Elsevier's Dictionary of Geography - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444510426, 9780080488783

Elsevier's Dictionary of Geography

1st Edition

in English, Russian, French, Spanish and German

Authors: Vladimir Kotlyakov Anna Komarova
eBook ISBN: 9780080488783
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444510426
Imprint: North Holland
Published Date: 14th November 2006
Page Count: 1072
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Description

Geography is a system of highly developed sciences about the environment. Geographical science embracing the study of the Earth's physical phenomena, people and their economic activities has always been in need of an extensive terminology. Geographical terms are related to the terms of natural sciences (physics, chemistry, biology, geology, etc.) and humanities (history, economics, sociology, etc.) since geography is based on these fundamental subjects.

Geography includes a number of disciplines and subdivisions which appeared along with the development of the science In spite of being very different geographical disciplines have some common tools of investigation which is maps, comparative method of exploration, remote sensing, geoinformation systems.

Today very well developed terminologies of all the specialist fields of geography and related subjects exist in the main world languages. However, they are not always well-correlated. Nowadays geographical terminology requires unification and international correlation more than ever before. Hence the idea of compiling a multilingual polydisciplinary dictionary.

The Dictionary consists of the basic table of terms arranged according to the order of the English alphabet with each term numbered. Each entry consists of the term in English and its equivalents in Russian, French, German, Spanish. Short definitions of terms are given in English and in Russian. The terms are supplied with the necessary grammar labels, such as gender of nouns, plural number, etc.

The Dictionary combines two functions: that of a defining dictionary and that of a bilingual dictionary. These two functions are basically contradictory because usually the defining dictionary is aimed at giving one meaning of the word which is the main and essential one, while the bilingual dictionary tries to give different equivalents of a given word in the other language in order to supply the user with maximum possible translations, differing in the shades of meanings, thus giving him the possibility to choose the appropriate word. But in our Dictionary we intentionally decided to combine the two functions – defining and multilingual, because a short definition of the term and equivalents in other languages help to achieve our main aim which consists in showing the basic geographical terminology and harmonizing it in several languages. Having this into consideration we deliberately mixed two types of dictionaries in one.

Key Features

  • Organized alphabetically via English
  • Provides short definition of geographical terms in English and Russian
  • Includes multilingual translation of terms from English to Russian, French, German, Spanish

Readership

geographers, earth scientists, meteorologists, climatologists.

Table of Contents

ABOUT AUTHORS

TERMINOLOGY OF GEOGRAPHY

USED SOURCES

HOW TO USE THE DICTIONARY

Basic Table

A

1 aa-lava

2 aberration of light

3 abiotic environment; non-living environment

4 ablation

5 ablation area; ablation zone

6 ablation microrelief

7 ablation moraine

8 ablation period

9 abrasion

10 abrasion arch

11 abrasion platform; strandflat; wave-cut platform; shore platform

12 abrasion shore

13 abrasion terrace; water-cut bench; marine-built terrace; water-built terrace

14 absolute age; radiometric age

15 absolute extremes

16 absolute geochronology; radiometric dating

17 absolute humidity; vapour concentration

18 absolute maximum

19 absolute minimum

20 absolute monarchy

21 absolute temperature scale; Kelvin scale

22 absolute zero

23 absorbed solar radiation

24 absorbing capacity of soil

25 absorbing soil complex; absorbing complex

26 absorption

27 absorption coefficient in the atmosphere

28 abyssal adj

29 abyssal cone

30 abyssal deposits; abyssal sediments

31 abyssal fauna

32 abyssal plain

33 abyssal zone

34 accelerated erosion

35 accessibility

36 accident emission

37 accidental avalanche; accidental triggering of avalanche

38 acclimatization

39 accretion

40 accretion coast; accumulation coast

41 acculturation

42 accumulation

43 accumulation area of glacier; accumulation zone; surplus area

44 accumulation area ratio

45 accumulation period of glacier

46 accumulative relief

47 acid lava

48 acid rain; acid precipitation

49 acid rock

50 acid soil

51 acid waters

52 acidophile

53 acrisol

54 actinometry

55 activated sludge

56 active adj

57 active cirque

58 active drainage area

59 active glacier

60 active layer

61 active layer of bog

62 active layer of ocean

63 active layer of permafrost; seasonally thawed layer

64 active population; working population

65 active porosity

66 active temperature

67 active volcano

68 activity index; energy of glacierization

69 actualism

70 adaptation; adaptability

71 adfreeze; adfreezing

72 adhesion

73 adhesion ripple

74 adiabatic

75 adiabatic compression

76 adiabatic cooling

77 adiabatic equivalent temperature

78 adiabatic expansion

79 adiabatic lapse rate; environmental lapse rate; adiabatic gradient

80 adiabatic process

81 adiabatic warming

82 adit; gallery

83 administrative centre

84 administrative methods of management

85 administrative region; district2

86 administrative-territorial division

87 adret

88 advanced dune

89 advection

90 advection fog; sea fog

91 advection frost

92 advection inversion

93 advective thunderstorm

94 adventitious organism

95 adyrs

96 aeolian adj; eolian adj

97 aerated ice

98 aeration

99 aeration of sewage; sewage aeration

100 aeration of water; water aeration

101 aerial photograph

102 aerial photography

103 aerobic adj

104 aerobic process

105 aeroclimatology

106 aerology

107 aeronomy

108 aerophototopography

109 aerophyte

110 aeroplankton

111 aerosol pollutant; tropospheric aerosol

112 aerospace research

113 aesthetic geography

114 aestivation

115 afforestation

116 afterglow; evening glow

117 aftermath

118 aftershock

119 age of landscape

120 age of relief

121 ageostrophic wind; ageostrophic wind component

122 agglomerate

123 agglomeration economies; localization economies

124 aggradation

125 aggradation terrace; alluvial terrace

126 aggradational soils

127 aggraded plain; plain of aggradation

128 aggregation

129 aggressive water

130 agrarian adj; agricultural adj

131 agrarian crisis

132 agrarian reform; land reform

133 agribusiness complex

134 agricultural climatology; agroclimatology

135 agricultural effluent; farm runoff

136 agricultural land; farmland; agricultural area

137 agricultural landscape; agrolandscape

138 agricultural meteorology; agrometeorology

139 agricultural plants

140 agricultural region

141 agricultural revolution

142 agriculture; husbandry

143 agrocenology

144 agrocenosis; agroecosystem; agrophytocenosis

145 agroclimatic index

146 agroclimatic resources

147 agroclimatic zone

148 agroforestal adj

149 agro-forestry

150 agro-industrial complex

151 agronomy; agricultural science

152 agrophyte

153 agrozem

154 aheliophyte

155 air

156 air corridor

157 air diffusion

158 air hole

159 air mass

160 air navigation chart

161 air quality

162 air regime of soil

163 air space

164 air stream; air flow

165 air transport

166 aircraft industry; aviation industry

167 airglow; nightglow

168 air-mass clouds

169 air-mass thunderstorm

170 airport

171 ajacent sea; marginal sea; semi-closed sea

172 Akchaghylian basin

173 aksu

174 alas

175 alatau

176 albedo

177 albeluvisol

178 aleurite

179 aleurolite

180 alfisol

181 algae

182 algal mat

183 algotrophism

184 alimentation of glacier; glacial alimentation; alimentation

185 alimentation of water bodies; feeding of water bodies

186 alisol

187 alkali flat

188 alkali soil

189 alkaline soil

190 alkalinity of soil

191 alkalinization of soil

192 allelopathy

193 Alleroed

194 allitic soil

195 allitization

196 allochore

197 allochthonous adj

198 allochthonous species

199 allochtonous river

200 alluvial adj

201 alluvial cone; debris fan

202 alluvial fan

203 alluvial fan deposit

204 alluvial plain; washplain

205 alluvial soil

206 alluvial water

207 alluvium; fluvial deposits; alluvial deposits; fluvial sediments

208 alluvium sheet

209 alp

210 alpine adj

211 alpine belt

212 alpine desert

213 alpine glacier

214 alpine glow

215 alpine meadow

216 alpine orogeny; alpine folding

217 alpine relief

218 alpine tundra

219 alpine vegetation

220 alternative energy; green energy

221 alternative sources of energy; renewable energy sources

222 alternative technology

223 altimetric frequency curve

224 altiplanation

225 altiplanation terrace; solifluction terrace; goletz terrace

226 altiplano

227 altitude; absolute elevation

228 altitudinal belt; vertical zone; altitudinal zone

229 altitudinal vegetation belt

230 altitudinal zonation; vertical zonation

231 altocumulus

232 altostratus

233 alvar

234 ambes pl

235 amenity

236 amictic lake

237 amorphous ice

238 amphiatlantic distribution

239 amphibians

240 amphiboreal distribution

241 amphidromic point

242 amphidromic system

243 amphipacific distribution

244 amphiphyte

245 amphitheatre

246 anabatic front

247 anabatic wind

248 anabiosis

249 anabranching

250 anaerobic adj

251 anaerobic process

252 anaglyphical map; anaglyph

253 anaglyphy

254 anahalinity

255 analogue landscapes

256 analysis of hydrograph

257 analythical map

258 anamorphotic map; anamorphoid

259 anchor ice; bottom ice

260 ancient glaciation

261 ancient shoreline

262 ancient valley

263 Ancylus lake

264 andosol; volcanic soil

265 anemochore

266 anemophyte; anémophile m

267 angle of repose; angle of rest

268 angular distortion; angular alteration

269 angular uncomformity

270 animal trail

271 animated map; animation

272 annexation

273 annual adj

274 annual course

275 annual growth rings; annual ring; tree ring

276 annual layer

277 annual plant

278 annual range

279 annual runoff

280 annular drainage pattern

281 anomalous watershed

282 anoxic zone

283 antarctic adj

284 antarctic air mass; antarctic air

285 Antarctic circle

286 Antarctic Circumpolar Current; West Wind Drift

287 antarctic convergence

288 antarctic desert zone

289 antarctic front

290 antarctic oasis

291 antarctic oscillation

292 antarctic zone

293 antecedent river

294 antecedent valley

295 anteclise

296 anthropocentrism

297 anthropochore

298 anthropogenic adj; man-made adj; human-induced adj

299 anthropogenic desert

300 anthropogenic environment; technosphere

301 anthropogenic landscape; man-made landscape

302 anthropogenic pollution; man-made pollution; anthropogenic contamination

303 anthropogenic relief

304 anthropogenic soils; man-made soils

305 anthropogenic succession

306 anthropogenic vegetation

307 anthropogeography; geography of human being

308 anthropology

309 anthropophyte

310 anti-avalanche structures

311 anti-avalanche wedge

312 anticlinal ridge

313 anticlinal valley

314 anticline; anticlinal fold

315 anticlinorium

316 anticyclogenesis

317 anticyclolysis

318 anticyclone; high

319 anticyclonic circular current

320 anticyclonic eddy; anticyclonic vortex

321 antidune

322 antiglacialism

323 antiglobalism

324 antipodes

325 anti-trade; anti-trade wind

326 antitriptic current

327 anti-uafeis constructions

328 apartheid; racial segregation

329 apchipelago

330 aphelion

331 aphotic zone; disphotic zone

332 aphyllous plant; leafless plant

333 aphylly; afoliage

334 apogee

335 appalachian relief

336 apparent dip

337 appearance of ice

338 applied geography

339 applied geomorphology; engineering geomorphology

340 apposed glacier

341 appropriate technology

342 appropriative economy

343 apron; bahada

344 Apsheronian basin

345 aquaculture

346 aquanaut

347 aquatic adj

348 aquatic fauna; aquatic animals

349 aquatic flora; aquatic plants

350 aquatic landscape; aquatic ecosystem

351 aqueduct

352 aquifer; aquifer horizon; aquafer; water-bearing layer

353 arable horizon of soil

354 arable land; cropland; tillage2; ploughland

355 arboretum

356 arch1

357 arch2

358 archaean

359 archean foldings

360 archeological culture

361 archeological dating

362 archeological site

363 archeophyte

364 arctic adj

365 arctic air mass; arctic air

366 Arctic circle

367 arctic desert zone

368 arctic front

369 arctic oscillation

370 arctic soils

371 arctic tundra

372 arctic zone

373 arcuate delta

374 area; geographic range; range2

375 area distortion; area deformation

376 arenosol

377 areography

378 aretic adj; areic adj; arheic adj

379 argillaceous adj; clayey adj; argillic adj

380 argillic desert

381 argillic horizon; clayey subsoil

382 argillite

383 arid climate

384 arid desert; hot desert

385 arid landforms

386 arid soils; aridisol; aridosol

387 arid zone

388 aridity

389 aridity index; index of aridity; aridity factor

390 armoured karst

391 armoured landforms

392 artefact; artifact

393 artesian basin

394 artesian water

395 artesian well

396 artificial avalanche

397 artificial satellite

398 artificial snow

399 aryk

400 ash; volcanic ash

401 ash cone

402 aspect1

403 aspen forest

404 assimilation

405 assimilation capacity of the environment

406 astatic lake; basinal lake

407 asteroid

408 asthenosphere

409 astrobleme

410 astronaut

411 astronomical coordinates

412 astronomical observation

413 astronomical twilight

414 asymmetrical fold

415 asymmetrical valley

416 asymmetry of relief

417 Atlantic

418 atlantic lande

419 atlas; geographic atlas

420 atlas cartography

421 atmosphere

422 atmospheric absorption

423 atmospheric aerosol; atmospheric dust

424 atmospheric attenuation; attenuation of solar radiation

425 atmospheric cell

426 atmospheric chemistry

427 atmospheric circulation; circulation of the atmosphere

428 atmospheric electricity

429 atmospheric front

430 atmospheric ice; atmogenic ice

431 atmospheric instability

433 atmospheric opacity; atmospheric turbidity

434 atmospheric optics

435 atmospheric perturbations

436 atmospheric phenomenon

437 atmospheric pollution; air pollution

438 atmospheric pressure; air pressure

439 atmospheric refraction

440 atmospheric stability; stable atmospheric equilibrium

441 atmospheric tide; solar atmospheric tide

442 atmospheric transparency

443 atmospheric water

444 atmospheric wave

445 atmospheric window; window

446 atoll

447 atrio

448 attached dune

449 attached island

450 attached water; constitution water; fixed water

451 attribute

452 attrition

453 aufeis; naled

454 aufeis blister

455 aufeis flood-plain

456 aufeis glade

457 aufeis resources

458 aureole

459 aurora; aurora australis; aurora borealis

460 autarchy; autarky

461 autochore

462 autochthonous adj

463 autochthonous species; native species; indigenous species

464 autocracy; dictatorship

465 autoecology

466 autogenic adj; autogeneous adj

467 automated cartography

468 automated mapping system

469 automobile industry; motor-car industry

470 autonomous adj

471 autonomous landscape; eluvial landscape

472 autonomy

473 auto-oscillations; self-induced oscillations

474 autotrophic soil formation

475 autumn; fall2

476 autumnal equinox

477 auxiliary industry

478 avalanche; snow avalanche

479 avalanche basin; avalanche catchment

480 avalanche body

481 avalanche channel

482 avalanche cone; avalanche deposit; avalanche debris

483 avalanche dam; avalanche barrier; avalanche wall

484 avalanche dog

485 avalanche frequency

486 avalanche gallery

487 avalanche hazard; avalanche danger

488 avalanche landscape

489 avalanche research station

490 avalanche runout distance

491 avalanche runout zone; avalanche deposition zone

492 avalanche site; starting zone of avalanche

493 avalanche snow-patch

494 avalanche studies

495 avalanche swath

496 avalanche track; avalanche path

497 avalanche trail

498 avalanche wind

499 avalanche-hazardous period

500 avalanche-hazardous slope

501 avalancher

502 axis of a fold

503 axis of the celestial sphere

504 axis of the Earth

505 azimuth; bearing2

506 azimuth of dip

507 azimuth of strike; trend azimuth

508 azimuthal projection; zenithal projection

509 azoic adj

510 azonal adj

511 azonal soils

512 azonal vegetation; azonal landscape

B

513 back radiation; downward terrestrial radiation; counterradiation

514 back swamp; valley bog

515 background; background concentration; background level

516 background radiation

517 backing of wind

518 backshore

519 backslope

520 backwash; backwash flow

521 backwater

522 back-water

523 backwater area of groundwater

524 backwoods

525 badland

526 Baer’s mounds

527 baguio

528 baidzherakh

529 Baikalien folding

530 bairak

531 bajir

532 Baku basin

533 balance curves

534 balance methods

535 balance of payments

536 balance of trade

537 balanced rock

538 bald mountain

539 balka

540 balkanization

541 ball lightning

542 balme

543 balneology

544 Baltic Ice Lake

545 bank; river bank

546 bank; swell2

547 bank fixation

548 bank scour

549 bank stream flow control

550 bankfull stream

551 banking; endigage m; diking

552 banner cloud

553 bar; longshore bar2

554 barbed drainage pattern

555 barbotage; sparging

556 barchan

557 barchan chain

558 barchan relief

559 bare fallow

560 bare karst

561 bare minimum flow

562 baric col

563 baric field

564 baric topography

565 baric trough

566 baric wave

567 baric wind law; Buys-Ballots law

568 barochore

569 barocline

570 baroclinic instability

571 baroclinity; barocliny; baroclinicity

572 barogradient current

573 barometric depression; depression2

574 barometric gradient; pressure gradient

575 barometric levelling

576 barometric step; pressure step

577 barotropy

578 barrage; dyke

579 barranco

580 barrier beach; barrier bar

581 barrier island

582 barrier reef

583 barter

584 basal adj; basic adj

585 basal horizon

586 basal moraine

587 basal slip; basal sliding

588 basalt

589 basaltic layer

590 base alimentation; base flow

591 base level of accumulation

592 base level of denudation

593 base level of glaciation

594 base map; outline map

595 base-level; base level of erosion

596 baseline

597 basement; basal complex

598 basic lava; basaltic lava

599 basin

600 basin irrigation; basin cultivation

601 basin landscape

602 basin of ground waters

603 basin-and-range terrain

604 basiphyte

605 batholith; bathylith

606 bathyal adj

607 bathyal deposits; bathyal sediments

608 bathyal zone

609 bathymetric curve

610 bathymetric map

611 bathymetry

612 bathyorographical map

613 bathyscaph; bathyscap; bathyscaphe

614 bathysphere

615 bay; embayment

616 bay bar; bay barrier

617 bazaar; bazaar economy

618 beach

619 beach cusps

620 beach scarp; wave-cut platform

621 beach-rock

622 beaded drainage pattern

623 beaded valley

624 bearing1; orientation; taking a bearing

625 Beaufort scale

626 bed1

627 bed load; load of a stream; traction load

628 bedding1

629 bedding cave

630 bedding plane; stratification plane

631 bedforms

632 bedouin

633 bedrock coast

634 bedrock1

635 bedrock2

636 beekeeping; apiculture

637 behaviourism; behavioural approach

638 belligerent landscape

639 bench

640 bench mark; survey mark

641 benefication f; concentration of minerals; dressing of minerals

642 benthal adj

643 benthic division; benthic zone

644 benthos

645 bergschrund

646 bergy waters

647 Beringia

648 berm

649 bid price curve; bid rent curve

650 biennial plant

651 biennial wind oscillation; quasi-biennial oscilation

652 bifurcation of stream; stream bifurcation

653 bifurcation ratio

654 bight

655 billow cloud

656 binodal seiche

657 biochemical oxidation

658 biochore

659 bioclymatology

660 biocoenology

661 biocoenosis; community2

662 biocycle

663 biodegradable adj

664 biodegradation; biodeterioration

665 biodiversity

666 biofiltration

667 biofuel; biomass fuel

668 biogenic landforms

669 biogenic migration

670 biogenic rocks

671 biogenic sediment; organic deposit; biogenic deposit

672 biogenic sedimentation

673 biogeochemical cycle

674 biogeography

675 biogeosphere

676 bioherm; reef-knoll

677 bioindication

678 biological activity of soil

679 biological amplification; biological magnification

680 biological desert

681 biological indicator; indicator species

682 biological minimum of temperature

683 biological oxygen demand; biochemical oxygen demand

684 biological pollution

685 biological production; biological productivity

686 biological purification; biopurification

687 biological resources

688 bioluminescence

689 biomass

690 biome

691 biometry

692 bioremediation

693 biosphere

694 biosphere reserve

695 biostasis; biostasy

696 biota

697 biotic barrier

698 biotic continuum

699 biotic environment

700 biotic factor; biological factor

701 biotic index

702 biotic potential

703 biotic pyramid

704 biotic regulation

705 biotic weathering

706 biotope

707 bioturbation

708 bipolar adj

709 bipolar distribution

710 bipolar world

711 birch forest; birch wood

712 birth control

713 birth rate; fertility

714 bituminous coal

715 black earth

716 black economy; informal economy; shadow economy

717 black ice

718 black smoker

719 blackening of glacier

720 blanket bog

721 blasting; sandblasting

722 blind mouth

723 blind valley

724 blistering of ice

725 blizzard

726 block diagram

727 block mountains

728 block of the Earths crust

729 block stream

730 block structure

731 blocked delta

732 block-faulting

733 blockfield

734 blocking action

735 blocking anticyclone

736 blow-hole

737 blowing snow

738 blow-out

739 blue ice

740 blue ice bands

741 blue sky

742 blue-green algae

743 bluff; high bank

744 boat-yard

745 bocca

746 bodden coast

747 body of water; water body

748 Boelling

749 bog landscape; fenland

750 bog soils; pen soils; peat soils

751 bolson

752 Bond cycles

753 bonitet

754 bora

755 border; boundary; frontier

756 border mountains

757 Boreal

758 boreal adj

759 boreal climate

760 boreal transgression

761 botanical garden; botanic garden

762 bottom; floor

763 bottom countercurrent; bottom counterflow

764 bottom current; bottom flow

765 bottom sediments

766 bottom water; deep watermass

767 boudinage

768 boulder; cobble

769 boulder balk

770 boulevard

771 boundary layer; surface layer of air; ground layer of air

772 boundary layer of the atmosphere; friction layer of the atmosphere; planetary boundary layer

