Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123736321, 9780123739322

Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics

2nd Edition

Editors: Dan Callahan Peter Singer
Editor-in-Chiefs: Ruth Chadwick
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123736321
eBook ISBN: 9780123739322
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 20th December 2011
Page Count: 3464
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Description

The Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics, Second Edition addresses both the physiological and the psychological aspects of human behavior.  Carefully crafted, well written, and thoroughly indexed, the encyclopedia helps users - whether they are students just beginning formal study of the broad field or specialists in a branch of psychology - understand the field and how and why humans behave as we do.

The work is an all-encompassing reference providing a comprehensive and definitive review of the field. A broad and inclusive table of contents ensures detailed investigation of historical and theoretical material as well as in-depth analysis of current issues. Several disciplines may be involved in applied ethics: one branch of applied ethics, for example, bioethics, is commonly explicated in terms of ethical, legal, social, and philosophical issues.  Editor-in-Chief Ruth Chadwick has put together a group of leading contributors ranging from philosophers to practitioners in the particular fields in question, to academics from disciplines such as law and economics.

The 376 chapters are divided into 4 volumes, each chapter falling into a subject category including Applied Ethics;  Bioethics; Computers and Information Management; Economics/Business; Environmental Ethics; Ethics and Politics; Legal; Medical Ethics; Philosophy/Theories;  Social; and Social/Media.

Key Features

  • Concise entries (ten pages on average) provide foundational knowledge of the field
  • Each article will features suggested readings pointing readers to additional sources for more information, a list of related websites, a 5-10 word glossary and a definition paragraph, and cross-references to related articles in the encyclopedia
  • Newly expanded editorial board and a host of international contributors from the US, Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom
  • The 376 chapters are divided into 4 volumes, each chapter falling into a subject category including Applied Ethics; Bioethics; Computers and Information Management; Economics/Business; Environmental Ethics; Ethics and Politics; Legal; Medical Ethics; Philosophy/Theories; Social; and Social/Media

Readership

Undergraduate and graduate students in psychology and the behavioral sciences, as well as researchers in various psychological subdisciplines and psychiatry; the encyclopedia is also useful for the lay public who may have an interest in topics related to human behavior

Table of Contents

Editor-in-Chief

Section Editors

Editorial Advisory Board

Preface

Permission Acknowledgments

Article Titles

A

Abortion

Accounting and Business Ethics

Acts and Omissions

Addiction

Adoption

Advance Directives

Advertising

Affirmative Action

Affordable Housing, Ethics of

Ageism

Agricultural Ethics

AIDS, Ethical Issues in Health Care

AIDS in the Developing World

Altruism and Economics

Anatomy, Ethics of

Animal Research

Animal Rights

Anthropocentrism

Appearance, Ethics of

Applied Ethics, Challenges to

Applied Ethics, Overview

Archaeological Ethics

Aristotelian Ethics

Arts, The

Auditing Practices

Authority in Education

Autonomy

B

Benefit Sharing

Biobanks

Biocentrism

Biodiversity

Bioethics, Overview

Bioinformatics and Ethics

Biometric Technologies, Ethical Implications

Biopower (Foucault)

