Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance

Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance

1st Edition - April 11, 2012
This is the Latest Edition
  • Editor-in-Chief: Thomas Cash
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123849250
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123849267

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Description

This scholarly work is the most comprehensive existing resource on human physical appearance—how people’s outer physical characteristics and their inner perceptions and attitudes about their own appearance (body image) affect their lives. The encyclopedia’s 117 full-length chapters are composed and edited by the world’s experts from a range of disciplines—social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. The extensive topical coverage in this valuable reference work includes: (1) Important theories, perspectives, and concepts for understanding body image and appearance; (2) Scientific measurement of body image and physical attributes (anthropometry); (3) The development and determinants of human appearance and body image over the lifespan: (4) How culture and society influences the meanings of human appearance; (5) The psychosocial effects of appearance-altering disease, damage, and visible differences; (6) Appearance self-change and self-management; (7) The prevention and treatment of body image problems, including psychosocial and medical interventions. Chapters are written in a manner that is accessible and informative to a wide audience, including the educated public, college and graduate students, and scientists and clinical practitioners. Each well-organized chapter provides a glossary of definitions of any technical terms and a Further Reading section of recommended sources for continued learning about the topic. Available online via ScienceDirect or in a limited-release print version.

Key Features

  • The Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance is a unique reference for a growing area of scientific inquiry
  • It brings together in one source the research from experts in a variety of fields examining this psychological and sociological phenomenon
  • The breadth of topics covered, and the current fascination with this subject area ensure this reference will be of interest to researchers and a lay audience alike

Readership

Undergraduate students, graduate students, researchers, and interested public libraries

Table of Contents

  • Editor-in-Chief

    Associate Editors

    List of Contributors

    Guide to Using the Encyclopedia

    Preface

    Foreword

    Volume 1

    Amputations and Prosthetic Devices

    Introduction

    Amputation and Body Image

    Factors Influencing Body Image Adaptation

    Conclusions and Recommendations for Clinical Care

    see also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Anorexia Nervosa

    Introduction

    Body Image Disturbance in Anorexia Nervosa

    Comparisons of BID in AN to BID in Other EDs

    Mechanisms of BID in AN

    Effective Treatment for BID

    Conclusions

    see also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Anthropological Perspectives on Physical Appearance and Body Image

    Introduction

    Anthropological Findings in the Study of Human Appearance

    Anthropological Study of Body Image

    Methodological Innovations

    Conclusions

    see also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Anthropometry

    Introduction

    Body Fat

    Torso Shape

    Symmetry Measures

    Facial Anthropometry

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Appearance Discrimination and the Law

    Introduction

    Legal Landscape of Weight Discrimination: Key Examples

    Current Status of Legislation to Prohibit Appearance Discrimination

    Potential Legislative Alternatives and Solutions

    Does the Public Support Laws to Prohibit Appearance Discrimination?

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Bariatric Surgery for Weight Loss

    Defining Obesity

    Bariatric Surgery Procedures and Outcomes

    Evaluation of Candidates for Bariatric Surgery

    Psychosocial Characteristics of Bariatric Surgery Candidates

    Additional Preoperative Psychosocial Issues

    Postoperative Outcomes

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Beauty over the Centuries – Female

    Introduction

    The Historical Method and a Focal Example

    The Shift to Image-Based Mass Media

    How Consumer Culture Promoted an Ideological Shift

    Shaping the Body through Clothing

    Mass Media and Leisure

    Emphasis on the Physical Self

    Girls’ Organizations

    The Importance of Eugenics

    Controlling the Body from the Inside: Eating and Athletics

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Beauty over the Centuries – Male

    Introduction

    The Pythagorean View of Beauty

    Muscular Ideal

    Leanness and Youthfulness

    Well Roundedness and Plumpness

    Nonphysical Standards of Beauty and the Wen/Wan Dichotomy

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketches

    Body Art

    Introduction

    A Brief History of Body Art

    Motivations for Obtaining Body Art

    Behavioral and Personality Correlates of Obtaining Body Art

    Perceptions of Body Art

    Future Directions

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Biographical Sketches

    Bodybuilding

    Bodybuilding: Definition and a Brief History

    The Drive for Muscularity

    Muscle Dysmorphia

    Three Models of Potential Causes of Muscle Dysmorphia

    Anabolic Steroid Use in Bodybuilders

    Possible Treatments for Muscle Dysmorphia

    Future Research on Body Image and Muscle Dysmorphia in Bodybuilders

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Introduction

    Prevalence/Epidemiology

    Clinical Features of BDD

    BDD in Special Populations

    A Patient with BDD: Case Description

    Neural Substrates and Cognitive/Emotional Processing

    Psychological Correlates

    Assessing and Diagnosing BDD

    Treatment Approaches

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Body Height

    Introduction

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Body Image among African Americans

