Encyclopedia of Ecology - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780444637680, 9780444641304

Encyclopedia of Ecology

2nd Edition

Authors: Brian Fath
eBook ISBN: 9780444641304
Book ISBN: 9780444637680
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 27th September 2018
Page Count: 2780
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Encyclopedia of Ecology, Second Edition continues the acclaimed work of the previous edition published in 2008. It covers all scales of biological organization, from organisms, to populations, to communities and ecosystems. Laboratory, field, simulation modelling, and theoretical approaches are presented to show how living systems sustain structure and function in space and time. New areas of focus include micro- and macro scales, molecular and genetic ecology, and global ecology (e.g., climate change, earth transformations, ecosystem services, and the food-water-energy nexus) are included. In addition, new, international experts in ecology contribute on a variety of topics.

Key Features

  • Offers the most broad-ranging and comprehensive resource available in the field of ecology
  • Provides foundational content and suggests further reading
  • Incorporates the expertise of over 500 outstanding investigators in the field of ecology, including top young scientists with both research and teaching experience
  • Includes multimedia resources, such as an Interactive Map Viewer and links to a CSDMS (Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System), an open-source platform for modelers to share and link models dealing with earth system processes


Upper-undergraduate and graduate students looking for introduction to a broad array of topics in ecology, as well as professionals looking for a refresher on this material. These primarily include researchers in environmental and life sciences. Furthermore, this work will be of interest to applied practitioners (scientists and non-scientists) working in environmental management. More and more professions deal with the effective management of ecological resources such as climate impacts, conservation, food production, water and air quality, etc. This work will serve the purpose of providing them with sufficient knowledge of ecological sciences to effectively support their decisions

Table of Contents

Full list of sections and articles (tentative):

Volume 1

Section: Aquatic Ecology

  • Abundance Biomass Comparison Method
  • Acidification in Aquatic Systems
  • Constructed Wetlands For Wastewater Treatment
  • Dead zones: Low Oxygen in Coastal Waters
  • Deep Sea Ecology
  • Ecosystem Health Indicators: Freshwater Environments
  • Equilibrium Concept in Phytoplankton Communities
  • Estuarine Ecohydrology
  • The Estuarine Quality Paradox Concept
  • Eutrophication
  • Freshwater Aquaculture
  • Intertidal Zonation
  • Maximum Sustainable Yield
  • Micro- and macroplastics in aquatic ecosystems
  • Microbial Communities

Section: Behavioral Ecology

  • Age Structure and Population Dynamics
  • Altruism
  • Animal Home Ranges
  • Anti-predation behavior
  • Biological Rhythms
  • Competition
  • Dispersal-Migration
  • Environmental Stress and Evolutionary Change
  • Food Specialization
  • Habitat Mapping
  • Habitat Selection and Habitat Suitability Preferences
  • Herbivore-Predator Cycles
  • Hierarchy and Dominance
  • Imprinting
  • Kin Selection
  • Learning
  • The Marginal Value Theorem in a nutshell
  • Mating Systems
  • Optimal Foraging Theory
  • Orientation, Navigation, and Search
  • Parental Care
  • Sexual selection and sexual conflict
  • Social Behavior and Interactions
  • Thermoregulation in Animals: Some Fundamentals of Thermal Biology

Section: Conservation Ecology

  • Biodiversity Indices
  • Biological Integrity
  • Biomagnification
  • Biotopes
  • Connectivity & Ecological Corridors
  • Conservation Biological Control and Biopesticides in Agricultural
  • Conservation Genetics
  • Ecological Health Indicators
  • Ecological Risk Assessment
  • Ecosystem Health Indicators
  • Ecotoxicology: The Gistory and Present Direction
  • Endangered Species
  • Invasive Plant Species
  • k-Dominance Curves
  • Polychaetes/Amphipode Index
  • Protected area
  • Reintroduction
  • Source Sink
  • Spatial Subsidy
  • System Omnivory Index
  • Trophic classification for lakes
  • Trophic Index and Efficiency
  • Turnover Time
  • Wildlife Ecology

Volume 2

Section: Ecological Complexity

  • Cellular Automata
  • Chaos
  • Citizen Science
  • Complex Ecological Networks
  • Complex Systems
  • Cybernetics
  • Ecological Data Archiving and Sharing
  • Ecological Indicators: Connectance and Connectivity
  • Ecological Informatics: Overview
  • Emergent Properties
  • Goal Functions and orientors
  • Hierarchy theory in ecology
  • Panarchy
  • Population Dynamics: Stability
  • Self-organization
  • Systems Ecology
  • Systems Ecology: Ecological Network Analysis
  • Thermodynamics in Ecology

Section: Ecological Data Analysis and Modelling

  • Agriculture Models
  • Biogeochemical Models
  • Carbon Biogeochemical Cycle and Consequences of Climate Changes
  • Climate Change Models
  • Conceptual and Flow Diagrams
  • Ecological data archiving and sharing
  • Ecological Models: Individual-Based Models
  • Ecological Models: Model Development and Analysis
  • Forest Models
  • Fuzzy Logic
  • Grassland Models
  • Lake Models
  • Mediated Modeling/Participatory Modeling
  • Metapopulation Models
  • Model Evaluation: Sensitivity, Calibration, Validation, Verification
  • Modeling Dispersal Processes for Ecological Systems
  • Modules and integrated modeling
  • Overview of Model Types (Model Types - Overview)
  • Parameterization
  • Spatial modeling
  • Species Distribution Modeling
  • Statistical Inference
  • Structural Dynamic Models
  • Visualization as a tool for ecological analysis
  • Watershed Models

Section: Ecological Processes

  • Acidification
  • Allometric Theory: Extrapolations from Individuals to Ecosystems
  • Ammonification
  • Biological nitrogen fixation
  • Decomposition and mineralization
  • Erosion
  • Evapotranspiration
  • Evolutionary Ecology: Evolution of Parasitism
  • Fermentation
  • Grazing
  • Greenhouse gases formation
  • Gross and Net Production in Different Environments
  • Light Extinction
  • Nitrification
  • Physical Transport Processes in Ecology: Advection, Diffusion, and Dispersion
  • Predation and its effects on individuals: from individual to species
  • Succession and Colonization
  • Volatilization
  • Waves as an Ecological Process
  • Wind Effects

Volume 3

Section: Ecosystems

  • Agriculture Systems
  • Alpine Ecosystems and the High-Elevation Treeline
  • Caves
  • Chaparral
  • Coral Reefs
  • Desert Streams
  • Deserts
  • Dunes
  • Ecosystems
  • Ecosystems: The Boreal Forest Ecosystem
  • Estuaries
  • Floodplains
  • Forest Plantations
  • Freshwater Lakes
  • Freshwater Marshes
  • Greenhouses, Microcosms, and Mesocosms
  • Lagoons
  • Mangrove Wetlands
  • Peatlands
  • Polar Terrestrial Ecology
  • Riparian Wetlands
  • Rivers and Streams: Ecosystem Dynamics and Integrating Paradigms
  • Rivers and Streams: Physical Setting and Adapted Biota
  • Rocky Intertidal Zone
  • Salt Marshes
  • Savanna
  • Steppes and Prairies
  • Swamps
  • Temperate Forest
  • Temporary Waters
  • Tropical Ecology
  • Tropical Rainforest
  • Tropical Seasonal Forest
  • Tundra
  • Upwelling Ecosystems

Section: Evolutionary Ecology

  • Adaptation
  • Allee effects
  • Association
  • Body Size, Energetics, and Evolution
  • Clines
  • Coevolution
  • Coexistence
  • Colonization
  • Dominance and its Evolution
  • Eco-Immunology: Past, Present, and Future
  • Eco-evolutionary dynamics
  • Ecological Niche
  • Endemism
  • Evolutionary Ecology
  • Fecundity
  • Fitness
  • Gause's Competitive Exclusion Principle
  • Genetic Drift
  • Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
  • Isolation
  • Life History Patterns
  • Limiting Factors and Liebig's Principle
  • Macroevolution
  • Metacommunities
  • Metagenomics
  • Microbiome / Hologenome
  • Natural Selection
  • Phylogenomics and Phylogenetics
  • Pioneer Species
  • r-strategists/K-strategists
  • Red Queen Dynamics
  • Units of Selection

Section: General Ecology

  • Abundance
  • Age-Class Models
  • Allopatry
  • Animal Physiology
  • Applied Ecology
  • Biodiversity
  • Biomass
  • Carrying capacity
  • Communication
  • Community
  • Conbiota
  • Cooperation
  • Demography
  • Detritus
  • Dominance
  • Dormancy
  • Ecological Effects of Acidic Deposition
  • Ecological Efficiency
  • Ecological stoichiometry
  • Ecophysiology
  • Ecosystems
  • Edaphic Factor
  • Endotherm
  • Epiflora and Epifauna
  • Generation Time
  • Growth Constraints: Michaelis–Menten Equation and Liebig's Law
  • Growth Models
  • Habitat
  • History of Ecology
  • Homeotherms
  • Hunting
  • The Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis
  • Keystone species & Keystoneness
  • Leaf Area Index
  • Metabolic Theories in Ecology: The Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) Theory and the Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE)
  • Microclimate
  • Migration and Movement
  • Monocultures versus Polycultures
  • Numerical Ecology
  • Paleoecology
  • Parasites
  • Philosophy of Ecology: Overview
  • Phytosociology
  • Plant Ecology
  • Plant Physiology
  • Poikilotherms
  • Pollination
  • Principal Components Analysis
  • Rhizosphere Ecology
  • Salinity
  • Scavengers
  • Seasonality
  • Seed Dispersal
  • Soil Ecology
  • Stable Isotope Ecology
  • Succession
  • Suspension Feeders
  • Synecology
  • Temperature Regulation
  • Tolerance Range
  • Trophic Structure
  • Water Availability