773 boundary strip

774 box canyon

775 brackish adj

776 braided river; braided channel; anastomosing channel

777 braiding; anastomosis

778 brain drain

779 branch of a river; anabranch; distributary2; arm of a river

780 branch of industry; industrial branch

781 brash ice; ice gruel

782 break of slope

783 break off of slope

784 breaker

785 breaker zone; wave splash; breaking zone

786 break-of-bulk point

787 breakup of ice; breaking up of ice

788 breakwater; groyne

789 breastwall reservoir

790 breccia

791 breckland

792 breeding bottom; spawning ground

793 breeze

794 bridlepath; bridleway

795 brine

796 brine ice

797 brine pocket

798 broad-leaved forest

799 broad-leaved forest zone

800 Brocken spectrum

801 Bronze Age

802 brook; runnel; draw (amer); rivulet; rill

803 brow

804 brown forest soil; brown earth

805 brown semidesert soil

806 brown soils

807 browse

808 Brueckner period; Brückner cycle; Brückner period

809 brunification

810 brunizem; prairie soil

811 brushwood; thicket; dense bushes

812 budget year; balance year

813 buffer zone of a reserve

814 built-up estate; built-up area

815 bulk cargo

816 buoy; float

817 buoyancy; floatage

818 buran; poorga; purga

819 buried glacier

820 buried ice

821 buried ice vein

822 buried landforms

823 buried terrace

824 burn

825 burning

826 butte; knob

827 buttress

828 bypass

829 bypassing of sediments

830 by-product

C

831 caatinga

832 cable car; cableway

833 cabotage; coastwise navigation

834 cadastral map

835 cadastre

836 Cainozoic; Cenozoic

837 cake ice; ice-cake

838 calciphile; calcicole

839 calciphobe; calcifuge

840 calcisol

841 calcite

842 caldera

843 caldera glacier

844 Caledonian folding

845 calendar

846 calendar day; meansolar day

847 calendar year

848 caliche

849 calm

850 calving

851 calving bay

852 cambisol

853 Cambrian

854 campo

855 canal

856 canopy; crown cover

857 canopy density

858 capacity of a stream; carrying capacity of a stream

859 capacity of snow drifting

860 cape; headland; promontory

861 capillarity

862 capillary fringe

863 capillary water; capillary moisture

864 capital

865 capital goods

866 capital investment

867 capital-intensive adj

868 capitalism

869 cap-rock

870 captation

871 capture of river; river piracy; river capture; beheading of river

872 carbon capacity

873 carbon credit

874 carbon cycle

875 carbon sink

876 carbon tax

877 carbonaceous adj

878 carbonate horizon; lime horizon

879 carbonic acid; carbon dioxide

880 Carboniferous

881 cardinal direction

882 cardinal points

883 cargo turnover; fright turnover; turnover of goods

884 carnivore; predator

885 carpet-like communities; mat-vegetation

886 carrying capacity of area; profitable capacity

887 carrying capacity of ice

888 carrying capacity of transport

889 carrying intensity

890 cartel

891 carting; cartage

892 cartogram; chorogram

893 cartographic databank; cartographic data base

894 cartographic format

895 cartographic generalization

896 cartographic pattern

897 cartographical modelling

898 cartographical animation

899 cartographical browser

900 cartography; mapping

901 cartology

902 cartometry

903 cartouche

904 cascade

905 cascade of reservoirs

906 cash crop

907 caste

908 cataclasis

909 catacombs

910 catalogue of glaciers

911 cataract

912 catastrophic avalanche; climax avalanche

913 catastrophism

914 catch crop

915 catena

916 cattle-breeding; stock-raising

917 cave

918 cave glacier

919 cave hoarfrost

920 cave ice

921 cave lake; underground lake; karst lake

922 cavern

923 cavitation

924 Celcius scale

925 celestial adj

926 celestial coordinates

927 celestial equator; equinoctial

928 celestial meridian

929 celestial pole

930 celestial sphere

931 cellular sands

932 cellulate sand relief

933 cementation

934 census

935 central business district; downtown (amer)

936 central eruption

937 central meridian

938 central place

939 central place system

940 central place theory

941 centrality

942 centralization

943 centre of atmospheric action

944 centre of origin

945 centre of population density

946 centripetal drainage pattern

947 cereals

948 cerrado

949 cession

950 chaco

951 chain migration

952 chain of hills

953 channel deformation

954 channel flow; riverbed flow

955 channel processes

956 channel reach; cross section of a stream

957 channel storage

958 channelled avalanche

959 channelled glacier; wall-sided glacier

960 channelled river; canal river

961 chapada

962 chaparral

963 chart datum; datum plane; reference plane

964 charter

965 «cheeks»

966 chemical abrasion

967 chemical deposit

968 chemical industry

969 chemical pollution

970 chemical weathering; corrosion

971 chemistry of ocean; chemical oceanography

972 chemocline

973 chemosphere

974 chemosynthesis

975 chemotrophic adj

976 chern (Abies sibirica dominated taiga)

977 chernozem

978 chernozem-like soil

979 chestnut soil

980 chimney

981 chimney rock; rock pillar

982 chink

983 chinook

984 chionophile

985 chionophite

986 chionophob

987 chionosphere

988 chop; choppi sea

989 choppi wind

990 C-horizon

991 chorochromatic map

992 chorographic map; general map

993 chorology; areal differentiation; chorography

994 choropleth map

995 chronostratigraphy

996 Cimmerian folding

997 cinder cone

998 cinnamonic soil

999 circulation

1000 circulation epoch

1001 circumpolar diseases

1002 circumpolar distribution

1003 circumpolar vortex; polar vortex

1004 circumtropical distribution

1005 cirque; corrie; kar

1006 cirque lake

1007 cirque platform

1008 cirque steps

1009 cirrocumulus

1010 cirrostratus

1011 cirrus

1012 city

1013 city centre; city business district; CBD

1014 city region

1015 city-state

1016 civil twilight

1017 civilization

1018 class of landscapes

1019 clathrate

1020 clay

1021 clay loam

1022 clayey karst

1023 claypan

1024 clean water

1025 clear water

1026 clearing; opening

1027 cleavage; schistosity

1028 clevage of ice; ice foliation

1029 cliff

1030 climate

1031 climate change; climatic change

1032 climate feedback

1033 climate model

1034 climate scenario; climatic forecast

1035 climate sensitivity

1036 climate system

1037 climate system stability

1038 climatic adj

1039 climatic anomaly

1040 climatic characteristics; climatic element

1041 climatic cycle

1042 climatic factors

1043 climatic health resort

1044 climatic macrocycle

1045 climatic minimum

1046 climatic optimum

1047 climatic region

1048 climatic resources

1049 climatic snow line

1050 climatic standard normal

1051 climatic trend

1052 climatic type

1053 climatic zonation

1054 climatic zone

1055 climatogram

1056 climatography

1057 climatological adj

1058 climatological front

1059 climatological times

1060 climatology

1061 climax; climax community

1062 cloak of sediments

1063 closed canopy; continuous canopy

1064 closed drainage; area of internal drainage

1065 closed drainage basin; blind drainage basin; aretic depression

1066 closed economy

1067 closed plant community

1068 closeness of ice

1069 cloud

1070 cloud base

1071 cloud étage; cloud level

1072 cloud forest; mist forest

1073 cloud formation

1074 cloud seeding; seeding of clouds

1075 cloud system

1076 cloud system of a cyclone; cyclonic cloud system

1077 cloud type; cloud form

1078 cloudburst

1079 cloudiness; cloud amount; cloud cover

1080 cloudy ice

1081 cluster

1082 coagulation

1083 coal

1084 coalfield

1085 coalition

1086 coarse-grained

1087 coast; shore

1088 coast of Calatype

1089 coast of thermal abrasion

1090 coast protection structures

1091 coastal adj

1092 coastal desert; cold-water desert

1093 coastal effect

1094 coastal lake

1095 coastal plain; coastal lowland

1096 coastal processes

1097 coastal zone; coastal area

1098 coating; revestment

1099 cockpit

1100 cockpit karst

1101 codominant species

1102 coefficient of slope stability

1103 coevolution; coadaptation

1104 coevolution of society and environment

1105 cogwheel railway; mountain railway

1106 coherent adj

1107 cohesion of snow

1108 colatitude

1109 cold air mass

1110 cold current; cool current

1111 cold desert

1112 cold front

1113 cold glacier; polar glacier

1114 cold occlusion

1115 cold pole

1116 cold wave

1117 coli-index

1118 coli-titer

1119 collapse earthquake

1120 collapse polje

1121 collapse structures

1122 collective consumption

1123 collective farm; kolkhoz

1124 collective farming

1125 collectivization

1126 collision zone

1127 colluvium; slope-wash

1128 colmatage

1129 colonial animal

1130 colonial empire

1131 colonialism; colonial system

1132 colonization

1133 colony

1134 colour model

1135 colour of water

1136 colour proof

1137 coloured snow

1138 columnar jointing

1139 columnar structure

1140 comet

1141 comfort of environment

1142 comfort zone

1143 command economy; centrally planned economy

1144 commensalism; mutualism

1145 commensurability of symbols

1146 commercial economy; commodity economy; goods economy

1147 commercial game

1148 commodity; goods and services

1149 commodity flow

1150 common rights; rights of common

1151 commonwealth

1152 communal field

1153 commune

1154 communism

1155 community1

1156 commuting; labour linkages

1157 compact soils; vertisols

1158 compaction of rock

1159 compaction of soil; consolidation of soil

1160 comparative method of exploration

1161 compass

1162 compass azimuth; magnetic azimuth

1163 compensating current

1164 compensation flow

1165 competence of a stream

1166 competition

1167 compilation plot; original plot

1168 complex atlas

1169 complex climatology

1170 complex map; aggregate map

1171 complex profile; complex cross-section

1172 component of nature; landscape component

1173 composite coast

1174 composite map

1175 composition of the population

1176 compost

1177 compound valley glacier; dendritic glacier

1178 comprehensive atlas

1179 comprehensive map

1180 concave slope

1181 concentration of production

1182 concern; corporation

1183 concession

1184 concordant adj; conformable adj

1185 concordant coast; longitudinal coast

1186 concordant summits; accordant summits

1187 concretion; nodule

1188 condensation level

1189 condensation nucleus

1190 condensation of water vapour

1191 condensation trail; contrail; adiabatic trail

1192 conditional instability

1193 conditionally clean water

1194 condominium

1195 cone of depression; cone of exhaustion; cone of water table depression

1196 confederation

1197 configuration map

1198 confined aquifer; confined water

1199 confluence; junction2

1200 confluence step

1201 confluent glacier

1202 conformal projection; equal-angle projection

1203 conformity; concordance; concordant bedding

1204 congelation ice; hydrogenic ice

1205 congelation ice formation

1206 congelifluction; congelifluxion

1207 conglomerate; pudding rock

1208 congress tourism

1209 conical projection

1210 conical-summit glacier

1211 coniferous forest; needle forest

1212 coniferous plant

1213 conjunction

1214 connate water; fossil water

1215 connecting bar; tombolo

1216 consequent stream; accordant valley

1217 conservation map

1218 conservationist; environmentalist

1219 consociation

1220 consolidated pack ice; consolidated drifting ice

1221 consolidated rock; coherent rock

1222 consolidation of ice

1223 consortium

1224 constant pressure surface; isobaric surface

1225 constant slope

1226 constant species; constancy

1227 constellation

1228 constitutional ice

1229 constitutional monarchy

1230 construction inustry

1231 constructive geography

1232 constructive wave

1233 consumer; heterotroph; heterotrophic organism

1234 consumer goods

1235 consumption

1236 container; container transport

1237 containerization

1238 contamination coefficient of the environment

1239 continent; landmass; mainland

1240 continental adj

1241 continental air mass; continental air

1242 continental anticyclone

1243 continental climate

1244 continental crust

1245 continental deposits; continental sediments

1246 continental divide; continental watershed

1247 continental drift

1248 continental dune

1249 continental foot; continental apron; continental rise

1250 continental hemisphere

1251 continental island

1252 continental margin

1253 continental shelf; shelf

1254 continental slope

1255 continental socle

1256 continental waters

1257 continentality

1258 continentality index

1259 continuous area

1260 continuous permafrost

1261 continuous precipitation; continuous rain; steady precipitation

1262 contour; isohypse; form-line

1263 contour interval; index contours

1264 contour ploughing

1265 contraction fissure; compression fussure

1266 contraction hypothesis

1267 contrastive relief

1268 conurbation; metropolitan area

1269 convection

1270 convection cloud; convective cloud

1271 convection in the atmosphere

1272 convection level

1273 convection rain; convectional rain

1274 convective condensation level

1275 convenience good

1276 conventional fuel

1277 conventional name; exonym

1278 conventional projection

1279 conventional sign; characteristic sheet

1280 convergence

1281 convergence of landforms

1282 converging terraces

1283 convex slope

1284 conveyance distance

1285 convolute bedding

1286 cooling water pool; basin-cooler; water reservoir-cooler

1287 cooperation; co-operative; cooperative; co-operation

1288 co-operation of production; production co-operation

1289 coprophagous animal

1290 coral

1291 coral bleaching

1292 coral coast

1293 coral island

1294 coral limestone

1295 coral mud

1296 coral reef

1297 coral sand

1298 core1

1299 core2; drill core; core sampling

1300 core of fold

1301 core-periphery model

1302 Coriolis force; deviating force

1303 corona

1304 corrasion

1305 correction sheet

1306 correlate deposits

1307 corridor

1308 corrie glacier; cirque glacier

1309 corrie shoulder

1310 corrie-valley glacier

1311 corvée

1312 cosmic adj; extraterrestrial adj; spatial2 adj

1313 cosmic dust; meteoric dust

1314 cosmic rays; cosmic radiation

1315 cosmography; cosmology

1316 costs; expenditures

1317 costs of transport; transport costs

1318 co-tidal line

1319 cottage industry; domestic industry

1320 couloir

1321 countercurrent

1322 counter-urbanization

1323 countryside; rural area

1324 cover loam

1325 covered karst

1326 crack in ice

1327 crag

1328 crater

1329 creationism

1330 credit; allocation

1331 creek

1332 creep

1333 crepuscular rays

1334 crescent moon

1335 crest

1336 crest of wave

1337 Cretaceous

1338 crevasse; glacier crevasse; glacier fissure

1339 critical flow velocity

1340 critical level of groundwater

1341 critical temperature

1342 crop; yield; harvest

1343 crop farming; arable farming; crop-raising

1344 cross profile of a valley

1345 cross section; transverse section; cross-profile

1346 cross-circulation in rivers

1347 cruise tourism; cruise

1348 crumb

1349 crumb structure

1350 crustification

1351 cryobiont

1352 cryoconite

1353 cryodiagenesis

1354 cryofront

1355 cryogenesis

1356 cryogenic adj; cryergic adj

1357 cryogenic dislocation; congeliturbation; cryoturbation

1358 cryogenic head; freezing pressure

1359 cryogenic heaving; frost heaving

1360 cryogenic polygon; ice polygon; frost polygon; stone polygon; polygon

1361 cryogenic relief

1362 cryogenic soil; gelisol

1363 cryogenic stage of Pleistocene

1364 cryogenic structure

1365 cryohydrate

1366 cryolithogenesis

1367 cryolithology

1368 cryology

1369 cryopeg

1370 cryophile; thermophobe

1371 cryoplanation

1372 cryoplankton

1373 cryosphere

1374 cryotic ground

1375 cryovegetation; cryophyte

1376 cryoxerophyte

1377 cryptopodzolic soil

1378 crystallization of water

1379 cuesta

1380 cultivation of land

1381 cultural geography; geography of culture

1382 cultural hearth

1383 cultural landscape

1384 cultural layer; cultural level

1385 cultural region; cultural area

1386 cultural tourism

1387 cultural vegetation

1388 culture

1389 culture contact

1390 culvert siphon

1391 cumuliform cloud

1392 cumulonimbus

1393 cumulus

1394 current; flow2

1395 cushion plant

1396 custom duty

1397 customs union

1398 cut-off

1399 cut-off meander

1400 cycle

1401 cycle of erosion

1402 cycle of matter

1403 cyclicity

1404 cyclogenesis

1405 cyclolysis

1406 cyclone; depression2

1407 cyclonic circulation

1408 cyclonic eddy; cyclonic vortex

1409 cylindrical projection

D

1410 daban

1411 dairy farming; dairy farm

1412 dale

1413 Dalmatian coast

1414 dam

1415 damage by grazing cattle; overbrowsing

1416 dambo

1417 dam-break; dam-failure

1418 dammed lake

1419 damming of glacier

1420 damp snow

1421 Daniglacial

1422 Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations

1423 darja

1424 dark coniferous forest

1425 dark soils

1426 Darwinism

1427 dasht

1428 dating

1429 datum level; datum line; datum plane

1430 dawn

1431 day

1432 daya

1433 daylight-saving time

1434 dead adj

1435 dead ice; stagnant ice

1436 dead storage o

1437 dead swell

1438 dead water

1439 dead wood; dead fall; wood debris

1440 dealkalization of soil

1441 debacle

1442 debris avalanche; debris flow

1443 debris cone; sand cone; dirt cone

1444 debris cover of a glacier

1445 debris fall

1446 decalcification

1447 decarbonation

1448 decentralization; deconcentration

1449 deciduous adj

1450 deciduous forest; leaf-bearing forest

1451 declination of a celestial body; elevation of a celestial body

1452 décollement

1453 decolonization

1454 decomposer

1455 decomposition

1456 decree time; legal time

1457 deep

1458 deep; ocean trench

1459 deep drilling

1460 deep fault

1461 deep karst

1462 deep ocean

1463 deep weathering

1464 deepening of cyclone; deepening

1465 deep-freezing; flash-freezing

1466 deep-sea benthos

1467 deep-water animals

1468 deer-husbandry

1469 deficiency of rainfall; deficient humidity; lack of moisture; insufficient moistering

1470 deflation; aeolian abrasion

1471 deflation hollow

1472 deflation lake

1473 defluxion

1474 defoliant

1475 deforestation

1476 deformation

1477 deformational eustatism

1478 deglaciation; shrinking of glaciers; degradation of glaciers; deglacierization; glacial recession; recession of glaciers

1479 deglomeration

1480 degradation

1481 degradation of soil; soil structural decline; soil degradation; soil degradation