    Introduction

    African American Body Image – The Current Consensus

    Exposing the Limits of Racial Framing in Understanding Body Image

    Toward Culture and the Explication of Similarity and Difference in Body Image among African Americans

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Body Image among Asian Americans

    Introduction

    Sociocultural Influences

    Interpersonal Influences

    Individual Factors

    Research Implications

    Clinical Recommendations

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Body Image among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Individuals

    Introduction

    Sexual Minorities’ Perceptions of Appearance

    Variability within Gay and Lesbian Communities

    Intersectionality

    Bisexual Body Image

    Measuring Sexual Orientation

    Directions for Future Research

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketches

    Body Image among Hispanics/Latinos

    The Prevalence of Body Image Concerns

    Consequences of a Negative Body Image

    Predictors of Positive and Negative Body Image

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketches

    Body Image among Older Adults

    Introduction: Body Image Concerns and the Ideal Older Body

    The Development of a Sense of Self

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Body Image and “Fat Talk”

    Introduction

    Historical and Theoretical Context for Fat Talk

    Proposed Functions of Fat Talk

    Empirical Exploration of Fat Talk

    Research Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research

    Concluding Comments

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Body Image and Gender Roles

    Introduction

    Body Image Ideals for Girls and Women

    Body Image Ideals for Boys and Men

    Contemporary Gender Role Norms and the Body

    Women’s Bodies and Femininity

    Men’s Bodies and Masculinity

    Comparing Women and Men

    Summary and Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Body Image and Personality

    Introduction

    Why Should Personality Predict Body Image?

    Associations with Specific Personality Traits

    Common Explanatory Mechanisms: Personality Variables as Moderators

    Conclusion and Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketches

    Body Image and Self-Esteem

    Introduction

    Definitions of Body Image and Self-Esteem

    Measurement of Body Image and Self-Esteem

    Associations between Self-Esteem and Body Image

    Associations with Pubertal Status, Body Size, Ethnicity, Culture, and Sport

    Interventions to Improve Body Image via Promotion of Self-Esteem

    What We Know about the Links between Body Image and Self-Esteem – Summary of Issues in Program Success

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Body Image and Sexual Functioning

    Introduction

    Body Image and Sexual Functioning with a Partner

    Body Image Based on Breasts and Genitals

    Body Image and Sexual Risk Taking

    Questions in Need of Answers

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Body Image and Social Class

    Introduction

    The Body and Social Position

    Body Image Dissatisfaction and Social Position

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Body Image and Sports/Athletics

    Introduction

    Multiple Body Images and Ideals

    Body Image, Disturbed Eating, and Other Disorders among Athletes

    The Sport Culture as a Risk Factor

    Creating a Body-Healthy Sport Environment

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Body Image Behaviors

    Introduction

    Body Checking Behavior

    Appearance Fixing

    Body Image Avoidance

    Treatment of Body Image Behaviors

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Body Image Change and Prevention

    Introduction

    Research Support

    Additional Research Support

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Biographical Sketch

    Body Image Development – Adolescent Boys

    Introduction: Nature of Body Image Concerns

    Measurement

    Type and Prevalence of Problems

    Body Image Concerns across Cultures

    Biological Factors

    Sociocultural Influences

    Individual Factors

    Further Considerations

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Body Image Development – Adolescent Girls

    Introduction

    Overview of Body Image in Adolescent Girls

    Factors in the Development of Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescent Girls

    Longitudinal Research

    Conclusions and Future Research Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Body Image Development – Adult Men

    Introduction: Male Body Ideals

    Rates of Body Dissatisfaction

    Antecedents to Body Dissatisfaction

    Behavioral Consequences of Body Dissatisfaction

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Body Image Development – Adult Women

