment

AMH deficiency and resistance

Generic and epigenetic control of puberty

Organ-specific paediatric endocrine disorders, Pituitary: Craniopharyngioma


Hypercalcaemia in Childhood

Abnormal growth: Excess GH and other causes of tall stature

Cushing’s syndrome management

Undescended Testes

Endocrine Late Effects in Childhood Cancer Survivors

Normal puberty: Hormonal control

The hypospadiac genital tubercle (GT)

Small for gestational age

Hormonal control of fetal sex development

Diabetes Insipidus in Children

Calcium physiology in fetus and infant

Rickets and Osteomalacia

45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, 46,XX/46,XY chimerism (and variants) and 46,XX testicular and ovotesticular DSD

11b-Hydroxylase deficiency

Growth hormone deficiency in children

Noonan Syndrome

Skeletal Dysplasias

Diabetes Insipidus

Pituitary Tumors, ACTH-Secreting

Acromegaly, Clinical Features of

Acromegaly, Diagnosis of

Hypothalamic Disease

Natural and Synthetic Growth Hormone Secretagogues

Pituitary Tumors, Surgery

Growth Hormone (GH)

Prolactin: Regulation of secretion and Action

Pituitary Tumors, Molecular Pathogenesis

Therapy for Acromegaly

Genetic causes of familial pituitary tumors

Traumatic Brain Injury


Classifications of Pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNet)

Non-functioning tumors of pituitary, clinical features, diagnosis and management

Hypopituitarism, causes, diagnosis, management and mortality

LH (Luteinizing Hormone)

FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone)

Diagnosis and Clinical Management of Aggressive Pituitary Tumors

Pituitary radiotherapy


Prolactinoma, Clinical Manifestations and Therapy

Diagnosis of Prolactinoma and Causes of Hyperprolactinaemia

Pituitary Radiology

Statistics in endocrinology: meta-analysis advantages and pitfalls

Surgical Treatment of Non-Functioning Pituitary Tumors

Parathyroid Cancer

TSH Function and Secretion

Antithyroid Drugs

Myxedema Coma

Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

Thyrotoxic Storm

TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone; Thyrotropin)

Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

Parathyroid Surgery

Pseudohypoparathyroid States

Thyroid Disorders in the Elderly

Thyroid Disease and Pregnancy

Amiodarone and Thyroid

Thyroid Function and Depression

Drug Effects and Thyroid Function

Hypothyroidism, Causes of

Hypothyroidism, Diagnosis of

Iodine, Radioactive

Irradiation, Thyroid and

Nontoxic Goiter

Resistance to Thyroid Hormone (RTH)

Smoking and the Thyroid

Sodium Iodide Symporter


Thyroid Disease, Epidemiology of

Thyroid Disease, Genetic Factors in

Thyroid Gland, Anatomy and Physiology

Thyroid Gland Development, Molecular Biology

Thyroid Hormone Action

Thyroid Hormone-Binding Proteins

Thyroid Hormone Receptors

Thyroiditis, Infectious and Subacute

Thyroid Nodule

Thyroid Peroxidase

Thyrotoxicosis: Diagnosis

Thyrotoxicosis, Overview of Causes

Thyrotoxicosis, Systemic Manifestations

Thyrotoxicosis, Treatment

Toxic Adenoma

Toxic Multinodular Goiter

TSH Receptor (Thyrotropin Receptor)

Graves' Disease

Graves' Disease, Hyperthyroidism in

Graves' Ophthalmopathy


Central Hypothyroidism

Thyroid Function Tests

Postpartum Thyroid Dysfunction

TSH-Producing Adenomas and Resistance to Thyroid Hormones

Systemic Manifestations of Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism, Subclinical

QoL in thyroid disease

Thyroid and infertility

Thyroid imaging

Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis

Graves' Dermopathy

Thyroid and bones


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2018
12th September 2018
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor in Chief

Ilpo Huhtaniemi

Dr Ilpo Huhtaniemi is an Emeritus Professor of Reproductive Endocrinology in the Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London (London, UK) and Emeritus Professor of Physiology at Department of Physiology, University of Turku (Turku, Finland). His clinical specialty is in chemical pathology. He is an author of about seven hundred peer-reviewed publications as well as several book chapters on basic and clinical reproductive endocrinology and laboratory diagnosis of endocrine diseases. He currently serves as an editorial board member for several academic journals, including as editor-in-chief of Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology (Elsevier). Dr. Huhtaniemi has also edited several books in the field of reproductive endocrinology and physiology. He has received many honours for his research activities, such as the NIH International Postdoctoral Research Fellow (Fogarty Foundation), Senior Fellowship of The Academy of Finland, Young Investigator Award of The American Society of Andrology, Matti Äyräpää Award of the Finnish Medical Society DUODECIM, Honorary Membership of The Romanian Academy of Medical Sciences, Doctor h.c. of Medical University of Lodz, Poland and Doctor h.c. of Albert Szent-György Medical University, Szeged, Hungary, The Egon Diczfalusy Foundation Lifetime Achievement Award, Iain McIntyre Medal (Queen Mary University, London), and Society for Endocrinology (UK), The European Medal. Named lectures: German Endocrine Society, The Berthold Medal and Prize Lecture; Australian Society for Reproductive Biology (The Goding Lecture); Nordic Association for Andrology (The Erik Blom Lecture); The American Society of Andrology (EAA Exchange Lecture). Dr. Huhtaniemi has been elected to The Finnish Academy of Science and Letters, The Academy of Medical Sciences, UK, and he is Knight, First Class, of the Order of the White Rose of Finland.

Affiliations and Expertise

Imperial College London, UK

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