1482 degree

1483 degree of adaptability

1484 degree of glaciation

1485 dehumification

1486 dehydration

1487 deindustrialization

1488 delimitation

1489 delta

1490 delta arm

1491 delta coast

1492 delta head

1493 delta lake; deltaic lake

1494 delta-front

1495 deluvial train

1496 deluvium

1497 demand

1498 demarcation

1499 democracy

1500 demographic crisis; demographic decline

1501 demographic explosion

1502 demographic indicators

1503 demographic potential

1504 demographic transition

1505 demography

1506 denationalization; privatization

1507 dendritic drainage pattern

1508 dendrochronology

1509 dendroclimatology

1510 denitrification

1511 dense forest; closed forest

1512 dense phytocoenosis

1513 density

1514 density current

1515 density of rock

1516 denudation

1517 denudation landforms

1518 denudation plain; destructional plain

1519 denudation sheet; degradation sheet

1520 denudation slope

1521 depleted soil; degradated soil; poor soil; impoverished soil

1522 depletion of natural resources; natural resources depletion

1523 depletion of natural waters

1524 depletion of soil; impoverishment of a soil; soil depletion; overcropping

1525 depletion of the ozone layer

1526 depopulation

1527 deposit; sediment

1528 deposited and metamorphosed ice

1529 deposited moraine

1530 deposition; sedimentation

1531 depression

1532 depressive region; depressed area; blighted area

1533 depth hoar; sugar hoar

1534 depth of friction

1535 depth of measurement

1536 depth of runoff; water equivalent

1537 depth of snow; snow depth; snow thickness

1538 deranged drainage

1539 derelict land

1540 derivation channel

1541 derivation system

1542 derived map

1543 desalinization of ice

1544 desalinization of soil

1545 desalinization of water

1546 descending spring

1547 desert

1548 desert crust

1549 desert fauna

1550 desert pavement; desert mosaic

1551 desert soils

1552 desert varnish

1553 desert zone

1554 desertification; desiccation

1555 desiccation crack; shrinkage crack

1556 desilication

1557 desintegration

1558 destratification

1559 destruction of ice

1560 destructive wave

1561 detrital rock; clastic rock

1562 detritophage; detritivore; detritus feeder

1563 detritus; debris

1564 deurbanisation; disurbanisation; counter-urbanisation

1565 developed country

1566 developing country

1567 development of territory

1568 deviation

1569 deviation of plumb line

1570 devolution

1571 Devonian

1572 dew

1573 dew point

1574 dew point depression; dew-point deficit

1575 diabatic adj; non-adiabatic adj

1576 diabatic process; non-adiabatic process

1577 diagenesis

1578 diagenesis of snow cover

1579 diagnostic horizon

1580 diagonal lamination

1581 diagonal scale

1582 diagonal valley

1583 diagram

1584 diagram map

1585 diamond dust; powedery snow; adamantine braize

1586 diaphtoresis of snow cover

1587 diapir

1588 diaspora

1589 diastrophism

1590 diatom

1591 dichothermy

1592 difference of glacierization

1593 differential ablation

1594 differential erosion

1595 differential rent

1596 differential weathering

1597 diffluence of glacier; glacial diffluence

1598 diffraction of a wave; wave diffraction

1599 diffuse front

1600 diffuse solar radiation; sky radiation

1601 diffusion of innovations; diffusion

1602 digital cartography; digital mapping

1603 digital elevation model

1604 digital map; electronic map

1605 dike; dyke

1606 dilution of natural waters

1607 diluvium

1608 dimictic lake

1609 dingja

1610 dip; true dip

1611 direct solar radiation

1612 direct-current water supply

1613 dirt ice bands

1614 disappearing stream; influent stream

1615 disastrous flood

1616 discharge basin

1617 discharge current; hydraulic current

1618 discharge fluctuations

1619 discharge of spring

1620 discharge rating curve

1621 dischargeof a stream

1622 disclimax; plagioclimax

1623 discontinuous area; disjunctive area

1624 discontinuous permafrost

1625 discordance; discordant bedding; unconformity; disconformity

1626 discordance surface

1627 discordant adj

1628 discordant coast; transverse coast

1629 disgarmonic folding

1630 disjunction of areas

1631 dislocated bed stratum

1632 dislocated moraine; contorted till; disturbation till

1633 dislocation

1634 dispatched production

1635 dispersed ground

1636 dispersed settlement

1637 dissected plain

1638 dissected volcano

1639 dissection; dissection of relief

1640 dissipation of wave energy

1641 dissolved load

1642 distal adj

1643 distance distortion

1644 distance of snow transport

1645 distortion isogram

1646 distortion of map projection; cartographic alteration; cartographic distortion

1647 distributary1

1648 district1; urban district

1649 distrophic lake

1650 diurnal adj

1651 diurnal range; diurnal variation

1652 diurnal tide

1653 divagating lake

1654 divagating meander

1655 divergence

1656 diverging terraces

1657 diversification

1658 diversification index

1659 diversified economy

1660 divided circle diagram; pie graph; wheelgraph; pie diagram

1661 division of labour

1662 division of water; water parting

1663 dock

1664 dockland

1665 doldrums; equatorial calms

1666 doline

1667 dolomite

1668 dome

1669 dome-shaped iceberg; rounded iceberg

1670 domestic adj

1671 domestic animal

1672 domestic sewage

1673 domestic tourism

1674 domestic waste; household waste

1675 dominant species; dominant

1676 dominion

1677 dormant volcano

1678 dormitory village; residential district; residential area; commuter village

1679 dot method

1680 double coast line

1681 double tide

1682 downcutting

1683 downdraught

1684 downland

1685 downscaling

1686 downstream adv, adj

1687 downwelling; sinking

1688 drain1

1689 drainage

1690 drainage area; catchment; drainage basin; watershed (amer); catchment area

1691 drainage lake

1692 drainage network

1693 drainage network density; drainage density

1694 drainage of confined waters

1695 drainage of glacier

1696 drainage pattern

1697 drainage rate

1698 drainage runoff

1699 drainage system

1700 drainage water

1701 draining spot; drying area

1702 drawdown; drawdown of a water table

1703 dredger

1704 dredging

1705 dried ice

1706 drift

1707 drift current; wind drift; wind-driven current; drift3

1708 drift theory

1709 drifted snow

1710 drifting station; drifting ice station

1711 driftwood

1712 drilling; boring

1713 drilling hole; borehole; drill hole; well2

1714 drinking water

1715 drip

1716 drizzle

1717 dropstone

1718 drought

1719 drought index

1720 drought resistance

1721 drowned valley

1722 drumlin

1723 drunken forest

1724 druse

1725 dry adiabatic process

1726 dry adiabatic lapse rate

1727 dry adj; arid adj

1728 dry channel

1729 dry deposition

1730 dry farming

1731 dry flat-floor valley

1732 dry ice

1733 dry meadow

1734 dry season

1735 dry snow

1736 dry snow zone; recrystallization zone

1737 dry valley

1738 dry wind; sukhovey

1739 Dryas

1740 drying up of rivers

1741 dual economy; economic dualism

1742 dump; waste site; dumping ground

1743 dumped moraine; moraine line

1744 dumping

1745 dune; sand dune

1746 dune lake

1747 dune ridges

1748 dune slack

1749 duopoly

1750 durable goods; durables

1751 duration of flood tide

1752 duricrust

1753 durisol

1754 dust

1755 dust avalanche

1756 dust storm; sand storm

1757 duty

1758 dwarf plant; dwarfish formation

1759 dynamic axis of stream

1760 dynamic climatology

1761 dynamic equilibrium

1762 dynamic geomorphology

1763 dynamic meteorology

1764 dynamical topography of sea surface

1765 dynamometamorphism

E

1766 Earth

1767 Earth ellipsoid; ellipsoid of reference

1768 earth pillar; demoiselle; pedestral rock; pedestral

1769 earth road; earthen highway; unpaved road; country road; dirt road

1770 Earth sciences; geosciences

1771 earth tremor; jolt

1772 Earth’s corona

1773 Earth’s crust; crust of the Earth

1774 earthflow; earthslide

1775 earthquake; temblor (amer)

1776 earthworm cast; coprolite

1777 easement

1778 east

1779 east adj; oriental adj; eastern adj

1780 east wind transport; easterlies

1781 easting

1782 ebb; ebb tide; low tide

1783 ebb and flow

1784 ebbing current; ebb current

1785 eccentricity of orbit

1786 ecesis

1787 echelon section

1788 echo-sounder; fathometer; sonic depth finger; sonar

1789 ecistics

1790 eclipse

1791 ecliptic

1792 ecocide

1793 ecogenesis

1794 ecological alarmism

1795 ecological certificate

1796 ecological crisis

1797 ecological disaster; ecological catastrophe

1798 ecological diseases; diseases of civilization

1799 ecological economics; environmental economics

1800 ecological education

1801 ecological foundation

1802 ecological movement; conservation movement; green movement; conservationism

1803 ecological niche; niche2

1804 ecological optimism

1805 ecological optimum

1806 ecological pessimism

1807 ecological realism

1808 ecological refugees; eco-refugees

1809 ecological regulation

1810 ecological risk; environmental risk

1811 ecological risk assessment

1812 ecological safety

1813 ecological series

1814 ecological tension

1815 ecology

1816 ecolologically friendly technology; wholesome production; clean production

1817 economic adj

1818 economic aid

1819 economic crisis

1820 economic development

1821 economic distance

1822 economic efficiency

1823 economic geography

1824 economic growth

1825 economic integration

1826 economic mechanism

1827 economic methods of management; mechanism of economic management

1828 economic potential

1829 economic region

1830 economic regionalization

1831 economic sector; sector of economy

1832 economic stagnation

1833 economics

1834 economy

1835 economy of scale

1836 ecopolis

1837 ecosphere

1838 ecosystem; biogeocoenosis; ecological system

1839 ecotone

1840 ecotopology

1841 ecotourism; ecological tourism

1842 edaphic; pedogenic adj

1843 edaphic climax

1844 edaphology

1845 edaphon

1846 eddy coefficients; exchange coefficients

1847 eddy formation

1848 eddy structure

1849 edge city

1850 edge of water; water edge

1851 edificator; characteristic species

1852 edoma

1853 effective capacity of water reservoir

1854 effective fertility

1855 effective precipitation

1856 effective radiation

1857 effective temperature

1858 efflorescence

1859 effluent1

1860 effluent standard; emission standard

1861 efforation

1862 effusion

1863 effusive rock

1864 Ekman spiral; depth of frictional influence

1865 El Niño; southern oscillation

1866 elan’

1867 electoral geography

1868 electrical industry

1869 electronic atlas

1870 electronics industry

1871 elevated reef

1872 elevation

1873 elfin woodland; elfinwood; kampzone; gnarled forest

1874 ellipse of distorsion; Tissot’s indicatrix

1875 eluvial horizon; A-horizon

1876 eluvium; eluvial deposits

1877 embankment

1878 embargo

1879 embayed coast

1880 emergent shoreline; coast of emergence

1881 emigrant

1882 emigration

1883 emission

1884 emission quotas

1885 emission rate

1886 emission source

1887 emission standard

1888 empire

1889 employment rate; employment level

1890 empoldering

1891 enclave

1892 enclosed landscape

1893 enclosed sea; continental sea

1894 enclosure

1895 endangered species; threatement species; species at risk of extinction

1896 endemic adj

1897 endemic disease; endemic

1898 endemism

1899 endodynamic succession

1900 endogenic adj

1901 endorheic adj; endoreic adj

1902 endorreic drainage; aretic drainage

1903 energy balance; fuel-energy balance

1904 energy consumption per unit; power consumption per unit

1905 energy crisis

1906 energy cycle; cycle of energy; energy flow

1907 energy of relief

1908 energy resources; fuel-and-energy resources

1909 energy savings

1910 englacial ablation

1911 englacial adj

1912 englacial lake; glacier lake

1913 englacial mass-and-energy exchange

1914 englacial moraine; englacial debris

1915 englacial water

1916 enterprise; firm

1917 entisol

1918 entomochorous plant

1919 environment; natural environment

1920 environmental adj; ecological adj

1921 environmental balance; ecological balance; balance of nature

1922 environmental crime

1923 environmental damage

1924 environmental degradation; environmental deterioration

1925 environmental emergency; ecological emergency

1926 environmental engineering

1927 environmental ethics

1928 environmental examination; environmental impact assessment

1929 environmental forecast

1930 environmental geomorphology

1931 environmental hazard; environmental risk

1932 environmental impact; environmental load; environmental pressure; anthropogenic impact

1933 environmental investments; ecological charges

1934 environmental legislation; ecological law

1935 environmental management; rational environmental management

1936 environmental monitoring

1937 environmental policy; green politics

1938 environmental services

1939 environmental studies

1940 environmental tax

1941 environmetalism

1942 environs

1943 Eocene

1944 eolian deposits

1945 eolian erosion

1946 eolian landforms

1947 Eon; Aeon

1948 epeirogenic movements; epeirogenesis

1949 ephemer; ephemeroid

1950 ephemeral adj

1951 ephemeral lake

1952 ephemeris

1953 epicentre

1954 epicontinental sea; epeiric sea

1955 epidemic

1956 epigenesis; epigenetic process

1957 epigenetic ice

1958 epigenetic ice wedge

1959 epigenetic valley

1960 epilimnion

1961 epiphyte; epiphyllous plant

1962 epiplatformian mountains

1963 equator

1964 equatorial adj

1965 equatorial air

1966 equatorial climate

1967 equatorial current; trade-wind current

1968 equatorial forest; equatorial rain-forest; selva

1969 equatorial forest zone

1970 equatorial trough; equatorial front

1971 equatorial undercurrent; equatorial countercurrent

1972 equatorial westerlies zone; equatorial west-wind zone

1973 equatorial zone; equatorial belt

1974 equidistant projection

1975 equilibrium line

1976 equilibrium models

1977 equilibrium of landscape; landscape stability

1978 equilibrium prices

1979 equilibrium profile of river

1980 equinoctial rains

1981 equinox

1982 equiplain

1983 equiplanation

1984 equipment of map; map elements

1985 equiscalar surfaces

1986 equivalent projection; equal-area projection; equiareal projection

1987 era

1988 erg

1989 erik

1990 erosion

1991 erosion landforms

1992 erosion mountains

1993 erosion of sea floor

1994 erratic adj

1995 erratic boulder

1996 erratic mass; detached mass; outlier

1997 eruption centre

1998 esker

1999 espinal

2000 estate; hacienda; estancia; manor

2001 estavelle

2002 estuarian adj

2003 estuarian circulation

2004 estuary

2005 etesian wind

2006 ethnic adj

2007 ethnic geography

2008 ethnic group

2009 ethnic minority; minority ethnic group

2010 ethnicity

2011 ethnocentric adj

2012 ethnocentrism

2013 ethnocultural diversity

2014 ethnogenesis

2015 ethnography; ethnology

2016 eurybathic animal

2017 euryhaline animal

2018 euryhygrobiont

2019 euryoxybiont

2020 euryphagous animal

2021 eurythermobiont

2022 eustasy; eustatism; eustatic oscillations

2023 eutrofication

2024 eutrophic adj

2025 eutrophic lake

2026 eutrophic plant; megatrophic plant

2027 evaporation; evaporation of water

2028 evaporation of ice

2029 evaporative capacity; potential evaporation

2030 evaporite

2031 evapotranspiration

2033 evasion of gases

2034 everglade

2035 evergreen plant; evergreen

2036 evolution

2037 evolutionary geography

2038 evorsion

2039 exaration

2040 excavated waste rock; Haldenbaden m; mining waste

2041 excess ice

2042 excessive humidity

2043 exchange capacity of soil

2044 exclusive economic zone

2045 excursion

2046 exfoliation; onion-skin weathering

2047 exfoliation; onion-weathering; desquamation

2048 exhumation of relief

2049 exhumed relief

2050 exodynamic succession

2051 exogenetic adj; exogenic adj

2052 exoreic drainage; external drainage

2053 exosphere

2054 exotic species; introduced species; alien; invasive species

2055 expanded foot glacier; wall-sided glacier

2056 expatriate

2057 expatriation

2058 explerent

2059 exploitation

2060 explosive eruption; volcanic explosion

2061 export

2062 export duty

2063 export economy

2064 export of capital

2065 export quota

2066 exposure; slope exposure; aspect2

2067 extension of drainage network

2068 extensive agriculture; extensive farming

2069 extensive economy

2070 external costs; externalities

2071 external perspective projection

2072 external water circulation

2073 extinct volcano

2074 extinction of species

2075 extractive agriculture

2076 extralayer plants

2077 extratropical cyclone; extratropical depression

2078 extratropical monsoon

2079 extrazonal vegetation; extrazonal landscape

2080 extreme continental climate

2081 extreme tourism; adventure tourism

2082 extrusion

2083 extrusive rock

2084 eye of a tropical cyclone; storm eye

F

2085 facet of fall

2086 facies

2087 factor; agent

2088 factory; plant

2089 Fahrenheit temperature scale

2090 fairway; channel

2091 fall1

2092 fall velocity; sinking velocity

2093 fall wind

2094 fall-line; fall zone

2095 fallout; radioactive fallout

2096 fallow; ley; bare fallow; lea

2097 fallow land

2098 false colour composite; false color image

2099 false terrace

2100 false-bedding; cross-bedding

2101 fan of wandering

2102 farewell rock; zeugen; butte; mushroom rock

2103 farm; homestead

2104 farmstead

2105 fast ice; ice foot; landfast ice

2106 fata morgana

2107 fathogram

2108 fault

2109 fault block

2110 fault breccia

2111 fault plane

2112 fault scarp; scarp

2113 fault zones

2114 fauna

2115 faunal realm

2116 faunal region

2117 faunistic complex

2118 federal adj

2119 federal district

2120 federal tax

2121 federalism

2122 federation; federal state

2123 feeding ground; sea pastureland

2124 felling area; cutting area

2125 fen; eutrophic fen

2126 feral adj

2127 ferralitization

2128 ferrallitic soil; latosol

2129 ferralsol

2130 ferrolysis

2131 ferruginous crust; laterite

2132 ferruginous soil

2133 ferry

2134 fersiallitic soil

2135 fertilization

2136 fertilizer

2137 fertilizing soil with clay; marling

2138 fetch; length of wave run-out

2139 fibric layer

2140 field inspection of aerial photograph

2141 field sketching

2142 fill

2143 filling in of a lake; plantgrowing of waterbody; vegetation infill of a lake