    Introduction

    Social Pressure to Maintain a Youthful Appearance

    Age-Related Changes in Body Image

    Making Sense of Greater Body Satisfaction in Older Women

    Challenges in Interpreting Data on Age Differences in Body Image

    Cultural and Ethnic Group Differences

    Using What We Know about Body Image in Older Women to Increase Body Satisfaction in Younger Women

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Body Image Development – Boy Children

    Introduction: Defining of Body Image

    Nature of Body Image Focus for Males

    Prevalence of Body Image Concerns among Preadolescent Boys

    Level of Body Image Dissatisfaction and Developmental Trends

    Factors Associated with Body Image Concerns

    Individual and Psychological Factors

    Cultural Differences in Body Image

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Body Image Development – Girl Children

    Introduction

    Development of Body Image

    Risk and Protective Factors in the Development of Body Image

    Effects of Negative Body Image

    Conclusions and Future Research

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Body Image

    Introduction

    The Impact of Verbal Messages

    The Impact of Family Members’ Own Attitudes and Behaviors

    Family Atmosphere and Functioning

    Importance of Family Influences Relative to Other Influences on Body Image

    Individual Differences

    Limits and Implications

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Body Image in Dance and Aesthetic Sports

    Introduction

    Body Image and Dance

    Body Image and Aesthetic Sports

    Possible Explanatory Factors

    Conclusions: Unique Nature of These Pursuits

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Body Image in Mood and Psychotic Disorders

    Introduction

    Body Image and Depression

    Body Image in Bipolar Disorder

    Body Image in Schizophrenia

    Body Image in Delusional Disorder

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketches

    Body Image in Non-Western Societies

    Introduction

    Body and Person in Comparative Perspective

    Body Modification

    Beauty Industries in a Global Economy

    Eating Disorders in Non-Western Nations

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Biographical Sketch

    Body Image in Social Contexts

    Introduction

    Social Aspects of Body Image

    The Impact of Body Image on Social Functioning

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Body Image Issues among Individuals with HIV and AIDS

    Introduction

    Appearance Changes Associated with HIV/AIDS and Psychosocial Impact

    Appearance Changes Associated with HIV Treatment and Psychosocial Impact

    The Role of Stigma

    Initiation and Adherence to Treatment and Body Image

    Interventions to Address Body Image Issues

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Body Image

    Introduction

    Conceptual Model of Body Image and Peer Influences

    Peer Influence

    Friends and Cliques

    Peer Reputational Popularity and Acceptance

    Peer Evaluations: Teasing and Sexual Harassment

    Romantic Partners

    Sociocultural Contributions to Peer Influence: The Case of the School Context

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Body Weight and Body Image in Adults

    Introduction: Body Image and Body Mass Index

    Weight Loss and Body Image

    Weight Gain and Body Image

    Ethnicity, Weight, and Body Image

    Protective Factors

    Gender, Weight, and Body Image

    Binge Eating Disorder and Body Image

    Obesity Stigma and Body Image

    Gender Differences in Obesity Stigma

    Obesity Stigma, Body Image, and Weight-Related Health

    Body Image in Underweight Individuals

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Biographical Sketch

    Body Weight and Body Image in Children and Adolescents

    Introduction

    Associations between Weight Status and Body Image

    Sequelae

    Mechanisms

    Interventions

    Summary and Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Breast Reconstruction and Breast Reduction Surgeries

    Introduction

    Breast Reconstruction

    Breast Reduction

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Breast Size

    Introduction

    Evolution of the Breasts: Explanations of Why Women Have Permanent Breasts

    Sexual Arousal and Breast Stimulation

    The Sexualizing of the Breast for Men

    The Breast in Pornography

    What Makes Women Beautiful

    Population Dynamics and Beauty

    Breasts in the Media

    The Development of Self and Self-Esteem

    The Development of Body Image Dissatisfaction

    Objectification and Self-Objectification of the Breast

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder

    Bulimia Nervosa

    Overvaluation of Shape and Weight in Bulimia Nervosa

    Body Image Disturbance in Bulimia Nervosa

    Binge Eating Disorder

    Overvaluation of Shape and Weight in Binge Eating Disorder

    Body Image Disturbance in Binge Eating Disorder

    Addressing Body Image Disturbance in Treatment

    Summary and Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Burn Injuries

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    Stages of Psychological Adaptation during the Course of Recovery from Burns