Biotechnology

Bioterrorism

Border Control

Brain Death

Broadcast Journalism

Buddhism

Built Environment, Ethics and the

Business Ethics and Gender Issues

Business Ethics and the Quality of Life

Business Ethics, Overview

Business Practices and Agent Virtue

C

Capital Punishment

Care, Ethics of

Casuistry

Censorship

Child Abuse

Children’s Rights

Christian Ethics, Protestant

Christian Ethics, Roman Catholic

Citizenship

Civil Disobedience

Civilian Populations in War, Targeting of

Climate Change

Clinical Ethics

Cloning

Codes of Ethics

Collective Guilt

Communication Ethics

Communitarianism

Community Consent

Complementary Medicine

Computer and Information Ethics

Computer Security

Confidentiality, General Issues of

Confidentiality of Sources in Social Research

Conflict of Interest

Confucianism

Conjoined Twins

Conscientious Objection

Consequentialism and Deontology

Consumer Rights

Contractarian Ethics

Corporate Ethics, Reputation Management

Corporate Governance

Corporate Responsibility

Corporations, Ethics in

Cosmetic Surgery

Cosmopolitanism

Crime and Society

Custody of Children

Cyborgs

D

Darwinism

Death, Definition of

Death, Medical Aspects of

Death, Social Attitudes Toward

Deep Ecology

Defenses at Criminal Law

Democracy

Dental Ethics

Developing World Bioethics

Development Ethics

Development Issues, Environmental

Dignity

Disability, Definition within Law and Society

Disaster Relief

Discourse Ethics

Discrimination, Concept of

Distributive Justice, Theories of

Divorce

Do-Not-Resuscitate Decisions

Drugs, Moral and Legal Issues

Dual Use of Biotechnology

E

Ecological Balance

Economic Ethics, Overview

Economic Globalization and Ethico-Political Rights

Economies and Trust

Ectogenesis

Education Ethics, Civil Education

Egoism and Altruism

Elderly, Social Attitudes Toward

Election Strategies

Electronic Surveillance

Embryology, Ethics of

Environmental Compliance by Industry

Environmental Economics

Environmental Ethics, Overview

Environmental Impact Assessment

Environmental Justice

Epicureanism

Equality and Egalitarianism

Ethical Experiments

Ethical Expertise in Policy

Ethics and Policy

Ethics of a Sustainable World Population in 100 Years

Ethnocultural Minority Groups, Status and Treatment of

Eugenics

Euthanasia (Physician-Assisted Suicide)

Everyday Ethics

Evidence-Based Medicine

Evil, Problem of

Evolutionary Perspectives on Ethics

Executive Compensation

Existentialism

Exploitation

F

Family, The

Female Circumcision and Genital Mutilation

Feminist Ethics

Fetal Research

Fetus

Food Ethics

Forgery and Plagiarism

Freedom of Expression

Freudianism

Friendship

Functional Food and Personalized Nutrition

G

Gaia Hypothesis

Gambling in the United States

Game Theory

Gender Roles

Gene Therapy

Genetic Ancestry

Genetic Counseling

Genetic Engineering of Human Beings

Genetic Exceptionalism

Genetics and Behavior

Genetics and Crime

Genetics and Insurance

Genetic Screening

Genomic Databases, Ethical Issues in

Global Access to Knowledge

Global Ethics, Approaches

Global Ethics, Overview

Global Public Goods

Greek Ethics, Overview

Gun Control

H

Health and Disease, Concepts of

Health Impact Assessment

Health Technology Assessment

Hedonism

Hermeneutics

Hinduism

Historical Evidence in Medical Ethics, Use of

Homelessness

Homicide, Criminal

Homosexuality, Societal Attitudes Toward

Human Enhancement

Human Genome Project

Human Nature, Views of

Human Research Subjects, Selection of

Human Rights

Humanism

I

Imperialism

Improper Payments and Gifts

Indigenous Rights

Infectious Diseases

Infertility

Informed Consent

Innovation, Definition of

Intellectual Property Rights

Intelligence Testing

Internet, Regulation and Censorship

Intrinsic and Instrumental Value

Islam

J

Journalism Ethics

Judaism

Jury Conduct

Just War Theory

Justice in International Research

Juvenile Crime

K

Kantianism

L

Land Use Issues

Leadership, Ethics of

Liberalism

Life, Concept of

Literature and Ethics

Loyalty

M

Machiavellianism

Marxism and Ethics

Media Depiction of Ethnic Minorities

Media Organizations as Social Institutions

Media Ownership

Medical Codes and Oaths

Medical Ethics, History of

Medical Ethics, Use of Empirical Evidence in

Medical Futility

Medical Humanities

Mental Disorder, Concept of

Mercy and Forgiveness

Military Ethics

Mobility (Migration)

Mobility (Transport)