2144 filling of cyclone; filling; filling of depression

2145 filling up of a water body

2146 film water; pellicular water

2147 filtration fields; filtration beds

2148 financial resources

2149 fine material; fine-grained sediment

2150 fine-grained adj; small-grained adj

2151 finger lake; trough lake

2152 Finiglacial

2153 finished product; end-product

2154 firn; nevé

2155 firn field; firn basin

2156 firn line

2157 firnification

2158 first-year ice; white sea ice; one-year ice

2159 fish farm

2160 fishing; fishery

2161 fissure; joint; fracture

2162 fissure eruption; linear eruption

2163 fissure volcano

2164 fissuring; fracturing

2165 fiumare

2166 fixation

2167 fixation of sands

2168 fixism

2169 fjard; fiard

2170 fjel; fill

2171 fjord

2172 flank moraine; side moraine

2173 flash-flood

2174 flat bank

2175 flat interfluve

2176 flattering of the flood wave

2177 flat-top glacier

2178 flexure

2179 flint

2180 floatable river; floatable way

2181 floating; rafting3

2182 floating bog; floating mat

2183 floating glacier tongue; floating glacier

2184 floating ice; drifting ice; drift-ice

2185 floating ice studies

2186 floating snow

2187 flocculation

2188 flock

2189 floe; ice-cake; ice-pan; ice-floe

2190 floeberg

2191 flood; high water; spate

2192 flood control

2193 flood flow

2194 flood wave

2195 flood zone; inundation zone

2196 flood-control storage capacity

2197 floodplain

2198 floodplain deposits

2199 floodplain meadow; water meadow

2200 floodplane alluvium; overbank deposits

2201 floodplane island

2202 flora

2203 floriculture

2204 floristic element

2205 floristic kingdom; floristic realm

2206 floristic province

2207 flotation

2208 flow1

2209 flow loss

2210 flowing avalanche

2211 fluctuation of glacier; glacier fluctuations

2212 fluctuations of climate; climatic fluctuations

2213 fluidity of ice

2214 fluidization

2215 flume; conducting channel; conduit

2216 flush

2217 flushed soil

2218 fluting-moraine; fluted moraine

2219 fluvial adj; riverine adj; fluviatile adj

2220 fluvial hydraulics

2221 fluvial landform

2222 fluvial terrace above floodplain

2223 fluvioglacial adj; glaciofluvial adj

2224 fluvisol

2225 flysch

2226 foam ice

2227 fodder; forage

2228 fodder field

2229 foehn; föhn

2230 fog

2231 fogbow; white rainbow

2232 fold

2233 fold mountains

2234 fold system

2235 fold-block mountains

2236 folding

2237 folding zone

2238 foliage

2239 foliation

2240 folk ecology; popular ecology

2241 food chain; trophic chain; food web

2242 food industry; food and biverage industry; food processing industry

2243 food security

2244 foot of slope

2245 foothills

2246 footloose industry; footloose activity

2247 forb steppe

2248 forb-meadow steppe

2249 forced convection

2250 forced migrants

2251 ford

2252 Fordism

2253 forecast

2254 forecast map

2256 foredune; coastal dune

2257 foreign economic connections; foreign economic relations

2258 foreign trade balance; foreign trade turnover

2259 foreland

2260 forerange

2261 foreshock

2262 foreshore; offshore2

2263 forest; wood

2264 forest assessment; forest inventory; forest valuation

2265 forest cadastre

2266 forest cover

2267 forest damaged by snow

2268 forest edge

2269 forest fauna

2270 forest improvement; forest reclamation

2271 forest management; forest use

2272 forest resources

2273 forestal adj

2274 forested lowland

2275 forest-industrial complex; timber-industry complex

2276 forestry

2277 forest-steppe; forest-steppe zone

2278 forest-tundra; forest-tundra zone

2279 fossil

2280 fossil fuel

2281 foul air

2282 foundering

2283 fracture; rupture

2284 fracture line of an avalanche

2285 fractus

2286 fragipan

2287 fragmentation of a farm

2288 framework of settlement pattern

2289 frazil ice; frazil

2290 free atmosphere

2291 free economic zone; free zone

2292 free port; free city

2293 free solifluction

2294 free trade

2295 free trade area; free trade zone

2296 freeze-free period

2297 freeze-thaw cycle

2298 freeze-up

2299 freezing; congelation

2300 freezing crust

2301 freezing drizzle; freezing rain

2302 freezing front

2303 freezing nucleus

2304 freezing point

2305 freezing through of river

2306 freezing-out; upfreezing

2307 freight

2308 freight rates

2309 fresh ice; fresh-water ice

2310 fresh water

2311 freshwater adj; limnic adj; limnetic adj

2312 freshwater environment

2313 freshwater lake

2314 fringing reef; biogenic reef

2315 front; frontal zone; frontal surface

2316 front of growing activity

2317 front of snow melting

2318 frontal

2319 frontal cloud system

2320 frontal fog

2321 frontal moraine

2322 frontal precipitation; cyclonic precipitation; frontal rainfall; cyclonic rain

2323 frontal thunderstorm

2324 frontal wave; cyclonic wave

2325 frontogenesis

2326 frontolysis

2327 frost; air frost

2328 frost danger of the ground

2329 frost fissure; frost crack

2330 frost flowers; window frost2

2331 frost fracturing

2332 frost jacking; upfreezing

2333 frost line; frost boundary

2334 frost pocket; frost hollow

2335 frost resistance; frost stability

2336 frost resistant ground

2337 frost smoke; arctic smoke

2338 frost sorting

2339 frost weathering; frost shattering; gelivation; congelifraction; freeze-thaw action

2340 frost wedging

2341 frozen ground

2342 frozen snow crust; wind slab snow

2343 frozen waterfall

2344 full Moon

2345 full-time employment

2346 fully mature shoreline

2347 fumarole

2348 funicular

2349 funnel cloud; tornado cloud

2350 fur farm

2351 fur-farming

2352 furrow

G

2353 gafe

2354 galaxy

2355 gallery forest; fringing forest; galeria forest; forest gallery

2356 game reserve

2357 gap

2358 gara

2359 garden city

2360 garigue

2361 garúa

2362 gas; natural gas

2363 gas hydrate

2364 gas-pipeline

2365 gästarbeiter; guest worker

2366 gat; ship canal

2367 gate

2368 gated community; exclusionary enclave

2369 gateway city

2370 gathering

2371 Gauss-Krüger coordinates

2372 gazetteer

2373 geest

2374 gelifluction

2375 gendarme

2376 gender

2377 gender geography

2378 gene pool

2379 general cargo

2380 general geography

2381 general geomorphology

2382 general hydrology

2383 generation of waves

2384 genocide; ethnic cleansing

2385 gentle slope

2386 gently rolling plain; rolling plain

2387 gentrification

2388 geoarcheology

2389 geocentric adj

2390 geochemical barrier

2391 geochemical endemia

2392 geochemical landscape

2393 geochemistry

2394 geochron

2395 geochronology; geological timescale

2396 geocoding

2397 geocratic period

2398 geodesy

2399 geodetic base line

2400 geodetic control

2401 geodetic coordinates

2402 geodetic distance; geodetic line; geodesic line

2403 geodetic framework of astronomical points

2404 geodetic intersection

2405 geodetic network; geodetic net; geodetic framework

2406 geodetic point; geodesic control point; fixed point

2407 geodetic satellite

2408 geoecology; ecogeography

2409 geoeconomics

2410 geographic coordinates

2411 geographic position; geographical location; geographical situation; geographic situation