    Stigmatization and Social Integration after a Burn Injury

    Interventions for Negative Body Image and Social Discomfort

    Interventions in the Social Environment and Advocacy Groups

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Cancers

    Introduction

    Appearance-Changing Effects of Cancer Treatments

    Multidimensional Features of Cancer-Related Appearance Changes

    Clinical Applications

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Children’s Media Influences

    Introduction

    Children’s Exposure to the Media

    Internalization of Unrealistic Body Ideals and the Link to Media Exposure

    Research on Children’s Media

    Prevention Efforts

    Conclusion and Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Clothing and Adornment

    Introduction

    Clothing and Adornment: Effects on Individuals

    Clothing and Adornment: Effects on Interactions

    Future Research and Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Cognitive-Behavioral Body Image Therapy

    Introduction

    Typical Components of BI CBT and Their Goals

    Research Designs Typically Used to Study BI CBT

    The Impact of BI CBT on the Dimensions of Body Image

    The Impact of BI CBT on Psychological Well-Being

    Who Benefits Most: Clinical or Nonclinical Populations?

    BI CBT for Overweight and Obese Individuals

    BI CBT for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    BI CBT for Eating Pathology and Eating Disorders

    Effectiveness of BI CBT with Various Levels of Therapist Contact

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives on Body Image

    Introduction

    Key Body Image Constructs

    Historical and Developmental Influences

    Body Image Perceptions and Attitudes

    Proximal Events and Processes

    Cognitive Behavioral Applications

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Biographical Sketch

    Congenital Craniofacial and Maxillofacial Malformations

    Introduction

    Types of Congenital Craniofacial and Maxillofacial Conditions with the Potential to Affect Body Image

    Body Image and Congenital Conditions

    Factors Associated (and Not Associated) with Adjustment in Relation to Body Image Issues

    Current Developments in Interventions to Address Body Image Issues for People Affected by Congenital Conditions

    Future Research, Health-Care, and Societal Agendas

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Cosmetic Surgical and Non-Surgical Procedures for the Face

    Introduction

    Type-Changing Facial Cosmetic Surgeries

    Antiaging Facial Cosmetic Surgeries

    Minimally Invasive Facial Cosmetic Procedures

    Motivational Factors in the Pursuit of Facial Cosmetic Procedures

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Biographical Sketch

    Cosmetic Surgical Procedures for the Body

    Introduction

    Cosmetic Breast Augmentation

    Body Contouring Procedures

    Other Body Enhancement Procedures

    Psychiatric Disorders and Cosmetic Surgery of the Body

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Cosmetics Use

    Introduction

    History of Cosmetics Use

    Purposes of Cosmetics Use

    Efficacy of Cosmetics Use

    Cosmetics Use and Facial Attractiveness

    Other Perceptions of People Wearing Cosmetics

    Individual Differences in Cosmetics Use

    Cosmetics Use and Gender

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Dental and Orthodontic Treatments

    Introduction

    The Normal Development of the Dento-Facial Region

    Conditions That Affect the Appearance of the Mouth, Teeth, and Smile

    Perceptions and Attributions as a Function of Dento-Facial Appearance

    The Role of Dental Treatment with respect to Appearance

    Summary and Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Dieting (Chronic)

    Introduction and Definitions

    Background on Chronic Dieting in Normal-Weight Individuals

    Current Perspectives on Chronic Dieting, Body Image, and Weight

    Dieting in Men and Minority Populations

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketches

    Dolls and Action Figures

    Introduction: Toys and Identity Development

    Dolls and Action Figures as Embodiments of Sociocultural Body Ideals

    The Impact of Exposure to Action Figures and Dolls

    Summing Up and Looking Ahead

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Drug Use, Appearance- and Performance-Enhancing

    What are Appearance- and Performance-Enhancing Drugs?

