Encyclopedia of Creativity - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080548500

Encyclopedia of Creativity

1st Edition

Editors: Steven Pritzker
Editor-in-Chiefs: Mark Runco
eBook ISBN: 9780080548500
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 9th August 1999
Page Count: 1663
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The Encyclopedia of Creativity is the sourcebook for individuals seeking specialized information about creativity and motivation. Subjects include theories of creativity, techniques for enhancing creativity, individuals who have made significant contributions to creativity, physiological aspects of creativity, and virtually any topic that touches upon the subject. Entries are placed in alphabetical order with cross-references to other topics and entries where appropriate. Each entry is written in simple easy-to-understand terms summarizing the most important aspects of creative research and writing relating to the specific topic. A bibliography in the back of each article suggests additional sources for more information. The text is visually enhanced throughout by illustrations and photographs.

Key Features

  • A source-book of specialized information about creativity and motivation
  • Includes virtually any topic dealing with creativity
  • Entries are placed in alphabetical order with cross-references
  • Written in easy-to-understand terms
  • Illustrations and photographs throughout
  • Contains select biographies of internationally renowned creative individuals from throughout history


Writers, artists, actors, dancers, architects, composers, photographers and musicians; businesses and business professionals; scientists and inventors; students, teachers and school administrators; psychologists, psychiatrists, and behavior therapists; law enforcement officials; individuals interested in learning more about their own creativity, and how to revitalize, expand, and manipulate creativity based on information learned from these articles