2412 geographic space

2413 geographical adj; geographic adj

2414 geographical belt

2415 geographical boundary

2416 geographical description

2417 geographical determinism

2418 geographical feature; geographical object; geographic object

2419 geographical inertia

2420 geographical landscape; landscape

2421 geographical modelling

2422 geographical pathology

2423 geographical possibilism; possibilism

2424 geographical prognosis; geographical prognostication

2425 geographical subzone

2426 geographical zone

2427 geography

2428 geography of agriculture; agricultural

2429 geography of religion

2430 geography of tourism and leisure; recreation geography

2431 geography of trade

2432 geography of world economy

2433 geoiconics

2434 geoid

2435 geoinformatics

2436 geoinformation system; geographic information system; GIS

2437 geoinformational adj

2438 geoinformational mapping

2439 geological age

2440 geological inversion

2441 geological record

2442 geological section

2443 geological time

2444 geology

2445 geomorphic levels

2446 geomorphological adj; geomorphic adj

2447 geomorphological profile

2448 geomorphological survey

2449 geomorphology

2450 geophil

2451 geophysical satellite

2452 geophysics

2453 geophyte

2454 geopolitics

2455 geopotential

2456 geopotential altitude; geopotential height

2457 georepresentation; graphic image

2458 geospheres

2459 geostationary satellite

2460 geostrategy

2461 geostrophic current

2462 geostrophic wind; geostrophic flow

2463 geosyncline

2464 geosystem

2465 geotechnical system

2466 geothermal energy; geothermal heat

2467 geothermal gradient

2468 geothermal power station

2469 geothermal resources

2470 geothermic step

2471 geyser

2472 ghetto

2473 ghost town

2474 giant’s pavement

2475 gilgaï; gilgai soil; melonhole

2476 GIS technologies

2477 GIS-based analysis

2478 GIS-data

2479 glacial abrasion

2480 glacial accumulation

2481 glacial adj

2482 glacial anticyclone

2483 glacial cycle

2484 glacial denudation

2485 glacial deposit

2486 glacial divergence; glacial diversion

2487 glacial dynamics

2488 glacial erosion; plucking

2489 glacial flood; glacial outburst

2490 glacial lake

2491 glacial maximum

2492 glacial mudflow

2493 glacial outburst; outburst of glacial lake; bursting of a lake

2494 glacial polish

2495 glacial relief; glacial landforms

2496 glacial scar; glacial stria; chatter mark; glacial scratch

2497 glacial spillway; overflow channel

2498 glacial stage

2499 glacial stairway

2500 glacial stream

2501 glaciation

2502 glaciation boundary

2503 glaciation limit; glaciation level

2504 glacier

2505 glacier advance; advance of glacier

2506 glacier alimentation; glacier nourishment

2507 glacier basin

2508 glacier bed

2509 glacier breeze; glacier wind

2510 glacier catchment

2511 glacier coefficient

2512 glacier complex

2513 glacier desert

2514 glacier flow; movement of glacier

2515 glacier fountain

2516 glacier front; glacier snout; glacier terminus

2517 glacier funnel

2518 glacier grotto; glacier gate

2519 glacier hollow; cryoconite hole

2520 glacier ice

2521 glacier karst

2522 glacier knot

2523 glacier lobe

2524 glacier margin; ice edge2; ice margin

2525 glacier mass balance; glacier mass budget

2526 glacier milk

2527 glacier mill; glacier well; moulin

2528 glacier regime

2529 glacier retreat; glacial recession; retreat of a glacier

2530 glacier runoff

2531 glacier stability

2532 glacier studies

2533 glacier surge; surge

2534 glacier swamp

2535 glacier system

2536 glacier table

2537 glacier theory; glacialism

2538 glacier tongue

2539 glacier trunk

2540 glacierization

2541 glaciers of barrancos

2542 glacioclimatology; glaciometeorology

2543 glaciodislocation

2544 glacio-eustasy; glacio-eustatism

2545 glacio-eustatic curve

2546 glaciofluvial landforms; glacifluvial relief

2547 glaciofluvial sediments; outwash sands and gravels; fluvio-glacial deposits

2548 glaciofluvial terrace

2549 glaciohydrology; glacier hydrology

2550 glacio-isostasy; glacioisostatic movement

2551 glaciokarst

2552 glaciolacustrine sediments

2553 glaciology

2554 glacio-marine deposits; iceberg deposits

2555 glacio-nival system

2556 glaciosphere

2557 glaciotectonics

2558 glade

2559 gley formation; gleization; gleying; gleyification

2560 gley horizon

2561 gley soils; gleysol; glei soils

2562 gley-podzolic soil; epigleyic podzol

2563 glimmer ice

2564 glint

2565 global change

2566 global ocean conveyor belt

2567 global pollution; global contamination

2568 global positioning system; GPS

2569 global solar radiation

2570 global temperature

2571 global warming

2572 globalization

2573 globe

2574 globigerine silt

2575 globular projection

2576 glory

2577 glowing avalanche

2578 gnomonic projection

2579 goat-husbandry

2580 gold-field

2581 goletz

2582 goletz relief

2583 Gondwanaland; Gondwana

2584 gorge; canyon

2585 Götiglacial stage; Götiglacial

2586 graben

2587 graded bedding; graded sediments

2588 graded river; graded stream

2589 graded shore

2590 gradient

2591 gradient observations

2592 gradient wind

2593 gradualism

2594 graduation

2595 grain

2596 grain farm; grain growing

2597 grained snowflake

2598 gramineous grassland; gramineous steppe

2599 granite

2600 granitic layer

2601 granular disintegration

2602 granular ice

2603 granulometric composition

2604 graphic variables

2605 graphite

2606 grass savanna; savanna grassland

2607 grass swamp

2608 grassland; steppe zone; steppe

2609 graticule

2610 gravel

2611 gravimetry

2612 gravitation; gravity; gravitational force; gravitational pull

2613 gravitational model; gravity model

2614 gravity anomaly

2615 gravity processes

2616 gravity water; free water; gravitational water

2617 grease ice; ice fat; lard ice

2618 great circle

2619 Great Discoveries

2620 green belt

2621 green flash; green ray

2622 green manure

2623 Green Revolution

2624 «green» gross domestic product

2625 greenhouse effect

2626 greenhouse gases

2627 Greenpeace

2628 Greenwich mean time; GMT; Greenwich universal time

2629 gregarious animal

2630 Gregorian calendar

2631 grey brown soil

2632 grey-brown desert soil

2633 grey-brown podzol

2634 grey-forest soil

2635 grid; coordinate grid; reference grid

2636 grid bearing; grid bearing; grid azimuth

2637 grid sell

2638 groin; groyne

2639 gross domestic product; GDP

2640 gross income

2641 gross national product; GNP

2642 gross product

2643 gross regional product

2644 grotto

2645 ground

2646 ground avalanche; full depth avalanche

2647 ground freezing

2648 ground frost

2649 ground ice

2650 ground information

2651 ground inversion; surface inversion

2652 ground moraine; subglacial moraine

2653 ground rent

2654 ground subsidence

2655 ground swell

2656 ground vein

2657 ground water balance

2658 ground water lens

2659 grounded hummock; stranded hummock

2660 grounding line

2661 groundwater; ground water

2662 groundwater flow; subsurface flow

2663 groundwater stock

2664 grove; coppice

2665 growing delta

2666 growing season; vegetation season

2667 growler; bergy bits; iceblock

2668 growth area; growth pole; growth centre

2669 guano

2670 gulf

2671 gulley; gulch; ravine; gully

2672 gully erosion; gullying

2673 gullying; gully terrain; ridge-and-ravine terrain

2674 gust

2675 gust-and-glaze loading

2676 gustiness component

2677 Gutenberg Discontinuity

2678 guttation

2679 guyot

2680 gypsic horizon

2681 gypsisol

2682 gypsophyte

2683 gypsum

2684 gypsum crust

2685 gypsuming of soil

2686 gyre

2687 gyttja

H

2688 habitat; ecotope

2689 habitat loss; habitat reduction

2690 hachures

2691 hade

2692 Hadley cell

2693 haff

2694 hail

2695 hail damage

2696 halmyrolysis

2697 halo

2698 halocline

2699 halogenic soil

2700 halophile

2701 hammada; hamada

2702 handicrafts

2703 hanging glacier

2704 hanging valley

2705 hanging-up water

2706 haploidization

2707 harbour

2708 harbour oscillation; range action

2709 hard water

2710 hard-leaved forest; sclerophyllous forest

2711 hardness of rock

2712 hardpan

2713 hardsetting

2714 hardwood

2715 harmattan

2716 hay

2717 hayfield

2718 hazard of aufeis

2719 haze

2720 head percolation

2721 headward erosion

2722 headwaters; upper course; source area

2723 health resort

2724 health tourism

2725 heartland

2726 heat balance of the atmosphere

2727 heat balance of the Earth surface

2728 heat exchange in soil

2729 heat flow

2730 heat flux

2731 heat island

2732 heat lightning

2733 heat wave

2734 heath land; heather moor; heath

2735 heave of a fault

2736 heavy industry

2737 heavy soil; heavy land

2738 heavy water

2739 hedge

2740 Heinrich events

2741 heliogeophysics

2742 heliophobe

2743 heliophyte

2744 heliothermal water body

2745 helophyte

2746 hemihylaea

2747 hemisphere

2748 herb; grass; herbaceous plant

2749 herb layer

2750 herbaceous adj

2751 herbage; grass stand

2752 herbarium

2753 herbicide

2754 herbivore; herbivorous animal; plant-eating animal

2755 Hercynian folding; Hercynian orogeny; Variscian folding

2756 herd

2757 heterochronism

2758 heterosphere

2759 heterotrophic adj

2760 hibernation; dormancy

2761 high altitude sickness; mountain sickness

2762 high latitudes

2763 high mountain climate

2764 high mountains; high mountain relief

2765 high oblique aerial photograph

2766 high plain

2767 high technology; advanced technology

2768 high tide; rising tide; flood tide

2769 high water; high-water mark2

2770 high-altitude frontal zone

2771 high-level cloud; high cloud

2772 high-level waste

2773 high-technology industry; high-tech industry

2774 high-water mark1

2775 highway; motorway

2776 hill

2777 hill shading; illuminated relief

2778 hinge of fold

2779 hinterland

2780 histogram

2781 historical area; historical region

2782 historical geography

2783 historical geology

2784 history of geography

2785 histosol

2786 hoar; hoarfrost; hoar frost; white frost

2787 hobby farming

2788 Holarctic

2789 holding company

2790 holism

2791 hollow

2792 Holocene

2793 holokarst

2794 holomictic lake

2795 holorganic horizon

2796 homeostasis; selfregulation

2797 hominidae

2798 homogeneous atmosphere

2799 homogeneous series

2800 homoiothermic animal; homoiotherm

2801 homopause

2802 homosalinity

2803 homosphere

2804 homothermy

2805 honeycomb relief

2806 honeycomb rocks

2807 honeycomb snow

2808 honeycomb weathering

2809 horizon

2810 horizontal barometric gradient

2811 horizontal coordinates

2812 horizontal dissection of mountains

2813 horizontal equivalent

2814 horizontal lamination

2815 horizontal scale

2816 horizontal temperature gradient

2818 horn

2819 horn-peak

2820 horse latitudes

2821 horse-husbandry

2822 horseshoe glacier

2823 horst

2824 horticulture; truck farming (amer); gardening

2825 hot spring

2826 hum

2827 human activity; economic activity

2828 human development index

2829 human ecology

2830 human geography; socioeconomic geography

2831 human-induced hazard; man-made disaster

2832 humic acid

2833 humic horizon; humus horizon

2834 humid climate

2835 humid tropics; humid tropicality

2836 humidification

2837 humidity; air humidity

2838 humification

2839 hummock

2840 hummocked ice row; pressure ridge

2841 hummocky moraine

2842 hummocky terrain

2843 humus

2844 humus-accumulating soils; humic soils

2845 hunting

2846 hurricane

2847 hydatophyte

2848 hydration

2849 hydraulic adj

2850 hydraulic constructions; hydraulic works

2851 hydraulic force

2852 hydraulic gradient

2853 hydraulic head; head; piezometric head

2854 hydraulic jump

2855 hydraulic radius; hydraulic mean depth

2856 hydraulic structures

2857 hydraulics of glaciers

2858 hydrobiological adj

2859 hydrobiology

2860 hydrobiose; hydrobiont

2861 hydrocharite

2862 hydrochemical adj

2863 hydrochore

2864 hydrodynamic adj

2865 hydroelectric adj

2866 hydroelectric engineering; hydropower engineering

2867 hydroelectric potential

2868 hydroelectric power station; hydroelectric plant

2869 hydroelectric scheme; hydropower construction

2870 hydrogenic succession

2871 hydrogeological adj

2872 hydrogeology

2873 hydrograph

2874 hydrographic adj

2875 hydrographic name

2876 hydrographic network

2877 hydrography

2878 hydrolaccolith; frost blister

2879 hydrologic front

2880 hydrologic series

2881 hydrological adj; hydrologic adj

2882 hydrological cycle; water cycle

2883 hydrological regime; water regime

2884 hydrological season

2885 hydrological station; gauging station

2886 hydrological year

2887 hydrology

2888 hydrology of bogs

2889 hydrology of lakes

2890 hydrology of reservoirs

2891 hydrometeor

2892 hydrometric section; measuring section; discharge site; gauge line

2893 hydrometry

2894 hydromorphic

2895 hydromorphic podzolic soil

2896 hydromorphic soil; hydrogenic soil

2897 hydrophobe

2898 hydrophyte

2899 hydroponics

2900 hydrosphere

2901 hydrostatic pressure

2902 hydrothermal adj

2903 hydrothermal coefficient

2904 hydrothermal process

2905 hydrothermal vent

2906 hygrophile

2907 hygrophobe

2908 hygrophyte

2909 hygroscopic adj

2910 hygroscopic nuclei

2911 hygroscopic water; hygroscopic moisture

2912 hypermarket; superstore

2913 hyperspectral survey

2914 hyperthermal water

2915 hyperzonation

2916 hypolimnion

2917 hypsography; hypsographic tinting

2918 hypsometric curve

2919 hypsometric layer step

2920 hypsometric map

2921 hypsometric scale

I

2922 ice; natural ice

2923 ice adhesion

2924 ice age; glacial age; glacial epoch; glacial period

2925 ice apron

2926 ice avalanche; ice slide

2927 ice barrier; ice front

2928 ice belt; ice strip

2929 ice bight

2930 ice blink; ice sky

2931 ice bridge

2932 ice brittleness

2933 ice canopy

2934 ice cap; ice dome

2935 ice cascade

2936 ice catchment

2937 ice cave

2938 ice chart

2939 ice clearing; lead

2940 ice cloud

2941 ice cluster

2942 ice coast

2943 ice concrete

2944 ice cone

2945 ice content

2946 ice core

2947 ice cover

2948 ice coverage

2949 ice creep

2950 ice crust

2951 ice dam1

2952 ice dam2

2953 ice divide

2954 ice drift

2955 ice drifting

2956 ice druse

2957 ice edge1

2958 ice field

2959 ice fog; ice mist

2960 ice foot

2961 ice forecast

2962 ice formation

2963 ice heaving

2964 ice hillock

2965 ice hummocking

2966 ice island

2967 ice jam

2968 ice keel

2969 ice kernel

2970 ice lace

2971 ice lens

2972 ice mooring

2973 ice mound; frost mound; frost hillock

2974 ice mylonite

2975 ice needles

2976 ice nip

2977 ice outburst

2978 ice pellets; small hail

2979 ice pile; ice heap

2980 ice plug

2981 ice rafting

2982 ice ram

2983 ice rampart; lake rampart

2984 ice reconnaissance

2985 ice regime

2986 ice related community

2987 ice remnant

2988 ice reservoir

2989 ice rind

2990 ice rise

2991 ice rock

2992 ice season

2993 ice segregation

2994 ice sheet

2995 ice shelf

2996 ice situation; ice conditions

2997 ice soil; ice ground

2998 ice stalactite

2999 ice stalagmite

3000 ice stalagnate

3001 ice stream

3002 ice survey

3003 ice tongue

3004 ice trafficability

3005 ice vein; ice wedge

3006 ice viscosity

3007 ice wall

3008 ice with voids

3009 ice-bearing ground; ice-bounded ground

3010 iceberg

3011 ice-breaker

3012 ice-cap island

3013 ice-cored moraine

3014 ice-dammed lake

3015 icefall

3016 ice-field

3017 ice-formation zone; ice facies

3018 iceport

3019 ice-quake

3020 ice-survey station

3021 ice-technology

3022 icicle

3023 icing

3024 icy adj

3025 idiomorphism of ice

3026 idle water spill

3027 igapo

3028 igneous rock

3029 illuvial horizon; B-horizon; argillic horizon

3030 illuviation

3031 ilmen

3032 image enhancement

3033 image interpretation; interpretation of aerial photographs

3034 immature soil

3035 immigrant

3036 immigration

3037 impacted area; impact zone

3038 impeded drainage

3039 impeded solifluction

3040 imperialism

3041 impermeable adj

3042 impermeable rock; impervious rock

3043 import

3044 import duty

3045 import quota

3046 import substitution

3047 improved soil

3048 improvement of soil; soil improvement

3049 improvement of soil by snow

3050 inbound tourism

3051 inceptisol

3052 incised meander; confined meander; ingrown meander; infrenched meander

3053 incised valley

3054 inclination; gradient2; slope angle

3055 inclined plain

3056 inconsequent drainage

3057 Indian summer; St. Martin summer; Old Wive’s summer

3058 indicator plant; indicator species; plant indicator

3059 indigenous adj

3060 induration

3061 industrial centre

3062 industrial city

3063 industrial clouds; plumes

3064 industrial crop

3065 industrial district; industrial estate

3066 industrial effluent; industrial sewage

3067 industrial geography; geography of industry

3068 industrial map

3069 industrial park

3070 industrial pollution

3071 industrial port complex

3072 industrial region

3073 industrial revolution

3074 industrial society

3075 industrialization

3076 industrialized country

3077 industry

3078 industry of construction materials; construction materials industry

3079 inertial current

3080 infanticide

3081 infauna

3082 infield-outfield farming

3083 infiltration

3084 infiltration and recrystallization ice

3085 infiltration ice

3086 infiltration rate; infiltration capacity

3087 inflow of ice

3088 influx

3089 information flow

3090 infrared photography

3091 infrared radiation

3092 infrared thermography; infrared sensing; thermal sensing

3093 infrastructure

3094 ingression

3095 ingression coast

3096 ingression sea

3097 ingression strait

3098 initial landform; inherited features

3099 initial plain

3100 inland ice; continental glacier; land ice-sheet

3101 inland sea

3102 inlet

3103 inner city

3104 inner core

3105 Inner Crescent

3106 inner margin

3107 innovation

3108 input

3109 input-output model balance; interindustry balance

3110 inselberg; bornhardt

3111 insequent valley

3112 insert

3113 inset terrace

3114 in-shore station

3115 insolation

3116 insolation avalanche

3117 insolation duration; sunshine duration

3118 insolation weathering; thermal expansion; thermoclasty

3119 instable humidity

3120 instantaneous water level

3121 instructional map

3122 instrument-making industry

3123 insular adj

3124 insular climate

3125 integral resources

3126 integrated plant

3127 integration of landscapes

3128 intensification of production

3129 intensity of earthquake

3130 intensity of rainfall; rainfall intensity

3131 intensive agriculture; intensive farming

3132 intensive economy

3133 interactive mapping

3134 interbedded adj

3135 interbedded layer

3136 interception; interception of precipitation

3137 intercontinental tourism

3138 inter-diurnal variation

3139 interfluve

3140 interglacial

3141 interglacial adj

3142 interior waters

3143 inter-island sea

3144 interland sea; mediterranean sea

3145 intermediate contour

3146 intermediate product

3147 intermittent saturation zone

3148 intermittent spring

3149 intermittent stream; ephemeral stream

3150 intermodal transportation

3151 intermontane adj

3152 intermontane trough

3153 inter-monthly variation

3154 internal accumulation of glacier

3155 internal migration

3156 internal trade; domestic trade; home trade

3157 internal water circulation

3158 internal waves; boundary waves

3159 international date line

3160 international division of labour

3161 international monopoly

3162 international tourism

3163 international trade; overseas trade; external trade; foreign trade

3164 International Trusteeship

3165 internationalization of production

3166 internet-GIS

3167 interregional balance

3168 interrupted stream; discontinuous stream

3169 interstadial

3170 interstitial ice

3171 intertropical convergence zone

3172 intrapermafrost water

3173 intraregional tourism

3174 intrasecular fluctuations of climate

3175 intrasoil weathering

3176 intrazonal adj

3177 intrazonal soils

3178 introduction of species

3179 intrusion

3180 intrusive ice

3181 intrusive rock; plutonic rock

3182 inundation; spate; flood

3183 invasion

3184 invasion of air

3185 invasion of gases

3186 inverse moraine cone

3187 inversion layer

3188 inversion of precipitation

3189 inversion of temperature; temperature inversion

3190 inverted relief; inversion of relief

3191 investment

3192 investment climate

3193 invisible export

3194 invisible import

3195 involution

3196 ionization of atmosphere

3197 ionosphere

3198 iridescent cloud

3199 irisation; iridescence

3200 Iron Age

3201 irradiance

3202 irretrievable water consumption; irrevocable water consumption

3203 irreversible change of the environment

3204 irrigation

3205 irrigation channel; irrigation canal

3206 irrigation farming

3207 irrigation rate

3208 irrigation system; irrigation scheme

3209 irrigation water

3210 irrigation with limans

3211 isallobar

3212 isanomal; isanomalous line

3213 island

3214 island arc

3215 island fauna

3216 island flora

3217 island state

3218 isoamplitude

3219 isoanthe

3220 isoathme

3221 isobar

3222 isobase

3223 isobath; bathymetric contour; submarine contour; depth contour

3224 isochion; isochional line

3225 isochron

3226 isochronous adj

3227 isochronous surface

3228 isoclinal fold; isocline; isoclinal folding

3229 isocline; isoclinal line

3230 isodapane

3231 isogonic line

3232 isogram

3233 isohaline

3234 isohumic soil

3235 isohyet

3236 isolated population

3237 isolated settlement

3238 isolationism

3239 isoline; isopleth

3240 isomorphic adj

3241 isoneph

3242 isooxygene

3243 isopach; isopachyte

3244 isopage

3245 isopectic line

3246 isophene

3247 isophytochrone

3248 isopycnic line; isopycnic

3249 isoseist; homoseismal line; homoseism

3250 isostasy of the Earth’s crust; isostatic adjustment

3251 isostatic adj

3252 isotache

3253 isotherm

3254 isothermal adj

3255 isothermal atmosphere

3256 isothermal layer; isothermy

3257 isothermobath

3258 isotope

3259 isotope-oxygen stage

3260 isthmus; neck

J

3261 jet

3262 jet stream

3264 joint

3265 joint venture

3266 jointing

3267 joint-stock company

3268 jokullhlaup

3269 journey; trip

3270 Julian calendar

3271 jumping avalanche

3272 junction1

3273 jungle

3274 juniper stand

3275 Jurassic

3276 just-in-time

3277 juvenile relief

3278 juvenile valley

3279 juvenile water

K

3280 kalema

3281 kaltus

3282 kame

3283 kame terrace

3284 kamien

3285 karaburan

3286 karasu

3287 karez

3288 karren; lapies

3289 karrenfeld; limestone pavement

3290 karst; karst relief

3291 karst base-level

3292 karst cavity

3293 karst lake

3294 karst landscape; limestone terrain

3295 karst pit

3296 karst plateau

3297 karst river

3298 karst studies

3299 karst valley

3300 karst waters

3301 karst window

3302 karstic adj

3303 karstic cycle

3304 karstifiable rock

3305 katabatic front; katafront

3306 katabatic wind; gravity wind

3307 katathermy

3308 kavir

3309 kegelkarst

3310 kekur

3311 kernlose winter

3312 kettle; glacier pothole; kettle hole

3313 kettle hole; dead ice hollow

3314 kettle-hole glacier

3315 key area; sample plot

3316 key map; index of sheets; index map

3317 key stratum

3318 key village

3319 khamsin

3320 Khvalyn transgression

3321 kibboutz

3322 kinematic wave in a glacier

3323 knickpoint; rejuvenation head

3324 knob-and-kettle topography; hilly lands; kame-and-kettle terrain

3325 Kondratieff cycles

3326 kopje

3327 krakatao

3328 Kronshtadt sea-gauge

3329 krummholz; prostrate wood; prostrate shrubs

3330 kum

3331 kurum

3332 Kyoto treaty

3333 kyr

L

3334 La Niña

3335 labour

3336 labour market

3337 labour productivity

3338 labour resources; labour force; manpower; workforce; workforce

3339 labour-extensive adj

3340 labour-intensive adj

3341 labyrinth

3342 laccolith; laccolite

3343 lacustrine adj

3344 lacustrine delta

3345 lacustrine deposits

3346 lag; lagged time; time-lag

3347 lagoon

3348 lagoon coast

3349 lagoon sediment

3350 lahar; volcanogenic mudflow

3351 lake

3352 lake breeze

3353 lake depression

3354 lake ice

3355 lake landscape

3356 lake of rift-valley

3357 lake percentage

3358 lake plain; lacustrine plain

3359 lake river; effluent stream; effluent river

3360 lake stagnation

3361 lake terrace; lacustrine terrace

3362 lake-dwelling; pile-dwelling

3363 lamarckism

3364 lamina

3365 laminar flow; parallel flow

3366 lamination

3367 land

3368 land breeze

3369 land bridge

3370 land cadastre

3371 land capability

3372 land disturbance

3373 land evaluation; land classification; appraisal; terrain analysis

3374 land ice; continental ice

3375 land improvement; improvement of land; land reclamation

3376 land reclamation; reclamation

3377 land reserve

3378 land resources

3379 land rotation; crop rotation; rotation of crops

3380 land subsidence

3381 land tenure

3382 land transport

3383 land use; land utilisation

3384 landform

3385 landlocked adj

3386 landscape aesthetics

3387 landscape aesthetics; landscape esthetics (amer)

3388 landscape architecture

3389 landscape capacity; landscape potential; natural potential

3390 landscape change

3391 landscape degradation

3392 landscape design

3393 landscape differentiation

3394 landscape dynamics

3395 landscape evaluation

3396 landscape facies; asrect m de terrain

3397 landscape geochemistry

3398 landscape geosphere; Earth’s physical environment

3399 landscape inversion

3400 landscape morphology; landscape structure

3401 landscape park

3402 landscape planning

3403 landscape recultivation

3404 landscape study; terrain analysis; landscape science

3405 landscape succession

3406 landslide; slide; slide; landslip

3407 landslide base; landslide foot

3408 landslide body

3409 landslide front

3410 landslide lobe

3411 landslide slope

3412 landslide terrace

3413 land-surveying; land-use survey; land-use planning

3414 land-use system

3415 lane; narrows

3416 Langmuir eddy; Langmuir circulation

3417 lapilli

3418 lapse-rate process

3419 Laramidian folding; Laramide orogeny

3420 larch-tree forest

3421 large scale map

3422 latent ground ice

3423 latent heat

3424 lateral accretion

3425 lateral erosion

3426 lateral eruption

3427 lateral migration

3428 lateral moraine

3429 laterite

3430 lateritic adj

3431 lateritic soil; laterite soil; latosol

3432 laterization; lateritisation

3433 latifundium

3434 latitude

3435 Laurasia

3436 Laurentian ice sheet

3437 lava

3438 lava blister

3439 lava cone

3440 lava effusion; volcanic effusion

3441 lava eruption; Hawaiian eruption

3442 lava field

3443 lava lake

3444 lava sheet; lava plateau

3445 lava-flow

3446 lavaka

3447 layda

3448 layer of vegetation

3449 layered glacier

3450 layering of relief

3451 leached soil

3452 leaching

3453 leaching groundwaters

3454 lead; sounding lead

3455 leaf fall; defoliation

3456 leaf litter

3457 leaf-bearing plant

3458 leap-year

3459 lease of land

3460 leat; drain2

3461 lee wave; lee eddy

3462 lee-shore

3463 leeward adj

3464 leeward slope

3465 legend; map’s legend

3466 leisure

3467 length of a river

3468 lens

3469 lenticular cloud

3470 leptosol

3471 lessivage

3472 lettering

3473 levada

3474 levante

3475 levee

3476 level surface

3477 levelling

3478 levelling network

3479 ley-farming; shifting cultivation

3480 liana; liane; vine

3481 lichen

3482 lichen tundra

3483 lichenometry; lichenometric dating

3484 life expectancy; lifespan

3485 life-cycle

3486 life-form

3487 light belts

3488 light coniferous forest

3489 light frosts; frosts; freezing

3490 light industry

3491 lighthouse; beacon

3492 lightning

3493 lightship

3494 lignite; brown coal

3495 liman; brackish lagoon

3496 liman coast

3497 limb of fold

3498 lime

3499 limes

3500 limestone

3501 lime-tree forest

3502 liming of soil

3503 limit of uprush

3504 limits of growth

3505 limnetic zone

3506 limnology

3507 limnophil; limnetic organism; limnic organism

3508 line production

3509 lineament

3510 linear feature

3511 linear scale; bar scale (amer)

3512 linear town; linear settlement; linear city

3513 liquefaction of soil

3514 liquid deposit

3515 liquid precipitation

3516 liquid waste

3517 liquified natural gas

3518 lithification; lithifaction

3519 lithogenic landscape

3520 lithology; sedimentology

3521 lithophyte

3522 lithosol

3523 lithosphere

3524 lithozem

3525 litter; plant litter; plant residue; leaf litter

3526 little ice age; neoglacial (amer)

3527 littoral adj

3528 littoral benthos

3529 littoral deposits; littoral sediments

3530 littoral fauna

3531 littoral flora

3532 littoral landscape

3533 littoral zone

3534 livestock

3535 livestock breeding

3536 livestock capita

3537 livestock farming; animal husbandry; pastoral farming; pastoralism

3538 living standard; standard of living

3539 lixisol

3540 llanos

3541 load

3542 loam; loamy soil

3543 loamy sand

3544 lobate delta; birdfoot delta

3545 lobate frontal moraine

3546 lobate shore

3547 local adj

3548 local anticyclone

3549 local base level

3550 local circulation

3551 local climate

3552 local geographical term

3553 local geography and ethnography

3554 local pollution; local contamination

3555 local self-government

3556 local snow line

3557 local tax; municipal tax

3558 local terrace

3559 local time

3560 local wind

3561 localization

3562 location; geographical distribution

3563 location of industry

3564 loch

3565 lock

3566 loess; löss

3567 loess loam

3568 loess-like deposit

3569 log gorge

3570 logging; felling

3571 log-pass; bushwood-road

3572 loma

3573 long fallow

3574 long grass prairie; tall grassland

3575 long wave; shallow-water wave

3576 longitude

3577 longitudinal adj

3578 longitudinal dune; seif-dune

3579 longitudinal profile; longitudinal section

3580 longitudinal stream profile; long profile of a river

3581 longitudinal valley; trench; strike valley

3582 longshore bar1

3583 longshore drift; littoral drift

3584 long-term data set

3585 long-term river regulation

3586 long-term weather forecast; long-range forecasting; long-range weather forecast

3587 long-wave radiation; terrestrial radiation

3588 looming; heat haze

3589 loose snow

3590 loosening of snow

3591 loose-snow horizon

3592 lop; overfall

3593 loss of snow cover

3594 low anticyclone

3595 low cyclone

3596 low latitudes

3597 low oblique aerial photograph

3598 low ridge

3599 low tide; low water; lowest ebb

3600 low water discharge

3601 low water flow; low flow; minimum flow

3602 lower bedding plane of stratum; base of bed

3603 lower course

3604 lower pool

3605 lower snow drifting

3606 lowland meadow

3607 lowland plain

3608 lowland river

3609 low-level cloud; low cloud

3610 low-level waste

3611 low-mountain relief

3612 low-shrub tundra

3613 low-water

3614 lull

3615 lunar adj

3616 lunar day

3617 lunar month; synodic month; lunation

3618 lunar tide

3619 luvisol

3620 lysimeter

M

3621 maader

3622 maar

3623 macroclimate

3624 macroeconomics

3625 macrophyte

3626 macrorelief

3627 made land

3628 magma

3629 magma chamber; magmatic chamber

3630 magmatism

3631 magnetic adj

3632 magnetic anomaly

3633 magnetic declination; compass declination

3634 magnetic equator

3635 magnetic inclination; magnetic dip

3636 magnetic meridian

3637 magnetic needle

3638 magnetic pole

3639 magnetic reversal

3640 magnetic storm

3641 magnetosphere

3642 magnitude of earthquake

3643 main river; trunk stream

3644 main transport line; artery

3645 mainstream

3646 Malthusianism

3647 mammoth

3648 mandate; mandate territory

3649 mangrove; mangal; mangrove forest

3650 mangrove swamp

3651 man-made beach

3652 mantle of the Earth; Earth’s mantle

3653 map; geographic map

3654 map accuracy

3655 map adjustment; map reconciliation

3656 map ageing; outdating of a map

3657 map assemblage; map montage

3658 map clarity

3659 map content

3660 map coverage

3661 map error

3662 map incunabula

3663 map informativity

3664 map language; map semiotics

3665 map loading

3666 map margin

3667 map of regions; map of regionalization

3668 map of the fields

3669 map of the hemispheres

3670 map projection; projection; cartographic projection

3671 map reading; map interpretation

3672 map reliability

3673 mapping; map design and production; map compilation

3674 mapping agency

3675 mapping of landscape; landscape surveying

3676 maquis; macchia; macquis

3677 margalite soil

3678 marginal channel; periglacial drainage channel

3679 marginal deep; foreland basin; foredeep

3680 marginal furrow

3681 marginal glacial landforms

3682 marginal lands; marginal fringe

3683 marginalism; marginal analysis

3684 mari

3685 marigram

3686 marine adj; maritime adj

3687 marine biology; biological oceanography

3688 marine cycle of erosion

3689 marine ecology

3690 marine ecosystem

3691 marine fauna

3692 marine flora

3693 marine geology

3694 marine geophysics

3695 marine hydroacoustics

3696 marine ice sheet

3697 marine meteorology

3698 marine national park

3699 marine nautical chart

3700 marine sediments; marine deposits

3701 marine terrace

3702 marinism

3703 maritime air mass; maritime air

3704 maritime climate; marine climate

3705 maritime geomorphology; submarine geomorphology

3706 mark; point; number (in a scale)

3707 marker

3708 market

3709 market economy; free market economy; free economy

3710 market eqiilibrium

3711 market of raw materials

3712 market of sale; geographical market

3713 market zone

3714 marketing principle

3715 marsh → 3715

3716 marshy soils; marsh soil

3717 mass movement; mass wasting

3718 mass production

3719 mass-and-energy exchange

3720 massive ice

3721 massive ice bedding

3722 massive ice vein

3723 massive wedge ice; massive vein ice

3724 material production

3725 mathematical base of map

3726 mathematical cartography

3727 matorral; mattoral

3728 mature adj

3729 mature soil

3730 maximum discharge

3731 maximum permissible concentration; threshold concentration

3732 maximum permissible emission; threshold emission

3733 maximum permissible environmental impact; critical environmental load; threshold impact

