Encapsulation Technologies for Electronic Applications

1st Edition

Authors: Haleh Ardebili Michael Pecht
Hardcover ISBN: 9780815515760
eBook ISBN: 9780815519706
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 11th June 2009
Page Count: 504
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Table of Contents

Preface 1 Introduction 1.1 Historical Overview 1.2 Electronic Packaging 1.3 Encapsulated Microelectronic Packages 1.3.1 2D Packages 1.4 Hermetic Packages 1.4.1 Metal Packages 1.4.2 Ceramic Packages 1.5 Encapsulants 1.5.1 Plastic Molding Compounds 1.5.2 Other Plastic Encapsulation Methods 1.6 Plastic versus Hermetic Packages 1.6.1 Size and Weight 1.6.2 Performance 1.6.3 Cost 1.6.4 Hermeticity 1.6.5 Reliability 1.6.6 Availability 1.7 Summary References 2 Plastic Encapsulant Materials 2.1 Chemistry Overview 2.1.1 Epoxies 2.1.2 Silicones 2.1.3 Polyurethanes 2.1.4 Phenolics 2.2 Molding Compounds 2.2.1 Resins 2.2.2 Curing Agents or Hardeners 2.2.3 Accelerators 2.2.4 Fillers 2.2.5 Coupling Agents 2.2.6 Stress-Relief Additives 2.2.7 Flame Retardants 2.2.8 Mold-Release Agents 2.2.9 Ion-Trapping Agents 2.2.10 Coloring Agents 2.2.11 Market Conditions and Manufacturers of Encapsulant Materials 2.2.12 Material Properties of Commercially Available Molding Compounds 2.2.13 Materials Development 2.3 Glob-Top Encapsulants 2.4 Potting and Casting Encapsulants 2.4.1 Dow Corning Materials 2.4.2 General Electric Materials 2.5 Underfi ll Encapsulants 2.6 Printing Encapsulants 2.7 Environmentally Friendly or “Green” Encapsulants 2.7.1 Toxic Flame Retardants 2.7.2 Green Encapsulant Material Development 2.8 Summary References 3 Encapsulation Process Technology 3.1 Molding Technology 3.1.1 Transfer Molding 3.1.2 Injection Molding 3.1.3 Reaction-Injectio


Electronics are used in a wide range of applications including computing, communication, biomedical, automotive, military and aerospace. They must operate in varying temperature and humidity environments including indoor controlled conditions and outdoor climate changes. Moisture, ionic contamination, heat, radiation and mechanical stresses are all highly detrimental to electronic devices and can lead to device failures. Therefore, it is essential that the electronic devices be packaged for protection from their intended environments, as well as to provide handling, assembly, electrical and thermal considerations.

Currently, more than 99% of microelectronic devices are plastic encapsulated. Improvements in encapsulant materials, and cost incentives have stretched the application boundaries for plastic electronic packages. Many electronic applications that traditionally used hermetic packages such as military are now using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) plastic packages. Plastic encapsulation has the advantages of low cost, smaller form factors, and improved manufacturability.

With recent trends in environmental awareness, new environmentally friendly or ' green' encapsulant materials (i.e. without brominated additives) have emerged. Plastic packages are also being considered for use in extreme high and low temperature electronics. 3-D packaging and wafer-level-packaging (WLP) require unique encapsulation techniques. Encapsulant materials are also being developed for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), bio-MEMS, bio-electronics, and organic light-emitting diodes (O-LEDs).

This book offers a comprehensive discussion of encapsulants in electronic applications. The main emphasis is on the encapsulation of microelectronic devices; however, the encapsulation of connectors and transformers is also addressed. This book discusses 2-D and 3-D packaging and encapsulation, encapsulation mate

Key Features

Guidance on the selection and use of encapsulants in the electronics industry, with a particular focus on microelectronics
Coverage of environmentally friendly 'green encapsulants'
Practical coverage of faults and defects: how to analyze them and how to avoid them



Electronics and micro-electronics industry professionals, semiconductor chip and wafer designers, anyone interested in electronic packaging.


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© William Andrew 2009
William Andrew
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About the Authors

Haleh Ardebili Author

Dr. Haleh Ardebili has a BS honors degree in Engineering Science and Mechanics from Pennsylvania State University at University Park, MS degree in Mechanical Engineering from Johns Hopkins University and PhD degree in Mechanical Engineering from University of Maryland at College Park. She has three years of industry experience as research scientist at General Electric Global Research Center at Niskayuna, New York. She is a recipient of GE Invention Fulcrum of Progress Award. She has several years of experience teaching engineering courses at University of Houston. In Sep 2010, she joined as Assistant Professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department at University of Houston. Her research work is mainly focused on nanomaterials for Energy Storage and Electronics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, USA She is also a visiting scholar at Rice University in the Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Department.

Michael Pecht Author

Affiliations and Expertise

CALCE (Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering), University of Maryland, USA