Moral Development

Moral Particularism

Moral Relativism

Multidisciplinary Approaches to Ethics

N

Nanotechnology

Native American Cultures

Nature versus Nurture

Needs and Justice

Neuroethics/Brain Imaging

Normative Coherence, Theory of

Nuclear Deterrence

Nuclear Testing

Nuclear Warfare

Nursing

Nutrigenomics

O

Obesity

Objectivity in Reporting

Open Source Software

Organ Donation and Transplantation

Organizations and Guidelines

P

Pacifism

Painism

Palliative Care

Parliamentary Ethics

Patents

Paternalism

Patients’ Rights

Payment of Research Subjects, Ethical Issues in

Pedophilia

Perfectionism

Personal Relationships

Personalism

Personalized Medicine and Promissory Science

Persuasive Technology

Pharmacogenetics

Physiotherapy, Ethics of

Placebo Treatment

Platonism

Playing God

Police Accountability

Police and Race Relations

Political Correctness

Political Ecology

Political Obligation

Population Health Data

Pornography

Poststructuralism

Poverty

Pragmatism

Precautionary Principle

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis

Preventive Medicine

Principlism

Privacy, Challenges to

Privacy, Ethics of

Professional Ethics

Property Rights

Prostitution

Proteomics

Psychiatric Ethics

Psychiatry, Coercive Treatment

Psychosurgery and Physical Brain Manipulation

Public Engagement in Science and Technology

Public Health Ethics

Publish-or-Perish Syndrome

R

Race and Genomics

Racism

Randomized Trials

Rape

Reality TV

Regenerative Medicine

Religion and Ethics

Religion in Schools

Reproductive Technologies, Overview

Research Ethics, Clinical

Research Ethics Committees

Research Funding and Academic Freedom

Research Governance

Resource Allocation

Responsibility

Right to Know and Right Not to Know

Rights Theory

Risk Governance in a Complex World

S

Safety Laws

Savior Siblings

Science and Engineering Ethics, Overview

Scientific Publishing

Scientific Responsibility and Misconduct

Self-Deception

Sen’s “Capabilities” and Economic Welfare

Sex Equality

Sex Selection

Sexism

Sexual Content in Films and Television

Sexual Orientation

Sikhism

Slavery and Human Trafficking

Slippery Slope Arguments

Social Ethics, Overview

Socially Responsible Investment

Social Networking Sites

Social Responsibility Principle

Social Security

Social Services Ethics, Overview

Social Welfare, Provision and Finance

Social Work

Solidarity

Space Ethics

Speciesism

Sports, Ethics of

Stem Cells

Stewardship

Stoicism

Strikes

Suggestion, Ethics of

Suicide (Not Assisted)

Sustainability

Synthetic Biology

T

Tabloid Journalism

Taoism

Technology Assessment, Analytic and Democratic Practice

Technology, Ethics of: Overview

Technology Transfer

Terrorism

Theories of Ethics, Overview

Theories of Justice, Rawls

Therapeutic Misconception

Thomism

Tourism

Trade Law and Globalization

Transhumanism

Transsexualism

Trust

Truth Telling and Journalism

U

Undercover Investigations, Ethics of

Utilitarianism

V

Vegetarianism

Veterinary Ethics

Victimless Crimes

Violence in Films and Television

Virtual Communities, Ethics of

Virtue Ethics

W

Warfare, Codes of

Welfare Policies

Whistleblowing

Wildlife Conservation

Women’s Rights

Workplace Ethics: Issues for Human Service Professionals in the New Millennium

X

Xenotransplantation

Z

Zoological Parks

Subject Index

Authors

Details

No. of pages:
3464
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2012
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123736321
eBook ISBN:
9780123739322