    Body Image and APED Use

    Women and APEDs

    Diagnosis and Psychopathology in APED Use

    Conclusions and Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Biographical Sketches

    Endocrine Conditions

    Introduction

    Osteoporosis

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    Acromegaly

    Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Hirsutism

    Interventions and Clinical Implications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Evolutionary Perspectives on Physical Appearance

    Introduction

    Facial Attractiveness

    Bodily Attractiveness

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Biographical Sketches

    Exercise

    Introduction

    The Effects of Exercise on Body Image

    How Does Exercise Improve Body Image?

    Factors That Moderate the Effects of Exercise on Body Image

    Can a Single Bout of Exercise Enhance Body Image?

    When Exercise Turns Bad – Compulsive Exercise

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Experiential and Somatopsychic Approaches to Body Image Change

    Introduction: Defining Body Image

    Premise

    Relevance to Clients and Clinicians

    Touchstones from the Past: Old Frontiers for Exploration

    Somatic-Centered Approaches

    Empirical Support for Experiential and Somatopsychic Methods

    Back to the Future

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Face and Body in Motion

    Introduction

    Nonverbal Communication in Impression Formation

    Nonverbal Communication and Physical Attractiveness

    Individual Differences in Nonverbal Expressive Style

    Methodologies for Studying Nonverbal Communication Processes

    Implications for Research

    Implications for Practice

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Face and Hand Transplantation

    From Science Fiction to a Reconstructive Option: The Rationale for Face and Hand Transplantation

    Ethical, Technical, and Immunological Issues

    Identity and Body Image Aspects of Transplantation

    Appearance and Body Image Aspects of Facial Transplantation

    Cortical Changes

    Facial Transplantation and Models of Body Image

    Supporting Body Image Reintegration in the Clinical Setting

    Outcomes of Facial Transplantation Procedures from 2005

    Conclusion: The Future of Facial Transplantation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Feminist Perspectives on Body Image and Physical Appearance

    Introduction

    Feminist Theories about the Body

    Feminist Research on the Body

    Change and Resistance

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Volume 2

    Gender Disorder, Transgenderism and Transsexuality

    Introduction

    Terminology

    Description of the Phenomenon

    Gender Dysphoria

    Gender Role Presentation

    Assessment and Treatment

    Feminizing and Masculinizing Medical Interventions

    Passing or Affirmation of Transgender Identity and Appearance

    Sexual Attractiveness, Competence, and Health

    Body Image

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Genetics and Human Appearance

    Introduction

    Assessing Genetic Influences on a Trait

    Objective Appearance

    Genetic Disorders of Human Appearance

    Subjective Perceptions of Appearance

    Psychological Disorders

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Genitalia

    Introduction

    Images of Genitalia in Art and in the Public Forum

    What is Normal?

    Religious and Cultural Influences to Alter Genitalia

    Male Circumcision

    Female Circumcision, Female Genital Mutilation, and Female Genital Cutting

    Cosmetically Driven Genital Surgery

    Medically Recognized Genital Anomalies and Conditions

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Gynecologic Conditions and Body Image

    Introduction

    Body Image and Puberty

    Body Image and Pelvic Pain

    Body Image and Sexual Abuse

    Body Image and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Body Image and Infertility and Miscarriage

    Body Image and Cosmetic Gynecologic Surgery

    Body Image and Hysterectomy and Oophorectomy

    Body Image and Menopause

    Body Image and Gynecologic Precancerous and Cancerous Conditions

    Body Image and Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Incontinence

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant-Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Hair

    Introduction

    Hirsutism

    Facial Hair

    Body Hair Preferences and Challenges to Cultural Norms

    Women’s Body Depilation

    Men’s Body Depilation

    Health Concerns Associated with the Appearance of Body Hair and Its Depilation

    Theoretical Considerations

    Future Directions in the Research of Facial and Body Hair

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Hair Loss Effects and Surgical/Drug Treatments for the Alopecias

    Introduction: Types of Alopecia

    Causes of Hair Loss

    Psychological Correlates and Consequences of Hair Loss

    Cancer Treatment and Hair Loss

    Coping with Hair Loss

    Medical Treatments for Alopecia

    Surgical Procedures for Hair Loss

    Psychological Therapies

    Cosmetic Measures and Fashion

    Areas for Future Research

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Hair Styling and Coloring

    Significance of Hair

    Hair Color and Its Significance

    Hair Length and Its Significance

    Various Hair Textures

    African Hair Texture and Its Significance

    Sampling of Most Popular Styles and Their Significance

    Hair as Statement

    The Cost of Beauty

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Internalization of Thin-Ideal and Muscular-Ideal

    Introduction

    Theoretical Models and Research Findings

    Measurement of Internalization

    Cognitive Dissonance-Based Interventions for Internalization

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Biographical Sketches

    Measurement and Stability of Physical Attractiveness Judgments

    Introduction

    The Measurement Scale

    The Nature of the Stimulus

    Facial and Body Features Influence on Attractiveness Ratings: Historico-Cultural Effects

    Individual Differences and Group Agreement on Attractiveness

    Interactional Effects on Attractiveness Judgments

    A Comprehensive Psychological Interpretation of Physical Attractiveness

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Biographical Sketch

    Measurement of Body Image in Adolescence and Adulthood

    Introduction

    Overview of Dimensions of Body Image

    Methodological Issues: Participant and Sample Variables

    Methodological Issues: Design, Procedural, and Analysis Issues

    Conclusions and Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Measurement of Body Image in Childhood

    Introduction

    Body Image Assessment of Self

    Assessment of Perceptions of Others’ Bodies

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Measurement of Perceptual Body Image

    Introduction: Body Image and Body Image Disturbance

    Clinical Relevance of Body Size Overestimation

    Early Studies Measuring Body Size Estimation

    Methodological Issues Assessing Body Size Estimation

    Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Measurement of Physical Self-Confidence/Competence

    Introduction

    Why Are Physical Self-Perceptions Important?

    Historical Developments in the Measurement of Physical Self-Perceptions: A Brief Overview

    Instruments Used to Measure Physical Self-Confidence and Competence: What Does the Evidence Say?

    Key Considerations in Selecting an Instrument to Measure Physical Self-Confidence and/or Competence

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions: What Is Next for Physical Self-Perception Measurement?

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Media Influences on Female Body Image

    Introduction

    Criterion 1: Media Content

    Criterion 2: Media Exposure and Body Image

    Criterion 3: Media Exposure and the Prediction of Body Image

    Criterion 4: Experimental Evidence – Laboratory Research

    Criterion 5: Media Literacy and Prevention

    Criterion 6: Effects of Perceived or Subjective Media Pressure

    Criterion 7: The When and How of Media Influence – Mediating and Moderating Processes

    Summary and Integration of Evidence for Media as a Causal Risk Factor

    Conclusions and Implications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Media Influences on Male Body Image

    Introduction

    Media Representations of the Male Body

    Media Influences on Male Body Image across the Life Span

    Factors That Influence the Extent to which Media Affects Male Body Image

    Theoretical Explanations for the Influence of Media on Male Body Image

    Strategies to Address Media Influence on Male Body Image

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Medically Induced (Iatrogenic) Adverse Changes in Appearance

    Introduction

    Skin and Hair Changes

    Body Form Changes

    Body Attachments

    Facial Surgery for Head and Neck Cancer

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Muscularity and Body Image

    Introduction

    Psychosocial Correlates

    Behavioral Correlates

    Muscularity in the Media

    Clinical Outcomes

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Neuroscientific Perspectives on Body Image

    Introduction

    An Overview of Important Structural and Functional Elements of the Brain

    Defining Terms

    The Role of the Brain in Normal Body Image

    The Role of the Brain in Disorders of Body Image

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Objectification Theory, Self-Objectification, and Body Image

    Objectification Theory

    Empirical Support for the Objectification Theory Framework

    Measurement of Self-Objectification

    Intersectionality in Objectification Theory

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Occupational and Economic Consequences of Physical Attractiveness

    Introduction

    Occupational Outcomes

    Explaining Occupational Biases

    Can Beauty Backfire?

