Encapsulation Technologies for Electronic Applications - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780128119785

Encapsulation Technologies for Electronic Applications

2nd Edition

Authors: Jiawei Zhang Haleh Ardebili Michael Pecht
Series Editors: James J. Licari
Paperback ISBN: 9780128119785
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 1st May 2018
Page Count: 550
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Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
    2. Plastic Encapsulant Materials
    3. Encapsulation Process Technology
    4. Characterization of Encapsulant Properties
    5. Encapsulation Defects and Failures
    6. Defect and Failure Analysis Techniques for Encapsulated Microelectronics
    7. Qualification and Quality Assurance
    8. Trends and Challenges


Electronics are used in a wide range of applications including computing, communication, biomedical, automotive, military and aerospace. They must operate in varying temperature and humidity environments including indoor controlled conditions and outdoor climate changes. Moisture, ionic contamination, heat, radiation and mechanical stresses are all highly detrimental to electronic devices and can lead to device failures. Therefore, it is essential that the electronic devices be packaged for protection from their intended environments, as well as to provide handling, assembly, electrical and thermal considerations.

Increasing functionality of semiconductor devices and higher end used expectations in last 5 to 10 years drive fast development in packaging and interconnect technologies. The demands for higher miniaturization, higher integration of functions, higher clock rates and data, and higher reliability influence almost all materials used for advanced electronics packaging.

Encapsulation Technologies for Electronic Applications, Second Edition continues to offer a comprehensive discussion of encapsulants in electronic applications. The main emphasis is on the encapsulation of microelectronic devices; however, the encapsulation of connectors and transformers is also addressed. This book discusses 2-D and 3-D packaging and encapsulation, encapsulation materials including environmentally friendly 'green' encapsulants, and the properties and characterization of encapsulants. Furthermore, this book provides an extensive discussion on defects and failures related to encapsulation, how to analyze such defects and failures, and how to apply quality assurance and qualification process for encapsulated packages. This book also provides information on the trends and challenges of encapsulation and microelectronic packages including application of nanotechnology.

Key Features

  • Guidance on the selection and use of encapsulants in the electronics industry, with a particular focus on microelectronics
  • Coverage of environmentally friendly 'green encapsulants'
  • Practical coverage of faults and defects: how to analyze them and how to avoid them


Electronics and micro-electronics industry professionals, semiconductor chip and wafer designers, anyone interested in electronic packaging


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© William Andrew 2018
William Andrew
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About the Authors

Jiawei Zhang Author

Jiawei Zhang has 10 years of experience working in the development and implementation of advanced packages. He is currently Staff Engineer at Qualcomm, San Diego. Previously, he served as Development Senior Staff Engineer at Broadcom Corporation responsible for IC package co-design flow (Die/Package/System). He is experienced in advanced package, FCBGA, MCM, and SiP. He has published over 30 external papers, including two which won best Conference Paper Awards (2012 IMAPS and 2014 SMTAI) He has been honored with one Broadcom Corporation Outstanding Technical Achievement Awards for design flow. He also served on the IWLPC Technical Committee from 2013 to 2015 and as the session Chair in 2013.

Affiliations and Expertise

Staff Engineer, Qualcomm, San Diego, CA, USA

Haleh Ardebili Author

Dr. Haleh Ardebili has a BS honors degree in Engineering Science and Mechanics from Pennsylvania State University at University Park, MS degree in Mechanical Engineering from Johns Hopkins University and PhD degree in Mechanical Engineering from University of Maryland at College Park. She has three years of industry experience as research scientist at General Electric Global Research Center at Niskayuna, New York. She is a recipient of GE Invention Fulcrum of Progress Award. She has several years of experience teaching engineering courses at University of Houston. In Sep 2010, she joined as Assistant Professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department at University of Houston. Her research work is mainly focused on nanomaterials for Energy Storage and Electronics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, USA and visiting scholar, Rice University, Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Department

Michael Pecht Author

Affiliations and Expertise

CALCE (Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering), University of Maryland, USA

About the Series Editors

James J. Licari Series Editor

has his own consulting firm, AvanTeco, specializing in materials and processes for electronics. He holds a BS in Chemistry from Fordham University and a PhD in Chemistry from Princeton University, where he was a DuPont Senior Fellow. His areas of expertise include materials and processes for electronic applications, primarily for high reliability systems, hybrid microcircuits, printed wiring circuits, and other interconnect packaging technologies. He is an expert on polymeric materials including adhesives, coatings, encapsulants, insulation, reliability based on failure modes and mechanisms. Dr. Licari has had a forty-year career dedicated to the study and advancement of microelectronic materials and processes.

Notable achievements throughout this career include conducting the first studies on the reliability and use of die-attach adhesives for microcircuits, which he did in the mid-1970s through the early 1980s, making industry and the government aware of the degrading effects of trace amounts of ionic contaminants in epoxy resins. He conducted early exploratory development on the use of non-noble metal (Cu) thick-film conductor pastes for thick-film ceramic circuits. He carried out the first studies on the use of Parylene as a dielectric and passivation coating for MOS devices and as a particle immobilizer for hybrid microcircuits. He developed the first photo-definable thick-film conductor and resistor pastes that were the forerunners of DuPont’s Fodel process, for which he received a patent was granted in England. And he developed the first photocurable epoxy coating using cationic photoinitiation by employing a diazonium salt as the catalytic agent (U.S. 3205157) . The work was referenced as pioneering work in a review article by J.V. Crivello “The Discovery ad Development of Onium Salt Cationic Photoinitiators,” J. Polymer Chemistry (1999)

Affiliations and Expertise

AvanTeco, Whittier, CA, USA