Table of Contents

J. Nemiro, Acting.
L.M. Cohen and D. Ambrose, Adaptation and Creativity.
S.E. Moriarty and B.A. Robbs, Advertising.
R. Richards, Affective Disorders.
B. Levy and E. Langer, Aging.
S.R. Pritzker, Alcohol and Creativity.
S. Krippner, Altered and Transitional States.
M.D. Mumford and P.P. Porter, Analogies.
S.Z. Dudek, Architecture, Modern Western.
E. Taylor, Archival Investigation.
S.Z. Dudek, Art and Aesthetics.
C. Martindale, Art and Artists.
A. Rothenberg, Articulation.
T. Proctor, Artificial Intelligence.
D. Fasko, Jr., Associative Theory.
G. Toplyn, Attention.
J. Kasof, Attribution and Creativity.
G.J. Feist, Autonomy and Independence.
G.A. Davis, Barriers to Creativity and Creative Attitudes.
R. Epstein and G. Laptosky, Behavioral Approaches to Creativity.
M.E. Gorman, Bell, Alexander Graham.
F.J. Sulloway, Birth Order.
N. Jausovec, Brain Biology and Brain Functioning.
K.H. Pribram, Brain and the Creative Act.
T. Rickards, Brainstorming.
J. VanTassel-Baska, Brontë Sisters.
C.M. Ford, Business Strategy.
D. Morrison, Carroll, Lewis.
P. Machotka, Cezanne, Paul.
D. Schuldberg, Chaos Theory and Creativity.
O. Martinsen and G. Kaufmann, Cognitive Style and Creativity.
J. Abra and G. Abra, Collaboration and Competition.
T.I. Lubart, Componential Models.
T. Proctor, Computer Programs.
J. Dacey, Concepts of Creativity: A History.
D.M. Harrington, Conditions and Settings/Environment.
K.M. Sheldon, Conformity.
B.A. Hennessey and T.M. Amabile, Consensual Assessment.
R.R. McCrae, Consistency of Creativity across the Life Span.
M.A. Runco, Contrarianism.
D.A. Pariser, Conventionality.
C.M. Ford, Corporate Culture.
D.K. Carson, Counseling.
G. Ekvall, Creative Climate.
K. O'Quin and S.P. Besemer, Creative Products.
B. Cramond, Creativity in the Future.
M.L. Grisanti and H.E. Gruber, Creativity in the Moral Domain.
I. Magyari-Beck, Creatology.
R. Brower, Crime and Creativity.
M.A. Runco, Critical Thinking.
M.K. Raina, Cross-Cultural Differences.
B.J. Thurston, Curie, Marie Sklodowska.
J.B. Alter, Dance and Creativity.
R.B. McLaren, Dark Side of Creativity.
R. T. Keegan, Darwin, Charles Robert.
L. Shlain, da Vinci, Leonardo.
A.J. Cropley, Definitions of Creativity.
G. Goldschmidt, Design.
M.A. Runco, Developmental Trends in Creative Abilities and Potentials.
J.A. Plucker and M.A. Runco, Deviance.
B. Yan and P. Arlin, Dialectical Thinking: Implications for Creative Thinking.
S.L. Morrison, Dinesen, Isak.
R. Root-Bernstein, Discovery.
H.J. Walberg and G. Arian, Distribution of Creativity.
M.A. Runco, Divergent Thinking.
G.B. Esquivel and K.M. Peters, Diversity, Cultural.
J. Baer, Domains of Creativity.
S. Krippner, Dreams and Creativity.
J.A. Plucker and R.Q. Dana, Drugs and Creativity.
D.J. Weeks and K. Ward, Eccentricity.
T.I. Lubart and M.A. Runco, Economic Perspective on Creativity.
A.J. Cropley, Education.
A.I. Miller, Einstein, Albert.
D.K. Simonton, Eminence.
S.W. Russ, Emotion/Affect.
J.A. Plucker and M.A. Runco, Enhancement of Creativity.
S.K. Sagarin and H.E. Gruber, Ensemble of Metaphor.
R. Richards, Everyday Creativity.
H.E. Gruber, Evolving Systems Approach.
K.A. Ericsson and A.C. Lehmann, Expertise.
B. Kerr and C. Chopp, Families and Creativity.
R. Richards, Five-Part Typology.
R.A. Dodds and S.M. Smith, Fixation.
B.J. Thurston and M.A. Runco, Flexibility.
R. Richards, Four Ps of Creativity.
M.A. Runco, Fourth Grade Slump.
A.C. Elms, Freud, Sigmund.
J. Baer, Gender Differences.
R. Epstein, Generativity Theory.
C. Martindale, Genetics.
J.F. Feldhusen, Giftedness and Creativity.
P.B. Paulus, Group Creativity.
W.B. Michael, Guilford's View.
W.D. TenHouten, Handwriting and Creativity.
M.D. Mumford and D.G. Norris, Heuristics.
D.K. Simonton, Historiometry.
C. Martindale, History and Creativity.
A.G. Rothenberg, Homospatial Process.
A.G. Aleinikov, Humane Creativity.
K. O'Quin and P. Derks, Humor.
J.C. Houtz and C. Patricola, Imagery.
J.L. Singer, Imagination.
M.A. Runco, Implicit Theories.
R.K. Sawyer, Improvisation.
S.M. Smith and R.A. Dodds, Incubation.
M.A. West and T. Rickards, Innovation.
R.J. Sternberg and J.E. Davidson, Insight.
R. Helson, Institute of Personality Assessment and Research.
R.J. Sternberg, Intelligence.
E. Policastro, Intuition.
M. Hertz, Invention.
A. Rothenberg, Janusian Process.
K. Jones, Jungian Theory.
T.E. Scott, Knowledge.
F.L. Holmes, Krebs, Hans Adolf.
M.D. Mumford and M.S. Connelly, Leadership.
L.A. O'Hara and R.J. Sternberg, Learning Styles.
P.N. Johnson-Laird, Logic and Reasoning.
R.F. Subotnik and K.D. Arnold, Longitudinal Studies.
S.D. Durrenberger, Mad Genius Controversy.
M. Dogan, Marginality.
D.K. Simonton, Matthew Effects.
E. Necka, Memory and Creativity.
N. Jausovec, Metacognition.
R.W. Gibbs, Jr., Metaphors.
M.C. Moldoveanu and E. Langer, Mindfulness.
M.A. Runco, Misjudgment.
E.R. Hirt, Mood.
R. Conti and T. Amabile, Motivation/Drive.
A. Ione, Multiple Discovery.
B. Solomon, K. Powell, and H. Gardner, Multiple Intelligences.
M. Leman, Music.
P.D. Stokes, Novelty.
T. Zausner, O'Keeffe, Georgia.
M.S. Lindauer, Old Age Style.
T. Rickards, Organizations Interested in Creativity.
M.M. Piechowski, Overexcitabilities.
T. Nickles, Paradigm Shifts.
G.J.W. Smith, Perceptgenesis.
G.C. Cupchik, Perception and Creativity.
R. Helson, Personality.
M.A. Runco, Perspectives.
B.D. Esgalhado, Pessoa, Fernando.
H.E. Gruber, Piaget, Jean.
D. Lester, Plath, Sylvia.
J.L. Dansky, Play.
J. Piirto, Poetry.
J.A. Seitz, Political Science and Creativity.
G.R. Brown, Postmodernism and Creativity.
T.E. Heinzen, Proactive Creativity.
M.A. Runco and G. Dow, Problem Finding.
R.E. Mayer, Problem Solving.
M.J. Morelock and D.H. Feldman, Prodigies.
R. Root-Bernstein, Productivity and Age.
S.J. Parnes, Programs and Courses in Creativity.
A.N. Katz, Psycholinguistics.
A. Goswami, Quantum Theory of Creativity.
D. Schuldberg and L.A. Sass, Schizophrenia.
L. Deschamps Otswald, Schumann, Robert.
K. Dunbar, Science.
M.A. Runco, Self-Actualization.
P. Wink, Self Processes and Creativity.
C.L. Diaz de Chumaceiro, Serendipity.
C. Sanguinetti and S. Kavaler-Adler, Sexton, Anne.
D.K. Simonton, Shakespeare, William.
L. Tahir, Shaw, George Bernard.
J. Bogen and G.M. Bogen, Split Brains: Interhemispheric Exchange in Creativity.
J. Abra and G. Abra, Sports and Creativity.
D. Lester, Suicide.
J. Piirto, Synchronicity.
G. Domino, Synesthesia.
K. Rathunde, Systems Approach.
M.A. Runco, Tactics and Strategies for Creativity.
M.K. Raina, Tagore, Rabindranath.
J. Feldhusen, Talent and Creativity.
R.E. Ripple, Teaching Creativity.
G.J. Puccio, Teams.
P.M. Valkenburg, Television and Creativity.
M.A. Runco, Time.
D. Pariser, Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri de.
L. Noppe, Unconscious.
R. Brower, van Gogh, Vincent.
N. Gajdamaschko, Vygotsky, Lev Semenovich.
S.M. Reis, Women and Creativity.
M. Ippolito, Woolf, Virgina.
L.R. Jeffrey, Wordsworth, William.
P.L. Jakab, Wright, Wilbur and Orville.
S.R. Pritzker, Writing and Creativity.
L. Shlain, Zeitgeist.
S.R. Pritzker, Zen.
M.A. Runco, Appendix I: Chronology of Events and Significant Ideas and Works on Creativity.
M.A. Runco, Appendix II: Tests of Creativity.
Name Index.
Subject Index.