    Occupational Outcomes across Cultures and Time

    Limitations and Conclusion

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketches

    Physical Appearance and Stigma

    Introduction

    Origins of Stigma

    Nature and Extent of Weight Stigmatization

    Consequences of Weight Stigma for Adults and Youth

    Stigma Induced by Other Aspects of Physical Appearance

    Remedies to Reduce Stigma: Shifting Societal Attitudes

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Physical Appearance Changes across Adulthood – Men

    Introduction

    Physical Appearance and Aging

    Young Adulthood

    Mid-adulthood

    Later Adulthood

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Physical Appearance Changes across Adulthood – Women

    Introduction

    Women and Specific Physical Appearance Changes

    General Attitudes toward Aging and the Changing Body

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Physical Appearance Changes in Childhood and Adolescence – Boys

    Introduction

    Children’s Awareness of the Human Body

    Biological Changes in Childhood and Adolescence

    Measurement of Physical Appearance Changes

    Psychological Aspects of Physical Appearance Changes

    Physical Development and Sexuality

    Unexplored Areas of Research

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketches

    Physical Appearance Changes in Childhood and Adolescence – Girls

    Introduction

    Prenatal Development

    Childhood

    Measuring Puberty

    Sequence of Visible Pubertal Development

    Causes of Pubertal Development

    Psychosocial Development and Puberty

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Physical Attractiveness and Personality

    Introduction

    Judging a Book by Its Cover: Stereotypes or Realities?

    Explanations of Actual Differences

    Is Beauty but Skin Deep?

    How Observer Personality Affects Perceptions and Reactions to Physical Attractiveness

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Physical Attractiveness

    Introduction

    The ‘Beautiful Is Good’ Bias

    Reactions to Attractive People

    When Is Physical Attractiveness Most Important in Romantic Relationships?

    Sex Differences in the Importance of Physical Attractiveness

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketches

    Physical Attractiveness Stereotyping

    Introduction

    The Physical Attractiveness Stereotype

    Outcomes of the Physical Attractiveness Stereotype

    Development of the Physical Attractiveness Stereotype

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Physical Disability and Body Image in Adults

    Overview and Concepts

    Body Image and Psychological Adaptation to Disability

    Developmental Factors Related to Body Image Adjustment

    Psychoprosthetics

    Interpersonal Aspects of Body Image and Disability

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Physical Disability and Body Image in Children

    Introduction: Conceptual Approaches to Physical Disability and Body Image

    Disability Experience and Narrative Approaches

    Developmental Processes and Body Image

    The Body in Clinical and Therapeutic Encounters

    Participation, Managing Appearances, and Stigma

    Body Image in Media and Technology

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Positive Psychology Perspectives on Body Image

    Introduction

    What is Positive Psychology?

    Characteristics of Positive Body Image

    Processes of Positive Body Image

    Measuring Positive Body Image

    Cultural, Gender, and Age Considerations

    Promoting Positive Body Image

    Conclusion and Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Pregnancy

    Introduction

    Physical Changes during Pregnancy

    Body Image Changes during Pregnancy

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Preventing Body Image Problems

    Introduction

    Are Digitally Delivered Psychoeducational Interventions for Body Image Improvement Effective?

    Are Digitally Delivered Interventions Based on Emotional Processing Theory for Body Image Improvement Effective?

    Advantages and Disadvantages of Digitally Delivered Interventions

    What Important Questions Remain Unanswered?

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Preventing Body Image Problems

    Introduction

    Ecological and Activism Approaches: Definitions, Theoretical Perspectives, and Related Research

    Examples of the Application of Ecological and Activism Approaches to the Prevention of Eating Disorders

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Preventing Body Image Problems

    Introduction

    Overview of the Field of Public Policy

    Securing Government Policy Action for Preventing Body Image Problems

    Appropriate Public Policy Targets for Prevention of Body Image Problems

    Legislation

    Nonbinding Industry Codes of Conduct and Pledges

    Social Marketing

    Public Policy and School-Based and Community Initiatives

    Evaluation of Public Policy Initiatives

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Biographical Sketch

    Preventing Body Image Problems

    Introduction

    Historical Trends in School-Based Programs to Promote Body Image

    Concerns and Evidence about Iatrogenesis in School-Based Programs to Improve Body Image

    Different Types of School-Based Programs to Improve Body Image

    Summary of Programs and Outcomes in Grade Schools, Middle Schools, and High Schools

    Issues of Program Fidelity and Program Delivery

    The Universal Versus Targeted Program Debate and Issues of Measurement of Program Effectiveness

    Inclusion of Males in School-Based Body Image Programs

    Recommendations for Future Research and Programs

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Psychodynamic Perspectives on Body Image

