Emerging Nanotechnologies in Dentistry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781455778621, 9781455778577

Emerging Nanotechnologies in Dentistry

1st Edition

Processes, Materials and Applications

Editors: Karthikeyan Subramani Waqar Ahmed
eBook ISBN: 9781455778577
Hardcover ISBN: 9781455778621
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 22nd November 2011
Page Count: 412
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Table of Contents




List of Contributors

Chapter 1. Nanotechnology and the Future of Dentistry

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Nanotechnology Approaches

1.3. Nanotechnology to Nanomanufacturing

1.4. Nanodentistry

1.5. Future Directions and Conclusions

Chapter 2. Nanoparticles for Dental Materials

2.1. Introduction: Why Use Nanoparticles?

2.2. Synthesis of Nanoparticles

2.3. Examples of Dental Materials Using Nanoparticles

2.4. Selected Properties of Dental Materials Containing Nanoparticles

2.5. Clinical Experience with Dental Materials Containing Nanoparticles

2.6. Conclusions

Chapter 3. Antimicrobial Nanoparticles in Restorative Composites

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Antibacterial Restorative Composites

3.3. Antimicrobial Macromolecules

3.4. Nanoparticles

3.5. Conclusions

Chapter 4. Nanotechnology in Operative Dentistry

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Historical Review: Nanotechnology Applications in Operative Dentistry

4.3. Biomimetics

4.4. Fillers in Composite Resins

4.5. SEM and EDS Evaluation

4.6. Filler Weight Content (wt%)

4.7. Water Sorption

4.8. Mechanical Behavior

4.9. Clinical Applications

4.10. Conclusions

Chapter 5. Impact of Nanotechnology on Dental Implants

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Nanoscale Surface Modifications

5.3. Interactions of Surface Dental Implants with Blood

5.4. Interactions Between Surfaces and MSCs

5.5. Tissue Integration

5.6. Conclusion

Chapter 6. Titanium Surface Modification Techniques for Dental Implants—From Microscale to Nanoscale

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Titanium Surface Modification Methods

6.3. Limitations and Conclusion

Chapter 7. Titanium Nanotubes as Carriers of Osteogenic Growth Factors and Antibacterial Drugs for Applications in Dental Implantology

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Titanium Nanotubes

7.3. TiO2 Nanotubes for Implant Fabrication

7.4. Functionalization of TiO2 Nanotubes with Growth Factors and Antibacterial/Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

7.5. Conclusions

Chapter 8. Cellular Responses to Nanoscale Surface Modifications of Titanium Implants for Dentistry and Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Nanotopography Generated from Surface Modification of Ti Implants

8.3. Nanotopography and Protein Absorption

8.4. Nanotopography Alters Osteoblast Responses

8.5. Nanotopography and Stem Cell Responses

8.6. Conclusions

Chapter 9. Corrosion Resistance of Ti6Al4V with Nanostructured TiO2 Coatings

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Nanostructured TiO2 Deposited on Ti6Al4V

9.3. Characterization Techniques

9.4. Corrosion Tests with Electrochemical Techniques

9.5. Conclusions

Chapter 10. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes/Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles Incorporated GTR Membranes

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Periodontal Defects and GTR

10.3. Use of Electrospinning for Preparation of Nanocomposites

10.4. GTR Membranes Based on Electrospun CNT/HA Nanoparticles Incorporated Composite Nanofibers

10.5. Conclusions

Chapter 11. Fabrication of PEG Hydrogel Micropatterns by Soft-Photolithography and PEG Hydrogel as Guided Bone Regeneration Membrane in Dental Implantology

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Microfabrication

11.3. Lithography

11.4. Hydrogel as a Biomaterial

11.5. Soft-Photolithography of Hydrogel Micropatterns

11.6. PEG Hydrogel as GBR Membrane in Dental Implantology

11.7. Conclusions

Chapter 12. Nano-Apatitic Composite Scaffolds for Stem Cell Delivery and Bone Tissue Engineering

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Development of Nano-Apatitic and Macroporous Scaffolds

12.3. Cell Infiltration into Scaffold

12.4. Biomimetic Nano-Apatite–Collagen Fiber Scaffold

12.5. Fast Fracture of Nano-Apatite Scaffold

12.6. Fatigue of Nano-Apatite Scaffold

12.7. Nano-Apatite Scaffold–Human Umbilical Cord Stem Cell Interactions

12.8. Seeding Bone Marrow Stem Cells on Nano-Apatite Scaffolds

12.9. Conclusions

Chapter 13. Self-Assembly of Proteins and Peptides and Their Applications in Bionanotechnology and Dentistry

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Mechanism of Molecular Self-Assembly

13.3. Classification of Self-Assembly

13.4. Self-Assembly of Proteins and Peptides

13.5. Bionanotechnology Applications

13.6. Peptide Nanofibers, Nanotubes, and Nanowires

13.7. Three-Dimensional Peptide Matrix Scaffolds

13.8. Advantages and Limitations of Self-Assembling Peptide Matrix Scaffolds

13.9. Self-Assembly in Regenerative Biology and Dentistry

13.10. Conclusions

Chapter 14. Bone Regeneration Using Self-Assembled Nanoparticle-Based Scaffolds

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Scaffolding Biomaterials

14.3. Growth Factors

14.4. Controlled Release Technology

14.5. Controlled Release Systems for Bone Regeneration

14.6. Conclusions

Chapter 15. Surface Engineering of Dental Tools with Diamond for Improved Life and Performance

15.1. Tooth Materials

15.2. Dental Burs

15.3. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond Films onto Dental Burs