3734 maximum temperature

3735 maximum water consumption

3736 meadow

3737 meadow chernozemic soil

3738 meadow soils

3739 meadow steppe

3740 meadow-brown semi-desert soil

3741 meadow-chestnut soil

3742 meadow-swamp soil

3743 mean solar time

3744 meander

3745 meander belt

3746 meander lobe; meander core

3747 meander neck

3748 meander terrace

3749 meandering

3750 meandering valley

3751 means of production; producer goods

3752 measuring grid

3753 mechanical engineering; machine-building industry

3754 mechanical weathering; physical weathering

3755 medial moraine; intermediate moraine; median moraine

3756 medical climatology

3757 medical geographical forecast

3758 medical geography; medicinal geography

3759 medina

3760 Mediterranean

3761 Mediterranean climate

3762 mediterranean zone

3763 medium scale map

3764 medium-level cloud; medium cloud; middle-level cloud

3765 medium-term weather forecasting; medium-range weather forecast

3766 megacity

3767 megalith

3768 megalopolis

3769 megarelief

3770 megathermal plant

3771 melt water; meltwater

3772 melting crust

3773 melting of ice

3774 melting of snow; snowmelt; snow melting

3775 melt-out

3776 melt-water channel

3777 melt-water grooves

3778 Mercalli scale

3779 mercantilism

3780 Mercator map projection

3781 meridian

3782 meridian convergence

3783 meridian line

3784 meridional flow; meridional circulation

3785 merokarst

3786 meromictic lake

3787 meromixis

3788 mesa

3789 mesic layer

3790 mesoclimate

3791 Mesolithic

3792 mesopause

3793 mesophile

3794 mesoplankton

3795 mesorelief

3796 mesoscale eddy; mesoscale vortex

3797 mesosphere

3798 mesothermal plant; mesotherm

3799 mesothermy

3800 mesotrophic adj

3801 mesotrophic bog

3802 mesotrophic lake

3803 mesotrophic plant

3804 Mesozoic

3805 Mesozoic folding

3806 metalimnion

3807 metallurgy; metallurgic industry

3808 metamorphic ice formation

3809 metamorphic rock

3810 metamorphism

3811 meteor

3812 meteorite

3813 meteorite crater

3814 meteorological conditions

3815 meteorological element

3816 meteorological observations

3817 meteorological satellite; weather satellite

3818 meteorological screen

3819 meteorological station

3820 meteorology

3821 methane; marsh-gas

3822 method of areas

3823 method of conventional symbols

3824 method of hachures and shading; hill-shading

3825 method of isolines

3826 method of line symbols

3827 method of paleoanalogues

3828 methods of cartographic representation; map appearance

3829 metropolis

3830 metropolisation

3831 microclimate

3832 microcoenosis

3833 microconvection

3834 microeconomics

3835 microfauna

3836 microflora

3837 microrelief

3838 microtripton

3839 mid-channel bar

3840 middle latitudes; midlatitudes

3841 middle mountains

3842 mid-latitude karst

3843 midnight

3844 midnight sun

3845 mid-oceanic ridge; mid ocean ridge; oceanic ridge

3846 migrant

3847 migration

3848 migration flow

3849 migration of animals

3850 migration of divide

3851 migration of elements; migration of substances

3852 migration of population

3853 migratory birds; birds of passage

3854 Milankovitch curve

3855 Milankovitch oscillations

3856 mile; statute mile

3857 military geography

3858 military industry; armament industry

3859 military-economic potential

3860 military-industrial complex

3861 mine

3862 mine working; mine digging

3863 mineral

3864 mineral deposit

3865 mineral horizon

3866 mineral reserves; reserves

3867 mineral resources; minerals

3868 mineral soil

3869 mineral spring

3870 mineralization of soil

3871 mineralization of water

3872 mineralogy

3873 minimum temperature

3874 mining

3875 mining dump; slag-heap; spoil heap; dump; spoil bank

3876 mining industry; mining; extractive industry

3877 Miocene

3878 mirage

3879 misclosure; closing error

3880 mist

3881 mistral

3882 mitigation; impact mitigation

3883 mixed alimentation

3884 mixed cloud

3885 mixed farming; mixed farm

3886 mixed forest; mixed wood stand

3887 mixed forest zone

3888 mixed tide

3889 mixing of waters; overturning

3890 mixolimnion

3891 mobile adj

3892 mobile belt; orogenic belt

3893 mobile dune

3894 mobilism

3895 mobility; population mobility

3896 mode of production

3897 modelling of relief

3898 moder

3899 modernization of economy

3900 mofette

3901 mogote

3902 Mohorovii discontinuity; Moho

3903 moisture budget

3904 moisture capacity; water capacity; specific retention

3905 moisture capacity of snow

3906 moisture content of soil; water content of soil

3907 moisture deficit

3908 moisture index

3909 molasse

3910 molehill; krotovina

3911 mollisol

3912 monadnock; glacial monadnock; erosion remnant

3913 monarchy

3914 monetarism

3915 monetary crisis; foreign exchange crisis

3916 monimolimnion

3917 monk stone

3918 monoclinal bedding

3919 monoculture

3920 monoglacialism

3921 monolith

3922 monomictic lake

3923 monomineral rock

3924 monopolar world; monocentric world; unipolar world

3925 monopoly

3926 monsoon

3927 monsoon circulation

3928 monsoon climate

3929 monsoon current

3930 monsoon forest

3931 monsoon rain

3932 monsoon season

3933 monte

3934 month

3935 montmorillonite

3936 moorland; moor

3937 mor

3938 moraine; till2

3939 moraine amphitheatre

3940 moraine relief

3941 moraine terrace

3942 moraine-containing ice

3943 moraine-covered glacier; turkestan-type glacier

3944 morainic lake

3945 morainic mantle

3946 morainic ridge; moraine

3947 morphogenesis

3948 morphography; orography

3949 morphological analysis

3950 morphological map

3951 morphometric map

3952 morphometry

3953 morphosculpture

3954 morphostructure

3955 mortality; mortality rate; death-rate

3956 mort-lake; dead lake

3957 mortmass

3958 mosaic

3959 mosaic adj

3960 moss and lichen layer

3961 moss and lichen tundra

3962 mossy forest

3963 motorway; highway

3964 mottled adj

3965 mount; mountain

3966 mountain and valley winds; valley breeze; valley wind; mountain breeze

3967 mountain chain; mountain range; range3

3968 mountain crest

3969 mountain desert

3970 mountain desert-steppe belt

3971 mountain fauna

3972 mountain forest belt

3973 mountain glaciation

3974 mountain glacier

3975 mountain group

3976 mountain health resort

3977 mountain knot; knot

3978 mountain landscape

3979 mountain livestock farming

3980 mountain massif; massif

3981 mountain meadow belt

3982 mountain meadow soil

3983 mountain meadow steppe soil

3984 mountain peak

3985 mountain river

3986 mountain socle

3987 mountain soils

3988 mountain steppe soil

3989 mountain system

3990 mountain taiga soil

3991 mountain tundra belt

3992 mountain tundra soil

3993 mountain zone

3994 mountaineering; alpinism

3995 mountainous adj

3996 mountains

3997 mountology

3998 mouth bar; harbour bar; near-mouth bar

3999 mouth point

4000 mshari

4001 mud; ooze; silt

4002 mud lake

4003 mud volcano

4004 mudflow; mud stream

4005 mudflow basin

4006 mudflow channel

4007 mudflow chute; mudflow gutter

4008 mudflow cone

4009 mudflow deposits

4010 mudflow hazard; mudflow risk; mudflow danger

4011 mudflow mass

4012 mudflow site; mudflow centre

4013 mudflow-protective structures; mudflow-retaining constrictions

4014 mulch

4015 mulching

4016 mull

4017 multinational state

4018 multiple land use

4019 multispectral adj

4020 multistratified freezing of water; layered freezing of water

4021 multi-structural economy; mixed economy

4022 municipal adj

4023 muskeg

4024 mylonitization of ice

N

4025 nacreous cloud; mother-of-pearl cloud

4026 nadir

4027 nalep’

4028 nanorelie f

4029 nappe

4030 narrow gully; runnel

4031 narrows

4032 nation1

4033 national adj

4034 national atlas

4035 national boundary; administrative frontier; political border

4036 national economy; nation’s economy

4037 national income

4038 national income per capita

4039 national park

4040 national territory

4041 nationalism

4042 nationality

4043 nationalization

4044 nation-state

4045 native; aborigine; aboriginal

4046 natural adj

4047 natural and technical system

4048 natural bridge

4049 natural conditions; physical conditions

4050 natural fertility

4051 natural flow

4052 natural focus of disease

4053 natural hazard; natural disaster

4054 natural horizon; geographical horizon

4055 natural landscape

4056 natural monument

4057 natural phenomenon

4058 natural pollution; natural contamination

4059 natural population growth; natural increase of population

4060 natural regime

4061 natural region; physical-geographical region

4062 natural resources

4063 natural resources assessment; natural resources evaluation

4064 natural selection

4065 natural shaft

4066 natural synoptic period

4067 natural vegetation

4068 natural-historic park

4069 naturalization

4070 nature; physical environment

4071 nautical chart; sea-charts

4072 nautical mile; international nautical mile

4073 nautical twilight

4074 navigability

4075 navigable river

4076 navigation; shipping

4077 navigation observation

4078 navolok

4079 neap tide; apogean tide; dead neap

4080 near-by thunderstorm

4081 nearshore current; longshore current

4082 nebka; nebkha

4083 neck; volcanic neck

4084 necrophage; scavenger

4085 necton; nekton

4086 needle

4087 needle ice; pipkrake

4088 negative difference of glacierization

4089 negative water setout

4090 neighbourhood

4091 neobiont; neophyte

4092 neocolonialism

4093 Neogene

4094 Neolithic

4095 neolithic revolution

4096 neotectonics

4097 neptunism

4098 neritic adj

4099 neritic fauna

4100 neritic zone; sublittoral zone; infralittoral zone; subtidal zone

4101 net ablation

4102 network

4103 network society

4104 neuston

4105 neutral shoreline

4106 neutral soil

4107 neutralism

4108 neutrality

4109 new formation

4110 new moon

4111 new settler

4112 new snow; newly fallen snow

4113 New World

4114 newly industrialized country

4115 newly-deposited snow

4116 niche1

4117 niche glacier; ural glacier

4118 night

4119 nilas

4120 nimbostratus

4121 nimbus

4122 nitosol

4123 nitrate

4124 nitratophile

4125 nitrification

4126 nitrogen

4127 nitrogen cycle

4128 nitrogen fixation

4129 nival adj

4130 nival belt

4131 nival region

4132 nivation

4133 nivation cirque

4134 noctilucent clouds

4135 nocturnal adj

4136 nocturnal cooling

4137 nocturnal radiation

4138 nodal region

4139 node

4140 node of seiche

4141 noise pollution; noise nuisance

4142 nomad

4143 nomadic adj

4144 nomadic birds

4145 nomadic camp

4146 nomadism

4147 nomogram; graphical chart; calculating chart

4148 nonaligned adj

4149 non-channeled runoff hollows

4150 non-cryotic ground

4151 non-equivalent exchange

4152 non-ferrous metallurgy

4153 non-gravity spring

4154 non-paired terrace

4155 nonperiodic current; nontidal current

4156 non-renewable natural resources

4157 non-washing regime of soil

4158 noon

4159 noosphere

4160 nor

4161 Nordic projection

4162 normal fault; throw

4163 normal level; standard level

4164 normal projection

4165 normal reservoir level

4166 normal runoff

4167 normal watershed

4168 north

4169 north adj; northern adj

4170 North Atlantic oscillation

4171 North Pole

4172 north side

4173 north-east trades; North-East trade wind

4174 Northern Hemisphere

4175 northing

4176 nosogeography

4177 nosorange

4178 notch

4179 nuclear power; nuclear energy

4180 nuclear power station

4181 nuclear winter

4182 nucleated settlement

4183 nuée ardente

4184 nuisance

4185 numerical forecast

4186 numerical modelling of climate

4187 numerical scale

4188 nunatak

4189 nutation

4190 nutrient cycle; cycle of nutrients

O

4191 oak forest; oak grove

4192 oasis

4193 obduction

4194 oblate adj

4195 oblateness of the Earth

4196 oblique projection

4197 obliquity of the ecliptic

4198 obsequent stream; obsequent valley

4199 obstruction; blockage

4200 occasional rain

4201 Occident

4202 occluded front; frontal occlusion

4203 occlusion

4204 occultation

4205 ocean

4206 ocean basin

4207 ocean circulation

4208 ocean current; sea current

4209 ocean deep; abyss; abyssal basin

4210 ocean dumping

4211 ocean eddy

4212 ocean floor

4213 oceanarium

4214 ocean-atmosphere interaction

4215 oceanic adj

4216 oceanic climate

4217 oceanic crust

4218 oceanic fringing rise

4219 oceanic front

4220 oceanic gyration

4221 oceanic hemisphere

4222 oceanic island

4223 oceanic volcanic ridge

4224 oceanity; oceanicity

4225 oceanographic adj

4226 oceanographic characteristics

4227 oceanographic satellite

4228 oceanographic section

4229 oceanographic station

4230 oceanographic survey

4231 oceanographic tables

4232 oceanography; oceanology

4233 ochreous mud

4234 odour nuisance

4235 oecumene; ecumene

4236 offshore1

4237 offshore bar; beach ridge

4238 offshore sediments; offshore bar; nearshore sediments

4239 offshore zone

4240 off-stream storage reservoir

4241 ogives

4242 oil dome

4243 oil pipeline

4244 oil refining; oil-processing industry; oil-refining industry

4245 oil spill

4246 oil well

4247 oilfield

4248 oil-pool

4249 old ice

4250 old irrigated soils

4251 old mountains; old fold mountains

4252 old platform

4253 old resident

4254 old snow

4255 Old World

4256 Oligocene

4257 oligomictic lake

4258 oligopoly

4259 oligotrophic adj

4260 oligotrophic lake

4261 oligotrophic plant

4262 olive grove

4263 omnivore

4264 ooze; oceanic mud

4265 open burning

4266 open field1

4267 open fracture; cleft

4268 open plant community

4269 open sea; high sea

4270 open surface channel; open channel

4271 open woodland; light forest; thin forest; open forest

4272 opencast mining; opencast mining

4273 opolje

4274 opposition

4275 optical oceanography

4276 optical phenomenon in the atmosphere

4277 optimal humidity

4278 orbit of the Earth

4279 orbital motion of a wave

4280 Ordovician

4281 ore

4282 organic farming

4283 organic horizons; O-horizons

4284 organic soil

4285 organic weathering

4286 organoleptic properties

4287 oricanga; solution basin

4288 Orient

4289 orientalism

4290 oriented lakes

4291 origin

4292 original bedding

4293 original forest; virgin forest; primary forest

4294 original map

4295 original vegetation; primary vegetation

4296 ornithofauna

4297 ornithogenic soil

4298 oroclimatic adj

4299 orocline

4300 orogen

4301 orogenesis; orogeny; mountainbuilding; orogenic movements

4302 orogenic adj

4303 orogenic phase

4304 orographic adj

4305 orographic cloud

4306 orographic occlusion

4307 orographic precipitation; orographic rain; relief rainfall

4308 orographic snow line

4309 orographical name

4310 orthodromic line

4311 orthographic projection; orthogonal projection

4312 orthophotomap

4313 ortsand

4314 ortstein; iron pan

4315 oscillation

4316 oscillation moraine

4317 oscillation of glacier; glacial oscillation

4318 outbound tourism

4319 outcrop; rock exposure

4320 Outer Crescent

4321 outfall offshore

4322 outflow cave; outlet cave

4323 outlet

4324 outlet glacier; ice stream

4325 outlet section

4326 outlier; klippe

4327 outline1 → 4327

4328 outport

4329 output; produce; production

4330 outwash plain; sandr m; sandur

4331 ouval

4332 overall soil moistening

4333 overbank derosit

4334 overbank stage of a stream

4335 overburden; overburden rock

4336 overcast sky; overcast

4337 overconsolidation of soil

4338 overdeepened valley

4339 overdeepening

4340 overdeepening of channel

4341 overflow channel

4342 overflow ice

4343 overflow lake

4344 overfold; overturned fold

4345 overgrazing

4346 overland flow; sheetflow; surface runoff; overland runoff

4347 overlap

4348 overloaded river

4349 overpopulation; overcrowding

4350 overthrust

4351 overwetting

4352 overwintering

4353 ovring

4354 ox-bow; oxbow lake

4355 oxidation

4356 oxisol

4357 oxygen

4358 oxylophile

4359 ozone

4360 ozone hole; ozone depletion

4361 ozone layer; ozonosphere

P

4362 Pacificfolding

4363 Pacific Rim

4364 Pacific-North American oscillation

4365 pack animal; beast of burden

4366 pack ice; pack; ice pack; packed ice

4367 pack transport

4368 package tour

4369 pad’

4370 paddock

4371 padings; flat-bottom steppe depressions

4372 padun

4373 paired terrace

4374 Palaeocene

4375 palaeoclimate

4376 palaeoclimatology

4377 palaeoecology

4378 Palaeogene

4379 palaeogeographic map

4380 palaeogeography

4381 palaeogeomorphology

4382 palaeoglaciology

4383 palaeohydrology

4384 palaeokarst; buried karst

4385 Palaeolithic

4386 palaeomagnetic chron

4387 palaeomagnetic scale

4388 palaeomagnetism; fossil magnetism

4389 palaeooceanology

4390 palaeopedology

4391 palaeovolcanology

4392 Palaeozoic

4393 paleosol; fossil soil; buried soil

4394 palsa

4395 paludal

4396 paludification; water-logging

4397 palynology

4398 pampa

4399 pan

4400 Panarctic ice sheet

4401 pancake ice; ice-cake

4402 pandemic

4403 pandemic adj

4404 Pangaea

4405 panoramic photograph

4406 pantanal

4407 pantograph

4408 paper industry

4409 parabolic dune

4410 parallax

4411 parallel

4412 parallel drainage pattern

4413 parametrization

4414 paramos; paramo

4415 pararendzina; regosolic forest soil

4416 paraselene; mock Moon

4417 parasitic cone; subsidiary volcano; adventive cone; subordinate volcano

4418 parasitic crater; lateral crater; adventive crater

4419 parcel; parcel household

4420 parent rock; parent material

4421 parent state; mother country

4422 parhelion; mock sun; sun dog

4423 park; park vegetation

4424 park savanna

4425 park-forest

4426 parkland; park landscape

4427 parliamentarianism

4428 paroxysmal volcanic eruption; Plinian eruption

4429 parts of the world»