About the Editor

Dan Callahan

Affiliations and Expertise

The Hastings Center, Briarcliff Manor

Peter Singer

Affiliations and Expertise

Monash University

About the Editor-in-Chief

Ruth Chadwick

Ruth Chadwick is Distinguished Research Professor and Director of the ESRC (Economic and Social Sciences Research Council) Centre for Economic and Social Aspects of Genomics (Cesagen), at Cardiff University, UK and Link Chair between Cardiff Law School and the School of English, Communication and Philosophy (ENCAP). Professor Chadwick has coordinated a number of projects funded by the European Commission, including the EUROSCREEN projects and co-edits the journal Bioethics and the online journal Genomics, Society and Policy. She is Chair of the Human Genome Organisation Committee on Ethics, Law and Society, and has served as a member of several policy-making and advisory bodies, including the Panel of Eminent Ethical Experts of the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), and the UK Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes (ACNFP). She was editor-in-chief of the first edition of the award winning Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics. She is an Academician of the Academy of Social Sciences and a Fellow of the Hastings Center, New York; of the Royal Society of Arts; and of the Royal Society of Medicine. In 2005 she was the winner of the World Technology Network Award for Ethics for her work on the relationship between scientific developments and ethical frameworks. She graduated with first class Honours Literae Humaniores (Philosophy and Greek and Latin Literature) from the University of Oxford, and then went on to take the B.Phil. in Philosophy. She was awarded her D.Phil. on The Ethics of Eugenics and Genetic Engineering, supervised by Jonathan Glover. She completed an LL.B. (externally) at the University of London. She held positions at the University of Liverpool, St. Martins College, Lancaster, and University of Wales, Cardiff, before taking up her post as Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Central Lancashire. In June 1995 she became Head of the Centre for Professional Ethics at the University, a position she still holds. She has coordinated a number of multinational and multidisciplinary research projects funded by the European Union: Ethical Implications of Human Genome Analysis for Clinical Practice in Medical Genetics, with Special Reference to Genetic Counselling (1992); EUROSCREEN: Genetic Screening--Ethical and Philosophical Perspectives (1994–1996); BIOCULT: Cultural and Social Objections to Biotechnology, with Special Reference to the View of Young People (1995); EUROSCREEN 2: Genetic Screening--Towards Community Policy on Insurance, Commercialisation and Public Awareness (1996–1999). Her publications include the four volume edited collection, Kant: Critical Assessments (1992); Ethics, Reproduction and Genetic Control (Revised Edition, 1992);and a large number of papers in learned journals. She is joint series editor of the Routledge series on Professional Ethics. Professor Chadwick is secretary of the International Association of Bioethics and a member of the HUGO Ethics committee, the National Committee for Philosophy and the British Medical Association Steering Group on Human Genetics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Bioethics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, U.K.

Reviews

"This authoritative four-volume reference has a broad reach, encompassing the various fields and endeavors in which ethical issues arise as well as the field of practical ethics itself and a variety of historical, con- temporary, religious, and secular approaches. Written by an international roster of philosophers, practitioners in numerous fields, and academics from disciplines such as law and economics, this is a resource of value to an equally diverse audience. The second edition is a substantial revision and expansion of the 1998 first edition, both in terms of ongoing thinking about older topics and in terms of new topics introduced by events and developments of the intervening years. Entries are fully developed, well-structured, signed articles, each enhanced with a brief glossary, a bibliography, website references, and brief bios of the contributing authors. A subject classification in the front matter lists entries under the following broad themes: applied ethics, bioethics, computers and information management, economics and business, environment, politics, education, law, medicine, philosophical theories, social, and media. A more specific sampling of topics: reality TV, biometric technologies, race and genomics, electronic surveillance, land use issues, tourism, religion in schools, victimless crimes, obesity, rights theory, gender roles, and social services, among many, many others." --Reference and Research Book News, August 2012

"The last 15 years have seen watershed movements in ethics, especially applied ethics.  The second edition of this encyclopedia reflects these changes, touching on developments in medicine, information technology, and privacy among others…The scope of the content and the quality of the articles (especially the discussions of the relationship of hermeneutics to applied ethics) will appeal to the full range of students, specialists, and interested readers.  Summing up:  Highly recommend. Lower-division undergraduates and above; general readers." --CHOICE, November 2012