    Introduction

    The Classical Drive Model

    The Object Relations Model

    Self-Psychology

    An Integrative Approach

    A Core Conflictual Relationship Theme Formulation of Body Image

    Critique of the Psychodynamic Approaches to Body Image

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Psychological Trauma and Body Image

    Introduction

    Defining Childhood Trauma

    Assessment of Childhood Trauma

    The Relationship of Psychological Trauma and Eating Disorders

    Association of Abuse and Body Image: Nature of the Association

    Theoretical Speculations Regarding the Relationship of Psychological Trauma and Body Image

    Clinical Aspects of the Psychological Trauma and Associations with Body Image

    Treatment Issues and Approaches

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketches

    Race, Ethnicity, and Human Appearance

    Introduction

    Race, Ethnicity, and the Biology of Beauty – Historical Perspectives

    Ethnicity, Race, and Beauty in Culture

    Beauty and the Dynamism of Culture

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Self-Discrepancy Theory and Body Image

    Introduction to Self-Discrepancy Theory

    Assessment of Self-Discrepancies

    Self-Discrepancy and Body Image

    Self-Discrepancy and Weight/Appearance-Related Behaviors

    Implications of Self-Discrepancy for Prevention and Intervention Efforts

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Self-Guided Weight Loss

    Introduction

    Strategies Commonly Used By Self-Guided Dieters: Description and Effectiveness

    Lessons from the National Weight Control Registry

    Sources of Support for Self-Guided Dieters

    Conclusions and Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Self-Mutilation and Excoriation

    Introduction

    Debates over Meanings and Interventions

    DSH and Cultural Models

    Alternative Perspectives on DSH: Cross-Cultural and Historical Examples

    Sexual Violence and Strategies of Survival

    Conclusions and Recommendations

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Skin Color

    Introduction

    Skin Bleaching

    Predictors of Skin Bleaching

    Skin Darkening

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketches

    Skin Conditions

    Introduction

    Types of Skin Condition

    Skin Conditions and the Appearance Aspect of Body Image

    Psychosocial Assessment and Intervention

    Conclusions and Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Smoking and Body Image

    Introduction

    Smoking Prevalence and Gender

    Smoking and Weight Concern

    Going Beyond Weight Concern: Body Shame, Body Monitoring, General Appearance Satisfaction, and Smoking

    Appearance-Related Smoking Cessation Interventions

    Using Appearance Concerns to Reduce Smoking Initiation in Young People

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Social Comparison Theory and Body Image

    Introduction

    Social Comparison Theory

    Social Comparison Theory and Body Image

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Sociocultural Perspectives on Body Image

    Introduction

    Overview of the Sociocultural Model

    Evidence in Support of the Sociocultural Model

    Limitations and Recommendations for Future Research

    Implications for Body Image Interventions

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketch

    Surveys and the Epidemiology of Body Image Dissatisfaction

    Introduction

    Meta-analyses and Reviews of Group Differences in Body Dissatisfaction

    Overview of Large-Scale Studies of Body Image

    Pictorial Measures

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketches

    Tanning

    Introduction

    Theoretical Models

    Measurement of Body Image and Appearance-Related Tanning Constructs

    Appearance-Based Interventions

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketches

    Teasing, Appearance-Related

    Introduction

    Teasing Measurement

    Targets of Appearance-Related Teasing

    Teasing by Parents and Siblings

    Appearance-Related Teasing Outcomes

    Teasing Prevention

    Summary and Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Biographical Sketch

    Traumatic Injuries and Body Image

    Introduction

    Body Image and Appearance Concerns

    Body Image and Psychosocial Functioning following Traumatic Injury

    Recommendations for Clinical Assessment and Treatment

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Biographical Sketch

    Weight-Loss Programs

    Introduction

    Commercial Weight Loss Programs

    Medically Supervised Commercial Weight Loss Programs

    Internet-Based Commercial Weight Loss Programs

    Self-Help Programs

    Popular Diets

    Diets of Varying Macronutrient Composition

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biographical Sketches

    Subject Classification Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 938
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2012
  • Published: April 11, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123849250
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123849267
  • About the Editor in Chief

    Thomas Cash

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Fellow, Association for Psychological Science, Professor Emeritus of Psychology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA