Encyclopedia of Creativity

2nd Edition

Editor-in-Chiefs: Mark Runco Steven Pritzker
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123750396
eBook ISBN: 9780123750389
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 23rd May 2011
Page Count: 1384
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Institutional Access


The first edition of the successful Encyclopedia of Creativity served to establish the study of creativity is a field in itself. Now completely updated and revised in its second edition, coverage encompasses the definition of creativity, the development and expression of creativity across the lifespan, the environmental conditions that encourage or discourage creativity, creativity within specific disciplines like music, dance, film, art, literature, etc., the relationship of creativity and mental health, intelligence, and learning styles, and the process of being creative. This reference also appeals to a lay audience with articles specifically on the application of creativity to business settings. Available online via ScienceDirect and in limited print release.

Key Features

  • Named a 2012 Outstanding Academic Title by the American Library Association's Choice publication
  • Serves as a compendium of reviews of a number of domain-specific areas, such as acting, dance, expressive arts, film, food, music, religion, science, sports, theater, and writing.
  • Creativity and education are examined in articles about thought processes, such as developmental trends in creative abilities and potentials, the enhancement of creativity, intelligence, knowledge, play, prodigies, programs and courses, talent and teaching creativity.
  • Cognitive aspects of creativity can be investigated in articles about altered and transitional states, analogies, attention, cognitive style, divergent thinking, flow and optimal experience, metacognition, metaphors, problem-finding, problem-solving, and remote associates.
  • Covers business and organizational creativity in articles about advertising with art, creative visuals, business/management, creativity coaching, creativity exercises, entrepreneurship, group dynamics, innovation, leadership, organizational culture, organizational development, teams, and training, among others.
  • Explicitly examines the complex interrelationship between society and creativity in articles about awards, conformity and conventionality, the creative sector and class of society, cultural diversity, the dark side of creativity, East vs. West, networking, social psychology, war, zeitgeist, and others.
  • Personal and interpersonal creativity is discussed in articles relating to collaboration, family, life stages, mentors, networking, personal creativity and self-actualization.
  • Focuses on scientific information about creativity, there are also articles that discuss brain and neuropsychology, concepts of creativity, definitions of creativity, expertise, longitudinal studies, researching art, artists and art audiences, research methods, phenomenology research and qualitative resear


When the first edition of The Encyclopedia of Creativity was published in 1999, creativity research had become broad and important enough to be treated as a legitimate field of scientific study. Now creativity research is being conducted throughout the world in many different disciplines including psychology, arts and humanities, health sciences, education, and business. This global interest is reflected in the number of authors throughout the world who have contributed to this edition.

Table of Contents

Tagcloud based on keywords, showing relative importance of these terms to creativity research

Executive Advisory Board

About the Editors-in-Chief

About the Executive Advisory Board


Permission Acknowledgments


Adaptation, Adaptiveness, and Creativity

Advertising with Art: Creative Visuals

Aesthetics and Creativity


Altered and Transitional States



Art and Aesthetics

Art, Artists, and Arts Audiences: Their Implications for the Psychology of Creativity

Associative Theory



Attitudes and Creativity

Attribution and Creativity

Sri Aurobindo 1872–1950: A Yogi and a Poet


Barriers to Creativity and Creative Attitudes

The Beatles

Ludwig van Beethoven 1770–1827

Behavioral Approaches to Creativity

Bipolar Mood Disorders

Birth Order


David Bohm 1917–1992

Brain and Neuropsychology


Mary Cassatt 1844–1926

Chaos Theory and Creativity

Charlie Chaplin 1889–1977

Julia Child 1912–2004

Camille Claudel 1864–1943

Climate for Creativity

Cognitive Style and Creativity


Componential Models of Creativity

Computers and Creativity



Consensual Assessment

Contrarianism and Creativity

Creative Environments, Conditions, and Settings

Creative Products

The Creative Sector and Class of Society

Creative Trajectories

Creativity Complex

Creativity in Science

Creativity Through History

Creativity Training

Crime and Creativity

Critical Thinking

Cross-Cultural Differences in Creativity



No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2011
Academic Press
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About the Editor-in-Chief

Mark Runco

Mark Runco has studied creativity and innovation for 35 years. He holds a PhD in Cognitive Psychology and is Professor at the University of Georgia, as well as Distinguished Research Fellow at the American Institute for Behavioral Research and Technology. His PhD is in Cognitive Psychology from the Claremont Graduate School. He also earned his MA and his BA from Claremont. He is founding Editor of the Creativity Research Journal and is on the Editorial Board of Creativity and Innovation Management, the Journal of Creative Behavior and various other academic journals. He is co-editor of the Encyclopedia of Creativity (1999, 2011) and in 2015 he collaborated with the International Center for Studies in Creativity to introduce two new academic journals, Business Creativity and the Creative Economy and the Journal of Genius and Eminence. Dr. Runco was Adjunct Professor at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration and the Torrance Professor and Director of the Torrance Creativity Center at UGA. He is Past President of the American Psychological Association’s Division 10. Dr. Runco has published over 200 articles, chapters, and books on creativity and innovation.

Affiliations and Expertise

Torrance Center for Creativity and Talent Development, USA

Steven Pritzker

STEVEN R. PRITZKER, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology at Saybrook University in San Francisco. He is Director of The Creativity Studies Certificate and Masters in Psychology with a Specialization in Creativity Studies. Dr. Pritzker writes both academic and popular press articles and books concerning creativity. He is a fellow and educational coalition representative for the American Psychological Association’s Division 10 (Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and The Arts). He serves on the editorial board of the APA journal Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and The Arts. Dr. Pritzker is a former comedy writer-producer who worked on over 200 network television episodes including such popular shows as The Partridge Family, Maude, Fish, The Hogan Family and the Emmy winning Mary Tyler Moore Show and Room 222. He has received Emmy recognition and been nominated for the Writers Guild of America Award. Dr. Pritzker is President of Creativity Source where he consults and coaches organizations and individuals on maximizing their creativity.

Affiliations and Expertise

Saybrook University, San Francisco, CA, USA


CHOICE Outstanding Academic Titles, 2012, American Library Association


"Overall, the book does fulfil its aims and is timely, given the increasing interest in developing new approaches and products. It will be of interest to subject librarians with responsibility for psychology and creative courses and others who want to find out about the theoretical viewpoints."--Health Libraries Group Newsletter

Praise for the first edition:

"...an impressive work by any standard. We warmly recommend this tour de force publication... a must for every university library..."

"The Encyclopedia of Creativity is a highly impressive, collaborative achievement... Unprecedented in breadth and scope... a resounding success..."
- CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY (2002, Vol. 47, No. 2)

"...this encyclopedia represents a useful effort to bring together research on creativity and will serve undergraduate and graduate students well."

"...something to catch the interests of nearly any reader with a curious mind...