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1999
9th August 1999
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Steven Pritzker

Steven Pritzker

STEVEN R. PRITZKER, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology at Saybrook University in San Francisco.

He is Director of The Creativity Studies Certificate and Masters in Psychology with a Specialization

in Creativity Studies. Dr. Pritzker writes both academic and popular press articles and books

concerning creativity. He is a fellow and educational coalition representative for the American

Psychological Association’s Division 10 (Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and The Arts).

He serves on the editorial board of the APA journal Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and The Arts.

Dr. Pritzker is a former comedy writer-producer who worked on over 200 network television

episodes including such popular shows as The Partridge Family, Maude, Fish, The Hogan Family and

the Emmy winning Mary Tyler Moore Show and Room 222. He has received Emmy recognition

and been nominated for the Writers Guild of America Award. Dr. Pritzker is President of Creativity

Source where he consults and coaches organizations and individuals on maximizing their


Affiliations and Expertise

Saybrook University, San Francisco, CA, USA

About the Editor-in-Chief

Mark Runco

Mark Runco

Mark Runco has studied creativity and innovation for 35 years. He holds a PhD in Cognitive Psychology and is Professor at the University of Georgia, as well as Distinguished Research Fellow at the American Institute for Behavioral Research and Technology. His PhD is in Cognitive Psychology from the Claremont Graduate School. He also earned his MA and his BA from Claremont. He is founding Editor of the Creativity Research Journal and is on the Editorial Board of Creativity and Innovation Management, the Journal of Creative Behavior and various other academic journals. He is co-editor of the Encyclopedia of Creativity (1999, 2011) and in 2015 he collaborated with the International Center for Studies in Creativity to introduce two new academic journals, Business Creativity and the Creative Economy and the Journal of Genius and Eminence.

Dr. Runco was Adjunct Professor at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration and the Torrance Professor and Director of the Torrance Creativity Center at UGA. He is Past President of the American Psychological Association’s Division 10.

Dr. Runco has published over 200 articles, chapters, and books on creativity and innovation.

Affiliations and Expertise

Torrance Center for Creativity and Talent Development, USA


"The text itself is a wealth of information—the "everything you wanted to know about creativity"-contributed by anyone who is anybody in the field-a sort of Who's Who of creativity studies... As can be seen, the editors have gone to great extremes to make the contents of the encyclopedia unrivaled—both in size and content... In sum, Encyclopedia of Creativity is an impressive work by any standard. We warmly recommend this tour de force publication. It is a must for every university library and it would be the pride of the private library of any scholar." --HIGH ABILITY STUDIES

"The Encyclopedia of Creativity is a highly impressive, collaborative achievement... The wide range of topics are aptly chosen and deftly interwoven by means of extensive cross-referencing and indexing... Unprecedented in breadth and scope, the Encyclopedia of Creativity decisively establishes creativity as an important field in its own right... this work is a resounding success, and decisively establishes creativity as an important multidisciplinary field... Congratulations to the editors, the Executive Advisory Board, and the contributing authors!" --CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY (2002, Vol. 47, No. 2)

"...this encyclopedia represents a useful effort to bring together research on creativity and will serve undergraduate and graduate students well." --CHOICE

"The stated purpose of the books is to 'inspire further recognition in both the general public and the academic community that the study of creativity is a field in itself' and that 'Enough is now known about creativity that it can be integrated into every level of our educational system' (p.xv). These two volumes certainly should go a long way towards these goals. Whithin them should be something to catch the interests of nearly any reader with a curious mind, the person who is specifically interested in the topic of creativity, and even the casual browser wishing to become better informed about his how thought and that of others." --PERCEPTUAL AND MOTOR SKILLS

Ratings and Reviews