Encyclopedia of Creativity

Encyclopedia of Creativity

2nd Edition - May 23, 2011

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  • Editors-in-Chief: Mark Runco, Steven Pritzker
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123750396

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The first edition of the successful Encyclopedia of Creativity, Two Volume Set served to establish the study of creativity is a field in itself. Now completely updated and revised in its second edition, coverage encompasses the definition of creativity, the development and expression of creativity across the lifespan, the environmental conditions that encourage or discourage creativity, creativity within specific disciplines like music, dance, film, art, literature, etc., the relationship of creativity and mental health, intelligence, and learning styles, and the process of being creative. This reference also appeals to a lay audience with articles specifically on the application of creativity to business settings. Available online via ScienceDirect and in limited print release.

Key Features

  • Named a 2012 Outstanding Academic Title by the American Library Association's Choice publication
  • Serves as a compendium of reviews of a number of domain-specific areas, such as acting, dance, expressive arts, film, food, music, religion, science, sports, theater, and writing.
  • Creativity and education are examined in articles about thought processes, such as developmental trends in creative abilities and potentials, the enhancement of creativity, intelligence, knowledge, play, prodigies, programs and courses, talent and teaching creativity.
  • Cognitive aspects of creativity can be investigated in articles about altered and transitional states, analogies, attention, cognitive style, divergent thinking, flow and optimal experience, metacognition, metaphors, problem-finding, problem-solving, and remote associates.
  • Covers business and organizational creativity in articles about advertising with art, creative visuals, business/management, creativity coaching, creativity exercises, entrepreneurship, group dynamics, innovation, leadership, organizational culture, organizational development, teams, and training, among others.
  • Explicitly examines the complex interrelationship between society and creativity in articles about awards, conformity and conventionality, the creative sector and class of society, cultural diversity, the dark side of creativity, East vs. West, networking, social psychology, war, zeitgeist, and others.
  • Personal and interpersonal creativity is discussed in articles relating to collaboration, family, life stages, mentors, networking, personal creativity and self-actualization.
  • Focuses on scientific information about creativity, there are also articles that discuss brain and neuropsychology, concepts of creativity, definitions of creativity, expertise, longitudinal studies, researching art, artists and art audiences, research methods, phenomenology research and qualitative research.
  • Online version contains an additional 26 biographies of famously creative people


When the first edition of The Encyclopedia of Creativity was published in 1999, creativity research had become broad and important enough to be treated as a legitimate field of scientific study. Now creativity research is being conducted throughout the world in many different disciplines including psychology, arts and humanities, health sciences, education, and business. This global interest is reflected in the number of authors throughout the world who have contributed to this edition.

Table of Contents

  • Tagcloud based on keywords, showing relative importance of these terms to creativity research

    Executive Advisory Board

    About the Editors-in-Chief

    About the Executive Advisory Board


    Permission Acknowledgments


    Adaptation, Adaptiveness, and Creativity

    Advertising with Art: Creative Visuals

    Aesthetics and Creativity


    Altered and Transitional States



    Art and Aesthetics

    Art, Artists, and Arts Audiences: Their Implications for the Psychology of Creativity

    Associative Theory



    Attitudes and Creativity

    Attribution and Creativity

    Sri Aurobindo 1872–1950: A Yogi and a Poet


    Barriers to Creativity and Creative Attitudes

    The Beatles

    Ludwig van Beethoven 1770–1827

    Behavioral Approaches to Creativity

    Bipolar Mood Disorders

    Birth Order


    David Bohm 1917–1992

    Brain and Neuropsychology


    Mary Cassatt 1844–1926

    Chaos Theory and Creativity

    Charlie Chaplin 1889–1977

    Julia Child 1912–2004

    Camille Claudel 1864–1943

    Climate for Creativity

    Cognitive Style and Creativity


    Componential Models of Creativity

    Computers and Creativity



    Consensual Assessment

    Contrarianism and Creativity

    Creative Environments, Conditions, and Settings

    Creative Products

    The Creative Sector and Class of Society

    Creative Trajectories

    Creativity Complex

    Creativity in Science

    Creativity Through History

    Creativity Training

    Crime and Creativity

    Critical Thinking

    Cross-Cultural Differences in Creativity


    Cultural Diversity and Creativity

    Dance and Creativity

    The Dark Side of Creativity

    Definitions of Creativity


    Developmental Trends in Creative Abilities and Potentials


    Dialectical Thinking: Further Implications for Creative Thinking


    Distribution of Creativity

    Divergent Thinking

    Domains of Creativity

    Dreams and Creativity

    East vs. West


    Economic Perspectives on Creativity

    Education and Creativity



    Enhancement of Creativity


    Everyday Creativity

    Evolving Systems Approach



    Expressive Arts Therapy

    Families and Creativity


    Ella Fitzgerald 1917–1996

    Flow and Optimal Experience

    Food, Creativity of Recipes, Pairings, Menus

    The Four Ps of Creativity: Person, Product, Process, and Press

    Friendship and Creativity

    Mahatma Gandhi 1869–1948

    Gender Differences


    Genius and Greatness

    Giftedness and Creativity

    Group Creativity

    Joseph Haydn 1732–1809

    Handwriting and Creativity

    Katharine Hepburn 1907–2003

    Heuristics: Strategies in Creative Problem Solving

    Historical Conceptions of Creativity


    Grace Murray Hopper 1906–1992

    Humor and Creativity


    Implicit Theories





    Intelligence (as Related to Creativity)

    Interest Inventories



    Janusian, Homospatial and Sepconic Articulation Processes

    James Joyce 1882–1941

    Jungian Theory

    Frida Kahlo 1907–1954


    Akira Kurosawa 1910–1998


    Life Stages of Creativity

    Logic and Reasoning

    Longitudinal Studies

    Mad Genius Controversy


    Matthew, Pygmalion, and Founder Effects

    Margaret Mead 1901–1978

    Memory & Creativity

    Mental Health: Affective Disorders




    Michelangelo 1475–1564


    Claude Monet 1840–1926

    Moral Issues in Creativity


    Multiple Discovery

    Multiple Intelligences


    Nature/Nurture and Creativity



    Organizational Culture

    Organizational Development


    Paradigm Shifts

    Perception and Creativity

    Personal Creativity

    Personality: Autonomy and Independence


    Pablo Picasso 1881–1973



    Problem Finding

    Problem Solving


    Programs and Courses in Creativity


    Otto Rank 1884–1939

    Remote Associates

    Research and Methods

    Research: Phenomenology

    Research: Quantitative

    Rewards and Creativity



    Schizophrenia and Psychosis

    Clara Wieck-Schumann 1819–1896



    Social Psychology


    Socio-Economic Status and Performance on Creativity Tests


    Sports and Creativity

    Alfred Stieglitz 1864–1946

    Stress and Creativity

    Substance Abuse and Creativity



    Synchronicity and Creativity

    Systems Approach

    Tactics and Strategies for Creativity

    Talent and Creativity

    Teaching Creativity


    Sara Teasdale 1884–1933



    Theories of Creativity

    Therapy and Counseling (Creative Process in)


    Transforming Illness and Visual Art




    Max Wertheimer 1880–1943

    Women and Creativity

    Writing and Creativity



    Appendix I: Chronology of Events and Significant Ideas and Works on Creativity

    Appendix II: Tests of Creativity

    Albert Einstein 1879–1955

    Alexander Graham Bell 1847–1922

    Anne Sexton 1928–1974

    The Brontë Sisters: Charlotte Brontë (Currer Bell) 1816–1855, Anne Brontë (Acton Bell) 1818–1848, Emily Brontë (Ellis Bell) 1820–1849

    Charles Robert Darwin 1809–1882

    Fernando Pessoa (Alberto Caeiro, Alvaro de Campos, Ricardo Reis, Bernardo Soares, and many more) 1888–1935

    George Bernard Shaw 1856–1950

    Georgia O’Keeffe 1887–1986

    Hans Adolf Krebs 1900–1981

    Henri-Marie-Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa 1864–1901

    Isak Dinesen 1885–1962

    Jean Piaget 1896–1980

    Leonardo da Vinci 1452–1519

    Lev Semenovich Vygotsky 1896–1934

    Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson) 1832–1898

    Marie Sklodowska Curie 1867–1934

    Paul Cézanne 1839–1906

    Rabindranath Tagore 1861–1941

    Robert Schumann 1810–1856

    Sigmund Freud 1856–1939

    Sylvia Plath 1932–1963

    Vincent van Gogh 1853–1890

    Virginia (Stephen) Woolf 1882–1941

    Wilbur Wright 1867–1912 and Orville Wright 1871–1948

    William Shakespeare 1564–1616

    William Wordsworth 1770–1850

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1384
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2011
  • Published: May 23, 2011
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123750396

About the Editors in Chief

Mark Runco

Mark Runco
Mark Runco, Director of Creativity Research & Programming, Southern Oregon University, Ashland OR, USA Mark Runco earned his Ph.D. in cognitive psychology from the Claremont Graduate School in California and has studied creativity ever since. He is currently a Director of Creativity Research & Programming, Southern Oregon University, Ashland OR, USA He began his teaching career as an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Hawaii, Hilo. He then taught at Cal State Fullerton for 22 years. He was also an adjunct professor at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration for nearly 15 years and lectured regularly at Universidad de Cantabria in Spain and Shaanxi Normal University in Xi'an, China. He is a distinguished consulting faculty member at the Saybrook Graduate University in San Francisco and remains on the University of Georgia Graduate Faculty Mark developed nine seminars on creativity, including "Creativity: What It Is and What It Is Not," "The Assessment of Creativity," "Creative Cognition," and "Social Contexts for Creativity." He is Fellow and past president of Division 10 (Psychology, Art, Creativity, and Aesthetics) of the American Psychological Association. Mark also founded the Creativity Research Journal, which he still edits, along with two new journals: Business Creativity and the Creative Economy, and the Journal of Genius and Eminence. In 2010, Mark published the "rCAB" (Runco Creativity Assessment Battery), a comprehensive battery of tests for the assessment of creativity. He has published over 300 articles, chapters, and books on creativity, its measurement and enhancement. His textbook Creativity: Theories and Themes: Research, Development, and Practice has been translated into 10 languages. The 3rd edition will be published in 2020. He also was an Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopedia of Creativity, which was published in 1999 and the second edition, which was published in 2011.

Affiliations and Expertise

Torrance Center for Creativity and Talent Development, USA; Director of Creativity Research & Programming, Southern Oregon University, Ashland OR, USA

Steven Pritzker

Steven Pritzker
Steven Pritzker, Psychology/Creativity Studies Faculty, Saybrook University, Pasadena, CA, USA Steven Pritzker received his Ph.D.in Educational Psychology from the University of Southern California. He taught Writing and Creativity and Writing at UCLA Extension and Foothill College and Educational Psychology at USC. Steven was a Professor for 17 years at Saybrook University where he founded and was Director of the Creativity Studies Certificate and the Creativity Studies Masters and Doctoral Specializations. He is still on the faculty there and has guest lectured at universities and spoken at conferences in many countries. Steven’s research has dealt with creativity and writing in television; collaborative creativity in writing and business; creativity and spirituality; audience flow; the effect of alcohol on creativity; comedians and longevity and the creative process in high achieving writers. Dr. Pritzker is Past President a Fellow of Division 10 of The American Psychological Association (Psychology of Creativity, Aesthetics and The Arts). He also served on the Educational Coalition of the American Psychological Association where he was commissioned to be Executive Producer of the video Creativity in the Classroom which is among the top ten most viewed videos released by APA. He also developed this into a Continuing Education Module for psychologists and teachers. Steven worked in network television where he was a Writer and/or Executive Story Editor, Producer, Supervising Producer or Executive Producer on over 200 network television shows. His credits include writing episodes of the Emmy winning Mary Tyler Moore Show and Room 222. He is a lifetime member of the Writers Guild of America. His background in the business world includes experience in marketing, advertising, training, and consulting. He has presented seminars regarding business and creativity. Steven was Humor Editor and a write for Psychology Today magazine and Editor-in-Chief of the first edition of The Encyclopedia of Creativity published in 1999 as well as the second edition published in June 2011.

Affiliations and Expertise

Saybrook University, San Francisco, CA, USA

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