15.4. Bur Performance Investigations

15.5. Conclusions

Chapter 16. Nanomechanical Characterization of Mineralized Tissues in the Oral Cavity

16.1. Introduction

16.2. Basic Data Analysis Protocol for Nanoindentation

16.3. Nanoindentation of Oral Mineralized Tissues

16.4. Conclusions

Chapter 17. Nanoindentation Techniques for the Determination of Mechanical Properties of Materials in Dentistry

17.1. Introduction

17.2. Basic Information from the Load–Displacement Curves

17.3. Characterization of Inelastic Properties

17.4. Determination of Properties in Nonhomogeneous Bodies

17.5. Characterization of Time-Dependent Load Response

17.6. Resistance Against Crack Propagation

17.7. Scratch Tests for the Evaluation of Friction and Wear Resistance

17.8. Devices for Nanoindentation

Chapter 18. Nanocharacterization Techniques for Dental Implant Development

18.1. Measurement of the Topology of Nanostructures

18.2. Measurement of Nanostructure Internal Geometries

18.3. Measurement of Composition of Nanostructures

18.4. Measurement of the Mechanical Properties of Nanostructures

18.5. Conclusions

Chapter 19. Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery Systems for Oral Cancer Treatment

19.1. Introduction

19.2. Cancer Treatment Techniques

19.3. Mechanism of Action of Chemotherapeutic Agents

19.4. Oral Cancer

19.5. TNM Classification of Tumors

19.6. Management of Oral Cancer

19.7. Nanoparticulate-Based Drug Delivery in Cancer Treatment

19.8. Conclusions

Chapter 20. Carbon Nanotubes in Cancer Therapy and Drug Delivery

20.1. Introduction

20.2. Cellular Uptake of CNTs

20.3. CNTs as Carriers for Drug, Gene, and Protein

20.4. CNTs for Oral Cancer Therapy

20.5. Conclusions

Chapter 21. Nanodiagnostics in Microbiology and Dentistry

21.1. Introduction

21.2. Nanomaterials

21.3. Biomedical Applications of Nanotechnology and its Limitations

21.4. Nanotechnology Applications in Drug Delivery Systems, Nanodiagnostics, and Various Other Fields

21.5. Contribution of Microbiology to Nanotechnology

21.6. AFM Imaging of Microorganisms

21.7. Nanoplasmonic Sensors Detecting Live Viruses

21.8. Nanodentistry

21.9. Conclusions



New nanomaterials are leading to a range of emerging dental treatments that utilize more biomimetic materials that more closely duplicate natural tooth structure (or bone, in the case of implants). The use of nanostructures that will work in harmony with the body’s own regenerative processes (eg, to restore tooth structure or alveolar bone) are moving into clinical practice. This book brings together an international team of experts from the fields of nanomaterials, biomedical engineering and dentistry, to cover the new materials and techniques with potential for use intra-orally or extra-orally for the restoration, fixation, replacement, or regeneration of hard and soft tissues in and about the oral cavity and craniofacial region. New dental nanotechnologies include the use of advanced inorganic and organic materials, smart and biomimetic materials, tissue engineering and drug delivery strategies.

Key Features

  • Book prepared by an interdisciplinary and international group of bio-nanomaterial scientists and dental/oral biomedical researchers
  • Comprehensive professional reference for the subject covering materials fabrication and use of materials for all major diagnostic and therapeutic dental applications – repair,restoration, regeneration, implants and prevention
  • Book focuses in depth on the materials manufacturing processes involved with emphasis on pre-clinical and clinical applications, use and biocompatibility


  1. Industry sector / academic specialisation

  • Bio-nanomaterials
  • Dental biomaterials
  • Dental researchers and clinical practitioners, primarily in the areas of dental materials, restorative dentistry, implantology, oral surgery and periodontics.
  • Dental and orthopaedic implant companies
  • Companies manufacturing Dental composite resin (tooth coloured restorative filler materials)
  • Biotechnology and biopharmaceutical companies producing bone and tissue regenerative biomaterials.
  • Biosensor companies

Job title / function

    • Nanotechnology students ( postgraduate and doctoral students)
    • Dentistry (postgraduate and doctoral students)
    • Clinical practitioners (dentistry / dental implants)
    • Medicine ( postgraduate and doctoral students)
    • Allied health care professionals and students ( postgraduate and doctoral students)
    • Biotechnology (postgraduate and doctoral students)
    • Biomedical Engineering ( postgraduate and doctoral students)
    • Material scientists and students ( postgraduate and doctoral students

Applied researchers and academicians in the field of dentistry, nanotechnology, oral biology, biomaterials, biosensors, microbiology, biomedical nanotechnology and tissue engineering.


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© William Andrew 2012
William Andrew
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About the Editors

Karthikeyan Subramani Editor

Assistant Professor of Dental Medicine at Roseman University of Health Sciences, USA. He was the recipient of the prestigious 2006 Andre Schroeder Research Prize from Straumann (Switzerland) for his innovative research findings during his Biomedical Nanotechnology degree program in the United Kingdom. Dr. Subramani was involved in the International Team for Implantology (ITI) funded research projects in Switzerland, the Netherlands and in the USA. He has authored numerous peer-reviewed research papers and review manuscripts and has authored numerous book chapters. He is also the editor of the Elsevier book Nanomaterials in Clinical Dentistry together with Waqar Ahmed.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Orthodontics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA

Waqar Ahmed Editor

Professor of Nanotechnology at the University of Central Lancashire, UK. His research interests include the synthesis of nanomaterials and nanoparticles and their applications in medicine, dentistry and energy applications

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute for Advanced Manufacturing and Innovation, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK