Encyclopedia of Caves

Encyclopedia of Caves

3rd Edition - May 10, 2019

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  • Editors: William White, David Culver, Tanja Pipan
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128141243
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128141250

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Encyclopedia of Caves, Third Edition, provides detailed background information to anyone with a serious interest in caves. This includes students, both undergraduate and graduate, in the earth, biological and environmental sciences, and consultants, environmental scientists, land managers and government agency staff whose work requires them to know something about caves and the biota that inhabit them. Caves touch on many scientific interests in geology, climate science, biology, hydrology, archaeology, and paleontology, as well as more popular interests in sport caving and cave exploration. Case studies and descriptions of specific caves selected for their special features and public interest are also included. This book will appeal to these audiences by providing in-depth essays written by expert authors chosen for their expertise in their assigned subject.

Key Features

  • Features 14 new chapters and 13 completely rewritten chapters
  • Contains beautifully illustrated content, with more than 500 color images of cave life and features
  • Provides extensive bibliographies that allow readers to access their subject of interest in greater depth


Geologists, speleologists, environmental scientists, hydrogeologists, paleontologists, archaeologists, biologists, and cave enthusiasts

Table of Contents

  • A: Adaptation to low food; Adaptations: Low oxygen; Adaptation to darkness; Adaptations: Behavioral;Adaptation: Morphological; Adaptation and natural selection in caves; Adaptive shifts; Anchihaline (Anchialine) caves and fauna; Ancient cavers in Eastern North America; Art in European caves; Asellus aquaticus: A model system for historical biogeography; Astyanax mexicanus: A vertebrate model for evolution, adaptation, and development in caves

    B: Bats; Beetles; Biodiversity patterns in Australia; Biodiversity: China; Biodiversity in Europe; Biodiversity in the United States and Canada; Biodiversity in South America; Biodiversity in the tropics; Breakdown; Burnsville Cove, Virginia

    C: Camps; Castleguard Cave, Canada; Cave dwellers in Southwest Asia; Cave ecosystems; Cavefishes; Cavefish of China; Caver communities and organizations: Cultural and historical considerations; Chemolithoautotrophy; Clastic sediments in caves; Closed depressions in karst areas; Coastal caves; Collembola; Contamination of cave waters by heavy metals; Contamination of cave waters by nonaqueous-phase liquids; Crustacea; Dating cave sediments with cosmogenic nuclides

    D: Dating cave sediments with cosmogenic nuclides; Definition of cave; Dinaric karst—Geography and geology; Documentation and databases

    E: Ecological and evolutionary classifications of subterranean organisms; Entrances;
    Environmental DNA as a conservation tool; Epikarst; Epikarst communities; Exploration of caves—General; Exploration of caves: Underwater exploration; Exploration of caves—Vertical caving techniques

    F: Folklore, myth, and legend, caves in; Food sources; The Frasassi Caves, Italy; Friars Hole System

    G: Gammarus minus: A model system for the study of adaptation to the cave environment; Geophysics for locating karst and caves; Glacier caves; Guano communities; Gypsum caves; Gypsum flowers and related speleothems

    H: Hang Son Doong and other caves of the Phong Nha-Kẻ Ba`ng karst, Quảng Bı`nh Province, Vietnam; Helictites and related speleothems; History: Caves and other underground spaces in medieval Britain and Ireland; Huautla cave system (Sistema Huautla), Mexico; Hydrogeology of Karst aquifers; Hydrothermal caves

    I: Ice in caves; Iron formation caves: Genesis and ecology; Isotopes in karst waters and cave sediments

    J: Jewel cave, South Dakota

    K: Karren, cave; Karren, surface; Karst; Kazumura Cave, Hawaii; Krubera (Voronja) cave

    L: Lampenflora; Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico; Life histories

    M: Magnetism of cave sediments; Mammals and birds—vertebrate visitors; Mammoth Cave System, Kentucky; Mapping subterranean biodiversity; Maya caves; Microbes; Minerals in caves; Modeling of karst aquifers; Modeling the evolution of karst aquifers; Molluscs; Mulu caves, Malaysia; Myriapods

    N: Niphargus—A model system for evolution and ecology; Nitrate contamination in karst groundwater; Nullarbor Caves, Australia

    O: The Omega Cave System; Orthoptera

    P: Paleoclimate records from speleothems; Paleontology of caves; Passage growth and development; Postojna—Planina Cave System, Slovenia; Protecting cave life; Protecting caves; Pseudokarst

    Q: Quartzite and quartz sandstone caves of South America

    R: Recreational caving

    S: Salamanders; Saltpeter mining; Scallops; Shallow subterranean habitats; Show caves; Siebenhengste cave system, Switzerland; Sinkholes; Solution caves in regions of high-relief; Solution caves in regions of moderate relief; Species interactions; Speleogenesis—Hypogenе; Speleogenesis: Telogenetic; Speleothem deposition; Speleothems; Spiders and related groups; Springs; Stalactites and stalagmites; Submarine springs in coastal karst; Sulfuric acid caves; Surveying caves

    T: Tiankeng, Definition of; Time markers in landscape evolution, caves as

    U: Ukraine giant gypsum caves; Underwater Caves of the Yucatan Peninsula; Uranium series dating of speleothems

    V: Vicariance and dispersal in caves; Vjetrenica Cave, Bosnia and Herzegovina; Volcanic rock caves

    W: Wakulla spring underwater cave system, Florida; Water chemistry in caves; Water tracing in karst aquifers; Wetlands in cave and karst regions; White-nose syndrome: A fungal disease of North American hibernating bats; Worms

    X: Xe Bang Fai Cave, Laos

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1250
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2019
  • Published: May 10, 2019
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128141243
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128141250

About the Editors

William White

William B. White is Professor Emeritus of Geochemistry at The Pennsylvania State University. He holds a BS degree in chemistry from Juniata College (Huntingdon, PA) and a PhD in geochemistry from Penn State. His 40-year teaching career included a course in the geology of caves and karst. His research has produced 446 technical papers of which 131 deal with aspects of caves and karst. He is author or co-editor of 7 cave-related books including the first two editions of the Encyclopedia of Caves. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the National Speleological Society, and the Mineralogical Society of America.

Affiliations and Expertise

The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA

David Culver

David C. Culver received his BA from Grinnell College and his PhD from Yale University. He is Professor Emeritus of Environmental Science at American University. He has studied the ecology, evolution, biogeography, and biodiversity of the subterranean fauna for five decades and has published more than 120 papers in refereed journals, and authored or co-authored four books, two with Tanja Pipan. His studies of the subterranean fauna have taken him to more than 20 countries. He was co-editor with William B. White of the first two editions of the Encyclopedia of Caves.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Environmental Science, American University, Washington, D.C., USA

Tanja Pipan

Tanja Pipan received her PhD in biology from the University of Ljubljana. She is currently Research Advisor at the Karst Research Institute, Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts (ZRC SAZU) and Professor of Biology at the University of Nova Gorica. She has broad research interests in subterranean biology, especially biodiversity, biogeography, ecology of shallow subterranean habitats, and ecosystem function. She has extensive experience with a variety of Slovenian subterranean habitats and has done the most extensive ecological study to date of the very rich fauna found in the epikarst. Since 2011 she is an associate editor of the Journal of Speleology for the field of biospeleology. She has travelled extensively in her study of the epikarst and other subsurface habitats.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Advisor, Karst Research Institute, Scientific Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts (ZRC-SAZU) and Professor of Biology, University of Nova Gorica

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