Volume 4

Section: Global Change Ecology

  • Anthropospheric and Anthropogenic Impact on the Biosphere
  • Biogeocoenosis as an Elementary Unit of Biogeochemical Work in the Biosphere
  • Biosphere: Vernadsky's Concept
  • Climate Change 1: Short-Term Dynamics
  • Climate Change 2: Long-Term Dynamics
  • Climate Change Ecology
  • Deforestation
  • Earth Climate as a complex system: laws and scales
  • Energy Balance
  • Energy Flows in the Biosphere
  • Entropy and Entropy Flows in the Biosphere
  • Environmental and Biospheric Impacts of Nuclear War
  • Gaia Hypothesis
  • Global Change Ecology
  • Iron Cycle
  • Material and Metal Ecology
  • Microbial Cycles
  • Nitrogen Cycle
  • Noosphere
  • Oxygen Cycle
  • Paleoclimatology
  • Pedosphere
  • Phenomenon of Life: General Aspects
  • Phosphorus Cycle
  • Sulfur Cycle
  • Sustainable Cropping Systems
  • Urbanization as a Global Ecological Process
  • Water Cycle
  • Xenobiotic (Pesticides, PCB, Dioxins) Cycles

Section: Human Ecology

  • Adaptive Management and Integrative assessments
  • Anthropocene
  • Biophilia
  • Carbon Footprint
  • Ecological Economics 1
  • Ecological Economics 2
  • Ecological Footprint
  • Ecological Systems Thinking
  • Ecosystem Services Evaluation
  • Emergy
  • Emergy and Network Analysis
  • Energy Returned on Energy Invested
  • Environmental Protection and Ecology
  • Food-Energy-Water Nexus
  • Human Ecology: Overview
  • Human Population Growth
  • Industrial Ecology
  • Life-Cycle Assessment
  • Limits to Growth
  • Nitrogen Footprints
  • Ozone Layer
  • Political Ecology
  • Precaution and Ecological Risk
  • Remote Sensing
  • Resilience
  • Socioecological Systems
  • Sustainable Development Goals
  • System Sustainability
  • Tragedy of the Ecological Commons
  • Urban Metabolism
  • Urban Systems

Section: Terrestrial and Landscape Ecology

  • Agroforestry
  • Anthropogenic Landscapes
  • Buffer Zones
  • Classical and Augmentative Biological Control
  • Ecological Engineering: Design Principles
  • Ecological Engineering: Overview
  • Forestry Management
  • Integrated Farming Systems
  • Island Biogeography
  • Landscape Ecology
  • Landscape Planning
  • Microcosms
  • Organic Farming
  • Permaculture
  • Phytoremediation
  • Plant Demography
  • Spatial Distribution
  • Thermodynamic Properties of Landscape Cover

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2019
eBook ISBN:
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About the Author

Brian Fath

Brian D. Fath is Professor in the Department of Biological Sciences at Towson University (Maryland, USA) and Senior Research Scholar at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (Laxenburg, Austria). He teaches courses in ecosystem ecology, environmental biology, networks, and human ecology and sustainability. Dr. Fath has also taught courses on ecological networks and modeling in Portugal, Croatia, Denmark, China, France, and Germany. He held a Fulbright Distinguished Chair position at Parthenope University of Naples, Italy for spring 2012. He has published over 170 research papers, reports, and book chapters on environmental systems modeling, specifically in the areas of network analysis, resilience, and sustainability. He co-authored the books Flourishing Within Limits to Growth: Following nature’s way (2015), Ecological Modelling 4th ed. (2011), A New Ecology: Systems Perspective (2007) and is Editor-in-Chief for Encyclopedia of Ecology 2nd ed. (2018). He is also Editor-in-Chief for the journal Ecological Modelling; Secretary General for International Society for Ecological Modelling; and member and past Chair of the Baltimore County Commission on Environmental Quality. Dr. Fath was the 2016 recipient of the Prigogine Medal for outstanding work in systems ecology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Towson University, MD, U.S.A. Senior Research Scholar, Advanced Systems Analysis Program, IIASA, Austria

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