4430 part-time employment

4431 part-time farmer

4432 pass; mountain pass

4433 passenger flow

4434 passenger intensity

4435 passenger transportation

4436 passenger turnover; passenger traffic

4437 passive glacier

4438 pastoral adj

4439 pastoral stock-breeding; grazing

4440 pasturage

4441 pasture; grazing

4442 pasture capacity

4443 pasture digression

4444 pasture rotation

4445 patch cutting

4446 paternoster lakes

4447 path; trail

4448 patterned ground

4449 paved road

4450 pavement

4451 peasant

4452 peasant farming

4453 peatland study

4454 ped

4455 pedalfer

4456 pediment

4457 pedimentation

4458 pediplain; pediplane

4459 pediplanation

4460 pedocal

4461 pedolite

4462 pedon; soil-individual

4463 pelagic adj

4464 pelagic deposit

4465 pelagic organisms

4466 pelagic zone; pelagic division

4467 Pelean eruption

4468 pellets

4469 pelosol

4470 peneplain; peneplane

4471 peneplanation

4472 peninsula

4473 peninsular adj

4474 penitents; snow and ice penitent

4475 peonage

4476 people

4477 perched groundwater; perched water-table

4478 percolating waters

4479 percolation

4480 percolation zone

4481 percolative regime of soil

4482 percoline

4483 pereletok

4484 perennial adj

4485 perennial aufeis

4486 perennial ice

4487 perennial irrigation

4488 perennial plant

4489 perennial snow patch; permanent snow stretch

4490 perennial stream; permanent stream

4491 pericline

4492 perigee

4493 periglacial adj

4494 periglacial deposits; extraglacial deposits

4495 periglacial lake

4496 periglacial zone

4497 perihelion

4498 period of a mudflow risk

4499 periodic migration; cyclic migration

4500 peripheral settlement

4501 periphery

4502 periphyton

4503 periplus

4504 permafrost; permanently frozen ground

4505 permafrost aggradation

4506 permafrost base

4507 permafrost degradation

4508 permafrost limit

4509 permafrost studies; cryopedology; geocryology

4510 permafrost table; permafrost top

4511 permafrost thickness

4512 permafrost zone

4513 permanent snow; eternal snow

4514 permeability

4515 permeable rock

4516 Permian

4517 permissible environmental impact; threshold environmental pressure

4518 perpetual frost climate; frost climate

4519 perspective projection

4520 pesticides

4521 petrifaction; petrification

4522 petrochemical adj

4523 petrography; petrology

4524 petroleum; crude oil

4525 pH index; potential hydrogen

4526 phaeozem

4527 Phanerozoic

4528 phases of the Moon

4529 phenological aspect

4530 phenological phases

4531 phenological spectrum

4532 phenology

4533 phosphorescence

4534 photic zone; photo layer; euphotic zone

4535 photochemical fog

4536 photogrammetry

4537 photographic hill shading

4538 photomap

4539 photomosaic

4540 photoplan

4541 photosynthesis

4542 phototheodolite survey

4543 phototriangulation

4544 phototrophic adj

4545 phototropism

4546 phreatic adj

4547 phreatic divide; underground watershed

4548 phreatic eruption

4549 phreatic water

4550 phrigana

4551 physical frontier; natural boundary

4552 physical geography

4553 physical map

4554 physical oceanography; marine hydrophysics

4555 physics of atmosphere; physical meteorology; atmospheric physics

4556 physiological drought

4557 phytoclimate; plant climate

4558 phytogeography

4559 phytomass

4560 phytophage

4561 phytoplankton

4562 piedmont benches

4563 piedmont glacier

4564 piedmont lake

4565 piedmont plain; piedmont flat; piedmont

4566 pier; jetty

4567 piezometric level; piezometric surface

4568 pig-breeding

4569 pillow lava

4570 pine forest

4571 pingo; bulgunyakh

4572 pinnate drainage pattern

4573 pioneer region

4574 pioneer vegetation; primitive plant aggregation; pioneer community

4575 pipe

4576 pipeline; conduit

4577 piping

4578 pisciculture; fish breeding; fish farming

4579 place

4580 placer

4581 plaggen

4582 plain; flat

4583 plain built of horizontal strata

4584 plan

4585 planation

4586 planation surface; erosion surface

4587 planet

4588 plane-table

4589 plane-table survey

4590 planetary adj

4591 planetary geomorphology

4592 planetary wave; Rossby wave

4593 planetary winds

4594 planimeter

4595 planimetric feature

4596 planina

4597 planisphere; map of the world

4598 plankton

4599 planosol

4600 plant community; plant association; phytocoenosis; vegetation community

4601 plant ecology; phytosociology

4602 plant formation

4603 plantation

4604 plantation agriculture; plantation system

4605 planting of greenery; verdurization

4606 plastic soil

4607 plate tectonics; continental drift theory

4608 plateau; highland

4609 plateau glacier

4610 platform; craton

4611 platform mantle; sedimentary cover

4612 plavni

4613 playa

4614 Pleistocene

4615 plinthisol

4616 plinthite

4617 Pliocene

4618 plough pan; plough sole; tillage pan

4619 ploughing block

4620 plucking

4621 plume

4622 plunge pool

4623 plural society

4624 plutonic adj

4625 plutonism

4626 pluvial adj; pluviose adj

4627 pluvial period; pluvial

4628 pluviometric coefficient

4629 poaching

4630 podbur

4631 podzol; podsol; podzolic soil

4632 podzolization

4633 podzolized soil

4634 poikilotherm; exotherm; cold-blooded animal; poikilothermic animal

4635 point bar; side bar; meander bar; meander scroll

4636 point feature

4637 point symbol

4638 points of zero distortion

4639 polar adj

4640 polar air mass; polar air

4641 polar anticyclone; polar high

4642 polar circle

4643 polar climate

4644 polar day

4645 polar distance

4646 polar easterlies

4647 polar fauna

4648 polar front

4649 polar lake; cold lake

4650 polar low; cold low

4651 polar night

4652 polar orbital satellite

4653 polar outbreak

4654 polar projection

4655 polar station

4656 polar wandering; polar motion

4657 polar zone

4658 Polaris; Pole Star

4659 polder

4660 pole; geographical pole

4661 pole of inaccessibility

4662 political geography

4663 political landscape

4664 political map

4665 polje

4666 pollen diagram

4667 pollutant

4668 polluted area; polluted zone

4669 pollution; environmental contamination; environmental pollution; contamination

4670 pollution dome

4671 pollution plume

4672 polycentralisation

4673 polyconic projection

4674 polygenetic landscape

4675 polygenic soil; polygenetic soil

4676 polyglacialism

4677 polygonal feature

4678 polygonal point

4679 polygonal relief

4680 polygonal tundra

4681 polymictic lake

4682 polymineral rock

4683 polynya; opening in sea-ice; pool of water

4684 polypedon

4685 polypolar world; polycentric world; multipolar world

4686 polysaprobe

4687 pond

4688 ponor; water sink (amer); swallet; swallow; swallow-hole

4689 pool1

4690 pool2

4691 pool and riffle

4692 pool in bog

4693 populated area; residence

4694 population

4695 population density

4696 population explosion

4697 population geography; geography of population

4698 population growth; natural movement of population

4699 population growth by migration

4700 population pyramid; age-sex pyramid

4701 pore; void

4702 pore ice; ice-cement

4703 pore water pressure

4704 pororoca

4705 porosity

4706 porous structure

4707 port

4708 portage

4709 portolan

4710 portolan chart

4711 positioning; GPS measurement

4712 positive difference of glacierization

4713 positive feedback

4714 possible sunshine duration; possible insolation duration

4715 postclimax

4716 post-Fordism

4717 postglacial adj

4718 post-industrial city

4719 post-industrial society

4720 potamology

4721 potential evaporation; evaporativity

4722 potential evapotranspiration

4723 potential instability

4724 potential model

4725 potential of territory; capacity of territory

4726 pothole; aven

4727 pothole lake; kettle lake

4728 poultry farming

4729 poverty

4730 poverty cycle

4731 powder avalanche; powder snow avalanche; loose snow avalanche

4732 powder cloud

4733 powder snow

4734 power engineering

4735 power station; power plant

4736 power system; energy system

4737 practicability; passability

4738 prairie

4739 prairie grey soil

4740 prairie soil

4741 Preboreal; Pre-Boreal

4742 Precambrian

4743 precession; precession of the equinoxes

4744 precipitable water; precipitable water vapour

4745 precipitation

4746 precipitation-day; rain day; rainy day

4747 precipitator; setting tank; setting basin

4748 preglacial adj

4749 preglacial relief

4750 pre-industrial city

4751 pre-industrial society

4752 preliminary layout of a map

4753 pressure head; head

4754 pressure ice; hummocked ice; pressure ridge; hummocky ice

4755 pressure melting-point

4756 pressure rampart

4757 pressure system

4758 pressure tendency

4759 prevailing wind

4760 price

4761 primary adj

4762 primary area; primary range

4763 primary biological production

4764 primary industry; primary activity; primary sector; primary production

4765 primary succession

4766 primate city

4767 prime meridian; meridian of origin; meridian of Greenwich; initial meridian

4768 primitive soil; pre-soil

4769 principal directions

4770 principal front

4771 principal meridian

4772 printing industry; graphic industry

4773 private sector

4774 processing industry; manufacturing industry

4775 proclimax

4776 producer; autotroph

4777 production assets; producer goods; capital goods

4778 productive economy

4779 productivity

4780 productivity of land; land potential

4781 productivity of the environment

4782 profile; section

4783 profile of equilibrium

4784 profundal

4785 proglacial adj

4786 proglacial lake

4787 proglacial runoff

4788 progradation; progradation of shore

4789 programme of the atlas

4790 programme of the map

4791 projective cover

4792 propulsive industry; propulsive branche

4793 prostrate plant

4794 protalus rampart

4795 protected natural area

4796 protected species

4797 protection of nature; nature conservation; environmental conservation; conservation

4798 protection regime

4799 protectionism

4800 protective afforestation

4801 protective forest

4802 protectorate

4803 Proterozoic

4804 protruding delta

4805 province

4806 provinciality

4807 proximal adj

4808 psammon

4809 psammophile

4810 pseudo-adiabatic process

4811 pseudo-azimuthal projection

4812 pseudo-bedding

4813 pseudo-conical projection

4814 pseudo-cylindrical projection

4815 pseudo-front

4816 pseudokarst

4817 pseudomorph

4818 pseudourbanization

4819 psychrometer

4820 psychrophyte; hekistothermal plant

4821 public goods

4822 public resources

4823 public sector

4824 pull factor

4825 pulsation hypothesis

4826 pumice

4827 pumped storage power station; pumped storage scheme

4828 puna

4829 purification

4830 push factor

4831 push-moraine; thrust moraine

4832 pusza

4833 puszta

4834 putrefaction

4835 pycnocline

4836 pyramidal iceberg; pinnacled iceberg

4837 pyramidal peak

4838 pyroclastic material; pyroclast

4839 pyroclastic surge; pyroclastic flow

4840 pyrogenic community

4841 pyrogenic landscape

4842 pyrogenic succesion

4843 pyrophyte

Q

4844 quadrangle; degree square

4845 quadrature

4846 quaking bog; mire; quagmire; quag

4847 quality of life

4848 quality of the environment; environmental quality

4849 quantitative background

4850 quantitative revolution

4851 quarry

4852 quartz

4853 Quaternary; Anthropogene

4854 quaternary industry; quaternary sector; quaternary industry

4855 Quaternary studies

4856 quickclays; floating layer

4857 quicksand

4858 quota

R

4859 race1

4860 race2

4861 racism

4862 radial drainage pattern; radial dissection

4863 radiant adj

4864 radiant energy

4865 radiation balance of the atmosphere

4866 radiation balance of the Earth′s surface; net radiation

4867 radiation crust; sun crust

4868 radiation fog; ground fog; ground mist

4869 radiative cooling; radiation cooling

4870 radiative inversion

4871 radical geography

4872 radioactive contamination

4873 radioactive waste; nuclear waste

4874 radioactive water

4875 radiocarbon dating

4876 radiosonde

4877 rafted ice; shuffled ice; telescoped ice

4878 rafting

4879 railway; railroad (amer)

4880 railway gauge

4881 railway junction

4882 railway transport

4883 rain

4884 rain alimentation

4885 rain forest; hylea

4886 rain gauge

4887 rain shadow; precipitation shadow

4888 rainbow

4889 raindrop

4890 raindrop erosion

4891 rainfall

4892 rainfall flood

4893 rainfall runoff

4894 rain-making

4895 rainy season

4896 raised beach

4897 raised bog; oligotrophic bog; moor

4898 raised tundra

4899 ramen

4900 rampart; stone border

4901 ranch

4902 randkluft

4903 range1

4904 range of dissection; relative relief

4905 ranker

4906 rapids; chute

4907 rare species

4908 raw materials

4909 raw-materials crisis

4910 reach

4911 reafforestation; arboriculture

4912 real evaporation

4913 reanalysis of meteorological data

4914 rear of a depression

4915 receiving waters

4916 recession; economic depression; economic recession; depression

4917 recharge

4918 recharge zone; recharge area

4919 reconnaissance

4920 recreation

4921 recreational capacity; recreational carrying capacity; tourism potential

4922 recreational impact; impact of recreation on the landscape; recreational pressure

4923 recreational resources

4924 recreational water body

4925 recrystallization ice

4926 recrystallization of ice

4927 rectangular drainage pattern

4928 rectangular grid

4929 rectifying of aerial photographs

4930 rectilinear slope

4931 recultivation of land

4932 recultivation of soil

4933 recumbent fold

4934 recuperation; recovery

4935 recycling

4936 red algae

4937 red clay; red oceanic clay

4938 Red Data Book

4939 red earth

4940 red rain

4941 red snow

4942 red tide; harmful algae blossoming

4943 red-brown savanna soil

4944 red-brown soil

4945 reddish-black soil

4946 reddish-brown soil

4947 reduced air temperature

4948 reduced pressure

4949 reduction

4950 red-yellow soil

4951 reed swamp

4952 reef

4953 re-export

4954 reference point; landmark

4955 reflected solar radiation; reflected global radiation

4956 refraction diagram; wave-refraction diagram

4957 refuge; refugium

4958 refugee; asylum seeker

4959 reg

4960 regelation

4961 regelation ice

4962 regenerated glacier

4963 regeneration of cyclone; regeneration of a depression

4964 regime

4965 regime of flow; regime of runoff

4966 regime of reserve

4967 region

4968 region of development

4969 region of economic gravitation

4970 region of stagnation

4971 regional analysis

4972 regional atlas

4973 regional development; local development

4974 regional disparity; regional inequality

4975 regional economics

4976 regional geography; country study

4977 regional identity; territorial identity

4978 regional planning; territorial planning

4979 regional policy

4980 regional science; area studies

4981 regionalism

4982 regionalization

4983 register of population

4984 regolith

4985 regosol; abrazem

4986 regression

4987 regular grid; tessellation

4988 regular park; formal symmetrical park

4989 regulated flow

4990 regulated river

4991 regur; black cotton soil; regoor

4992 reinforced ice

4993 rejuvenation of relief

4994 rejuvenationof a river

4995 relations of production

4996 relative height; elevation

4997 relative humidity

4998 relative overpopulation; latent overpopulation

4999 relative transparency of water

5000 release of avalanche

5001 release of reservoir

5002 reliability diagram

5003 relict; relic

5004 relict fauna

5005 relict flora

5006 relict habitat; relict biocoenosis

5007 relict ice; fossil ice

5008 relict lake

5009 relict landform

5010 relict permafrost

5011 relief; landform

5012 relief model

5013 religious tourism; pilgrimage

5014 remote sensing

5015 remote sensing from satellites; satellite imagery

5016 rendzina; rendsina

5017 renewable natural resources; renewable resource

5018 rent

5019 repository; burial site; graveyard

5020 reproduction rate; replacement rate; replacement of population

5021 republic

5022 research and development city

5023 research and science park; science park

5024 research vessel; research ship

5025 resequent stream; secondary consequent stream; resequent valley

5026 reservation1

5027 reserve; nature preserve; reservation2

5028 reservoir

5029 resettlement

5030 resident birds

5031 residual deposit; residual debris

5032 residual soil; sedentary soil

5033 resistant rock

5034 resort

5035 resource conservation

5036 resource cycle

5037 resource intensity

5038 resource management

5039 resource map

5040 resource orientation

5041 resource saving

5042 resources

5043 resources of the ocean

5044 respiration of soil

5045 rest area of reserve

5046 restoration

5047 restored species

5048 resurgence

5049 retail trade; retailing

5050 retarding basin

5051 retention of snow; snow retention

5052 retention of water; water retention

5053 reticular glaciers; reticular glaciation

5054 retreat of slope; backwasting; slope retreat; parallel retreat of slope; slope retreat

5055 retrievable water consumption; revocable water consumption

5056 return of cold

5057 return period; recurrence interval

5058 return waters

5059 reverse fault; thrust fault

5060 reversible change of the environment

5061 reversing dune

5062 reversion

5063 revolution of the Earth

5064 rheophil

5065 rhizosphere

5066 rhumb line; loxodrome; line of constant bearing

5067 rhythms

5068 rhytmic lamination

5069 ria

5070 rias coast

5071 ribbon development

5072 ribbon lake

5073 Richter scale

5074 ride; cleared path; cutting

5075 ridge; mountain ridge

5076 ridge of high pressure; wedge of high pressure

5077 ridge relief

5078 ridge-and-pool bog

5079 riegel; rock bar

5080 riffle; cross-over

5081 rift

5082 rift valley

5083 rift zone; axial trough; axial rift

5084 rill; delve; ditch; furrow

5085 rill erosion

5086 rill marks

5087 rime

5088 rime formation

5089 ring

5090 ring road

5091 rip current

5092 ripeness of soil

5093 ripple

5094 ripple mark; current ripple; sand ripple

5095 river; stream

5096 river basin; river drainage basin

5097 river channel

5098 river flow diversion; river diversion flow; river flow transfer; water transfer

5099 river hydrology

5100 river ice

5101 river junction

5102 river load; load

5103 river load balance

5104 river mouth; mouth

5105 river mouth cone

5106 river port

5107 river profile

5108 river regulation

5109 river system

5110 river terrace

5111 river transport

5112 riverside; riverain adj; riverine adj; riparian adj

5113 riviera

5114 road

5115 road transport

5116 roadstead

5117 roar of the surf; thundering of the breakers; rote (amer)

5118 Roaring Forties

5119 roche moutonnée

5120 rock

5121 rock city

5122 rock creep; écoulement

5123 rock fall

5124 rock glacier; rock stream (amer)

5125 rock milk

5126 rock-building mineral

5127 rock-fall slope

5128 rocky desert

5129 roller

5130 rookery; seashore colony of birds

5131 root action

5132 ropy lava; corded lava; pahoehoe

5133 rotation of the Earth

5134 rotational slip

5135 rotatory stream

5136 rotten ice

5137 rotten stone; gruss

5138 roughness coefficient; friction coefficient of river bed

5139 roughness of channel; bed roughness; channel resistance

5140 roughness of sea surface

5141 roundness; roundness index

5142 route sketching; strip survey

5143 rubbish; litter; garbage; trash

5144 rubble

5145 rubefaction; rubification

5146 ruderal plant; ruderal vegetation

5147 running water

5148 runoff; flow2

5149 runoff channel

5150 runoff coefficient; impermeability factor

5151 runoff depletion

5152 runoff plot

5153 rural adj

5154 rural depopulation

5155 rural population

5156 rural settlement

5157 rural tourism

5158 rural urbanization; rurbanization

5159 ruralisation; rural planning

5160 rural-urban continuum; urban-rural continuum

S

5161 saddle

5162 Sahel

5163 sai

5164 sailing directions; pilot book

5165 saline aufeis

5166 saline ice

5167 saline lake; brackish lake

5168 saline regime of soil

5169 saline soil

5170 saline water; brackish water

5171 salinity

5172 salinization

5173 salinization of lake

5174 salinization of rivers

5175 salt

5176 salt crust

5177 salt desert

5178 salt dome; salt plug

5179 salt dust

5180 salt efflorescence

5181 salt flowers

5182 salt lake; saltwater lake

5183 salt mine

5184 salt pan; salt flat

5185 salt runoff; ion runoff; chemical runoff

5186 salt settling

5187 salt tectonics

5188 salt tidal marsh; salting

5189 salt water

5190 salt weathering; haloclasty

5191 saltation

5192 sample

5193 sanctuary; wildlife refuge; animal sanctuary; wildlife reserve

5194 sand

5195 sand desert

5196 sand drift

5197 sand lens

5198 sand ridge

5199 sand stream

5200 sand wave; sand ribbon

5201 sand wedge

5202 sand whirlwind; dust devil; dust whirlwind

5203 sand-dune stabilization

5204 sanding of soil; sand riching of soil

5205 sandstone

5206 sandy desert soil

5207 sandy ice

5208 sandy loam

5209 saprobiciness

5210 saprobiont; saprophyte; saprophagous animal; saprotroph

5211 sapropel; decay ooze

5212 sapropelit

5213 Sargassaceae; sargasso

5214 sarysu

5215 sastrugi; wind ridges; zastrugi

5216 satellite; sputnik

5217 satellite altimetry

5218 satellite geodesy

5219 satellite meteorology

5220 satellite oceanography

5221 satellite town; new town

5222 satellite triangulation

5223 saturated adiabatic lapse rate; wet adiabatic lapse rate; moist adiabatic lapse rate

5224 saturated adiabatic process

5225 saturated air

5226 saturated zone; zone of saturation

5227 saturation

5228 saturation deficit

5229 savanna; savanna zone; tropical grassland; savannah

5230 savanna forest

5231 saxicolous plant; rupicolous plant

5232 saz

5233 scabland

5234 scald; scalded flat

5235 scale

5236 scale accuracy

5237 scale of horizontal equivalent; scale of slope

5238 scale of seismic intensity

5239 Scandinavian ice sheet

5240 scarp; escarpment

5241 scattering in the atmosphere; scattered radiation; Rayleigh scattering

5242 scenic adj

5243 schematic map; sketch map

5244 scherms; scherm coast

5245 scientific and technical revolution

5246 scientific expedition

5247 sciophyte; heliophobic plant

5248 sclerophyte; sclerophyllous plant

5249 scour1

5250 scour2

5251 scouring basin

5252 scroll bar; scroll

5253 scrub; scrubland

5254 sea

5255 sea bloom; plankton bloom

5256 sea breeze; lake breeze

5257 sea farm; oceanic farm

5258 sea ferry

5259 sea foam

5260 sea ice

5261 sea level; mean sea-level

5262 sea level rise

5263 sea mill

5264 sea mount; submarine mount; seamount

5265 sea necton

5266 sea resort; seaside resort

5267 sea smoke

5268 sea state

5269 sea stew

5270 sea transport

5271 sea valley; submarine canyon; submarine channel

5272 sea water

5273 sea water colour

5274 sea-floor spreading; spreading zone; sea-floor spreading

5275 sea-gauge; sounding rod; gauging rod

5276 seaquake

5277 seaside tourism; sun-and-beach tourism; beach tourism

5278 season

5279 season of bad roads; slush spring thaws

5280 seasonal adj

5281 seasonal baric depression

5282 seasonal freezing

5283 seasonal migration

5284 seasonal snow line

5285 seasonally frozen ground; seasonally frozen layer

5286 seaway

5287 sebkha; alkali flat

5288 seclusion

5289 second home

5290 secondary biological production

5291 secondary consumer

5292 secondary depression

5293 secondary divide

5294 secondary front

5295 secondary industry; manufacturing industry; secondary sector

5296 secondary pollution; secondary contamination

5297 secondary resources

5298 secondary salinization

5299 secondary soil

5300 secondary succession

5301 secondary vegetation

5302 secondary water pollution

5303 second-generation migrant

5304 second-year ice; two-year ice

5305 secular adj

5306 secular trend in climate

5307 secular variation

5308 secular variations of climate

5309 secular variations of sea-level

5310 secularization

5311 sedentarization; settled way of life; sedentary agriculture

5312 sedentary adj

5313 sediment sorting

5314 sediment yield; sediment discharge

5315 sedimentary adj

5316 sedimentary layer of the Earth′s crust

5317 sedimentary rock

5318 sedimentogenesis; lithogenesis

5319 seepage

5320 segetal vegetation

5321 segregated ice

5322 segregation

5323 seiche

5324 seismic adj

5325 seismic focus; seismic origin; hypocentre

5326 seismic hazard

5327 seismic waves; shake waves; earthquake waves

5328 seismicity; seismic activity

5329 seismograph

5330 seismology

5331 selective logging

5332 self-purification of the environment; natural purification of the environment

5333 self-purification of water

5334 selfsettling salt lake

5335 selka

5336 semi-arid adj

5337 semi-deciduous vegetation

5338 semi-desert; semi-desert zone; semi-arid area

5339 semi-diurnal tide

5340 semi-enclave

5341 semi-natural vegetation

5342 semi-permanent anticyclone; quasy-permanent anticyclone

5343 semi-permanent centre of action of the atmosphere

5344 semi-permanent depression

5345 sensible heat

5346 sensible temperature

5347 sensitivity of a landscape

5348 separatism; national separatism

5349 sequential landforms

5350 serac; ice pedestal

5351 serclimax

5352 sere

5353 serfdom; serfage

5354 sericulture; silk culture

5355 series

5356 serir

5357 service industry

5358 services

5359 seston

5360 set of scales

5361 setting basin

5362 setting-up of snow cover

5363 settled ice

5364 settlement

5365 settlement pattern; settlement network

5366 settling

5367 settling of snow

5368 settling velocity

5369 sewage; waste water; effluent2; sewage effluent; sewage water

5370 sewage outfall

5371 sewer

5372 sewer water

5373 shade temperature

5374 shade-tolerant plant; shading species

5375 shaft

5376 shallow karst

5377 shallows

5378 shallow-water deposit; shallow-water sediment

5379 shape distortion

5380 sharecropping

5381 shear; shear-fault

5382 shear plain

5383 shearing; charriage

5384 sheep-husbandry; sheep-breeding

5385 sheet erosion; sheet wash; surface wash

5386 sheet line system

5387 sheeting

5388 shelf edge; depth dump; shelf break

5389 shelf sea

5390 shell limestone

5391 shelter belt; forest strip; windbreak

5392 sheltered desert

5393 shiblyak

5394 shield

5395 shield volcano

5396 shifting cultivation; shifting agriculture

5397 shifting sands

5398 shingle; pebble

5399 shingle bed

5400 ship displacement

5401 ship turnover

5402 ship waves

5403 shoal

5404 shoalbank

5405 shopping centre

5406 shore; seashore

5407 shore ice bar

5408 shore lead; flaw lead

5409 shore protection dike

5410 shore slope

5411 shoreline; coastline

5412 shoreline smoothing

5413 short herbaceous vegetation; short grass vegetation

5414 short wave; deep-water wave

5415 short-grass prairie

5416 short-range weather forecast

5417 short-wave outgoing radiation

5418 short-wave radiation

5419 shott

5420 shower; torrential rain

5421 shrinking of soil

5422 shrub; bush

5423 shrub layer

5424 shrubbery

5425 shuga; frazil

5426 shuga-drift

5427 sial

5428 siallitic soil

5429 siallitization

5430 Siberian high; Siberian anticyclone

5431 sidereal day

5432 sidereal month

5433 sidereal year

5434 sierozem; serozem; grey earth; grey desert soil

5435 sierra

5436 sieve map

5437 silage

5438 silica

5439 silicate

5440 silicification

5441 sill

5442 silt delta

5443 siltation; silting

5444 silting area

5445 silty loam

5446 Silurian

5447 sima

5448 simoon; samoon; samun

5449 simulation model

5450 sink-hole; swallow-hole

5451 sinter; flowstone

5452 sinuosity of river

5453 sinuosity of shoreline

5454 siphon

5455 siphon spring

5456 sirocco; scirocco

5457 site

5458 site of ancient town

5459 skeletal soil

5460 skerries

5461 skerry-guard

5462 sketching; outline2

5463 skin-layer

5464 sky

5465 skylight

5466 skyline; local horizon; apparent horizon

5467 slab avalanche

5468 slack water; slack; slack tide

5469 slag

5470 slash-and-burn; slash and burn cultivation; swidden farming

5471 slatestone; slate

5472 slavery

5473 sleet; rain and snow mixed

5474 slick

5475 sliding horizon

5476 slip

5477 slip-off slope

5478 slope; hillslope

5479 slope decline; downwearing

5480 slope glacier

5481 slope of repose; repose slope

5482 slope processes

5483 slope profile

5484 «lope-direction tick»

5485 sludge; spent slurry; slurry

5486 slum; squatter settlement; shanty town

5487 slum clearance

5488 slumping; slump

5489 slush

5490 slush zone; infiltration zone

5491 slush-flow; snow mudflow; slush avalanche

5492 small circle

5493 small floe; broken ice

5494 small river

5495 small town

5496 small wood; copse; coppice

5497 small-leaved forest; parvifoliate forest

5498 small-scale map

5499 smog

5500 smoke

5501 smoke haze

5502 snag

5503 snow

5504 snow accumulation; cumulation of snow

5505 snow adhesion

5506 snow alimentation; feeding by snowmelt

5507 snow and ice resources

5508 snow barchan

5509 snow blindness

5510 snow bridge

5511 snow cannon

5512 snow concrete

5513 snow cornice

5514 snow cover; snow pack

5515 snow creep

5516 snow crystal

5517 snow drifting; snow-storm

5518 snow drifting rose

5519 snow dune

5520 snow fence

5521 snow fontain

5522 snow garlands

5523 snow line; snow limit

5524 snow line depression

5525 snow load

5526 snow micro-relief

5527 snow patch

5528 snow pellet; snow grains

5529 snow pit

5530 snow protection

5531 snow puddle

5532 snow ridge

5533 snow ripple

5534 snow runoff

5535 snow shower

5536 snow slip

5537 snow slump; surface avalanche

5538 snow stability on a slope

5539 snow storage

5540 snow studies

5541 snow survey; snow measurement

5542 snow swamp

5543 snow temperature inversion; spring inversion

5544 snow-and-ice road

5545 snowdrift

5546 snowdrift glacier

5547 snowfall

5548 snowfield

5549 snowflakes

5550 snowiness

5551 snow-retaining structures

5552 snowy adj

5553 snowy mountain; snow-capped mountain

5554 soaking up of water

5555 social adj

5556 social desert

5557 social ecology

5558 social geography

5559 social group

5560 social infrastructure

5561 social integration

5562 social methods of management

5563 social mobility

5564 social polarization

5565 social segregation

5566 socialism

5567 society

5568 socio-ecological system

5569 socioeconomic adj

5570 socioeconomic system

5571 sociology

5572 sociosphere

5573 socle plain

5574 sod; turf

5575 soda lake

5576 sodded karst

5577 sodding

5578 soddy forest soils

5579 soddy podzolic soil

5580 soddy-gley soil

5581 sodication; sodicity

5582 soft water

5583 soil

5584 soil acidity

5585 soil aeration

5586 soil age

5587 soil aggregate; aggregate of soil

5588 soil air

5589 soil argillization

5590 soil association

5591 soil biology

5592 soil biota

5593 soil chemistry

5594 soil chronosequence

5595 soil class

5596 soil climate

5597 soil colloids

5598 soil complex

5599 soil conservation; soil protection

5600 soil cover

5601 soil drainage

5602 soil engineering

5603 soil erosion

5604 soil evolution; soil development

5605 soil extract

5606 soil fauna

5607 soil ferruginization

5608 soil fertility; fertility of soil

5609 soil formation; pedogenic processes; soil-forming process; pedogenesis

5610 soil geography

5611 soil horizon; horizon2

5612 soil hygroscopicity

5613 soil management

5614 soil map

5615 soil mechanics

5616 soil microorganisms

5617 soil migration; translocation

5618 soil monolith

5619 soil morphology

5620 soil mosaic

5621 soil nomenclature

5622 soil order

5623 soil plasticity

5624 soil pollution; soil contamination

5625 soil profile

5626 soil science; pedology

5627 soil section

5628 soil series

5629 soil skeleton

5630 soil structure

5631 soil taxon

5632 soil taxonomy; soil classification

5633 soil thixotropy

5634 soil type

5635 soil water; soil moisture

5636 soil wedge

5637 soil zone

5638 soil-ground

5639 solar activity

5640 solar architecture

5641 solar battery; solar cell; solar panel

5642 solar climate

5643 solar constant

5644 solar day

5645 solar energy; solar power

5646 solar farm; solar park

5647 solar power station; solar power plant

5648 solar radiation

5649 solar system

5650 solar tide

5651 solar time; apparent time

5652 solar year; tropical year

5653 solfatare

5654 solid waste

5655 solid precipitation

5656 solifluction; solifluxion

5657 solifluction apron

5658 solifluction protalus

5659 solitary wave; soliton

5660 solod soil; solod; soloth

5661 solodization

5662 solonetz; solonets

5663 solontchak; solonchak

5664 solstice

5665 soluble adj

5666 solution

5667 solution cavity

5668 somma

5669 sonde

5670 sor

5671 sorted polygon; stone polygon

5672 sorting

5673 sound channel

5674 sound scattering layer; deep scattering

5675 sounding

5676 sounding of the atmosphere

5677 source of a river

5678 source of water supply; water supply source

5679 south

5680 south adj; southern adj

5681 South Pole

5682 southeast trades

5683 Southern Cross

5684 Southern Hemisphere

5685 southern oscillation

5686 south-west monsoon

5687 sovereign

5688 sovereign state

5689 sovereignty

5690 spa resort

5691 space

5692 space Earth science

5693 space geodesy

5694 space image; satellite imagery; satellite image; image

5695 space industry

5696 space map

5697 space mapping

5698 space station; skylab

5699 spate

5700 spatial adj

5701 spatial analysis

5702 spatial data

5703 spatial interaction

5704 spatial modelling

5705 spatial object

5706 spatial resolution; ground resolution; resolution

5707 spatter cone; driplet cone

5708 specialization of production

5709 specialization of the region

5710 species

5711 specific discharge

5712 specific humidity

5713 specific retention

5714 spectral adj

5715 spectral albedo

5716 spectrazonal aerial survey; multispectral survey

5717 speed-up distance of snow drifting

5718 speleology; spelaeology

5719 spent fuel

5720 sphagnum bog

5721 sphere of influence

5722 spillway; weir; escape

5723 spit

5724 splash

5725 spodosol

5726 spoil

5727 sporadic avalanche

5728 sporadic permafrost; island permafrost

5729 spores and pollen analysis; pollen analysis

5730 spot height

5731 spotted tundra

5732 spout; whirlwind

5733 spray

5734 spray freezing; sea icing

5735 spray irrigation; shrinkler irrigation

5736 spring crops

5737 spring high water; spring flood

5738 spring tide

5739 spring1

5740 spring2

5741 spring-line

5742 spruce forest

5743 spur; offshoot

5744 squall

5745 squall line; squall-line thunderstorm; line squall

5746 squatting1

5747 squatting2

5748 squeezing

5749 St Elmo′s fire; corona discharge; Saint Elmo′s fire

5750 stability threshold; stability limit

5751 stabilization lagoon

5752 stabilized dune

5753 stable channel

5754 stable community

5755 stable ecosystem

5756 stable population; zero population growth; stationary population

5757 stable slope

5758 stable snow cover

5759 stack; sea stack

5760 stadial

5761 stadial moraine; recessional moraine

5762 stagnant water

5763 stagnic cambisol

5764 stalactite

5765 stalagmite

5766 stalagnate

5767 stall-feeding of livestock; zero grazing

5768 stand; forest stand

5769 standard atmosphere; reference atmosphere

5770 standard depth of measurements

5771 standard line; standard parallel

5772 standard ocean

5773 standard sea water; standard mean ocean water

5774 standard time

5775 standards of environmental quality; environmental quality standards

5776 standing floe; ropak

5777 standing wave; stationary wave

5778 state; country; nation2

5779 state capitalism

5780 state farm; sovkhoz; state farming; sovkhoz

5781 state-archipelago

5782 station

5783 stationary anticyclone

5784 stationary climatic series

5785 stationary current; stable current

5786 stationary cyclone; stationary depression

5787 stationary front; quasi-stationary front

5788 stationary method of research

5789 stationary population; zero population growth; stable population

5790 steam fog; evaporation fog

5791 steel industry; ferrous metallurgy; iron-and-steel industry

5792 steep slope

5793 steepness of slope

5794 stenobathic animal

5795 stenohaline organism

5796 stenohydrobiont

5797 stenooxybiont

5798 stenophagous animal

5799 stenotherm

5800 stenotopic organism

5801 step fault

5802 steppe expansion

5803 steppe fauna

5804 steppe meadow

5805 steppe vegetation; steppe flora

5806 stepped relief

5807 stepped slope

5808 stepwise migration

5809 stereographic projection

5810 stereomodel

5811 stereopair

5812 stereophotogrammetric survey

5813 stereophotogrammetry

5814 steric variations of sea level

5815 stilling well

5816 stock exchange

5817 stock of maps

5818 stock1

5819 stock2

5820 stone

5821 Stone Age

5822 stone block

5823 stone garland

5824 stone pavement

5825 stone ring; stony earth circle

5826 stone stripes; blockstripes

5827 stoniness

5828 stony soils

5829 store area; storage site; entrepot

5830 store of cold in ice

5831 storm

5832 storm runoff

5833 storm surge; storm tide

5834 storm-beach; storm beach

5835 stow; landscape unit

5836 strait; sound; channel

5837 strath; glen

5838 stratification; bedding

5839 stratification of the atmosphere

5840 stratification of water

5841 stratified adj

5842 stratiform cloud

5843 stratigraphic correlation

5844 stratigraphic discordance; stratigraphic hiatus

5845 stratigraphic section

5846 stratigraphy

5847 stratocumulus

5848 stratopause

5849 stratosphere

5850 stratovolcano; strato-volcano; composite volcano

5851 stratum; layer; bed2

5852 stratus

5853 stream; watercourse

5854 stream discharge

5855 stream gradient

5856 stream order

5857 streambed alluvium

5858 streamflow

5859 streamline; flow line

5860 strength of rock

5861 stretch of water; water area

5862 striated boulder

5863 striation; glacial striation; glacial scoring

5864 stries de Forel

5865 strike; strike line

5866 string fen; string bog

5867 strip cultivation; open field2

5868 strip map

5869 Strombolian eruption

5870 structural crisis; morphogenic crisis

5871 structural geomorphology

5872 structural glaciology

5873 structural terrace

5874 structure of rock

5875 subaerial adj; superficial adj

5876 subalpine belt

5877 subalpine vegetation

5878 subantarctic adj

5879 subantarctic zone

5880 sub-aquatic landscape

5882 subarctic adj

5883 subarctic sod soil

5884 subarctic zone

5885 Subatlantic; Sub-Atlantic period

5886 Subboreal; Sub-Boreal period

5887 subclimax; pre-climax

5888 subcontinent

5889 subdominant species

5890 subduction

5891 subduction zone; destructive margin; destructive plate margin

5892 subequatorial adj

5893 subequatorial zone

5894 subglacial ablation

5895 subglacial adj

5896 subglacial channel

5897 subglacial drainage; subglacial stream

5898 subglacial lake

5899 subglacial water

5900 subhumid adj

5901 subject of federation

5902 sublimation

5903 sublimation ice

5905 submarine bar

5906 submarine earthquake

5907 submarine elevation

5908 submarine fan

5909 submarine landslide

5910 submarine moraine

5911 submarine plateau; oceanic plateau

5912 submarine quarry

5913 submarine relief; subaqueous relief

5914 submarine ridge; submarine range

5915 submarine rift

5916 submarine spring

5917 submarine volcano; underwater volcano

5918 submerged coast; submerged shoreline

5919 submerged delta

5920 submerged forest

5921 submerged ice

5922 submerged reef; bank reef

5923 submergence

5924 submersible; submergible; underwater vehicle; undersea vehicle

5925 subpermafrost water

5926 subpolar glacier

5927 subregion

5928 subsea permafrost

5929 subsequent stream; subsequent valley

5930 subshrub; dwarfshrub; undershrub

5931 subshrub layer

5932 subsidence

5933 subsidy

5934 subsistence agriculture; subsistence farming

5935 subsistence crop

5936 subsistence economy

5937 subsoil; bottom soil

5938 subsoil irrigation

5939 subsurface brine; brackish groundwater

5940 subsurface current; deepwater current; depth current

5941 subsurface wash

5942 subtropical adj

5943 subtropical forest

5944 subtropical forest zone

5945 subtropical high; subtropical anticyclone

5946 subtropical jet stream

5947 subtropical vegetation

5948 subtropical zone

5949 suburban adj

5950 suburban agriculture

5951 suburbanization

5952 suburbs; suburb; suburbia

5953 subvention

5954 succession; plant succession

5955 succulent

5956 sudd

5957 suffocation

5958 suffosion

5959 sulphur

5960 sum of active temperatures

5961 sum of effective temperatures

5962 summer

5963 summer flood

5964 summer solstice

5965 summer surface

5966 summit; top

5967 Sun

5968 sunrise

5969 sunset

5970 sunshine

5971 sunspot

5972 superadiabatic lapse rate

5973 superaquatic landscape

5974 supercooled rain

5975 supercooled water

5976 supercooling

5977 superficial deposit

5978 superglacial adj; supraglacial adj

5979 superglacial stream

5980 superimposed drainage

5981 superimposed ice

5982 supermarket

5983 supersaturation

5984 supplementary contour

5985 supply

5986 supralittoral zone

5987 suprapermafrost water

5988 surface ablation

5989 surface current

5990 surface detention

5991 surface irrigation

5992 surface moraine; superglacial sediments

5993 surface roughness

5994 surface water

5995 surge cycle; pulsation period

5996 surging glacier; surge-type glacier

5997 survey signal; tower beacon

5998 surveying peg

5999 survival rate

6000 suspended load

6001 suspension

6002 suspension roiling

6003 sustainable agriculture

6004 sustainable development

6005 sustainable development indicators

6006 sustained yield forestry

6007 swale

6008 swallow hole

6009 swamp; wetland; bog; fen; marsh

6010 swamp percentage

6011 swamp plain

6012 swarding

6013 swash; surf

6014 swash flow

6015 swell1

6016 swell scale

6017 swelling of soil

6018 symbiosis; symbiotic relationship

6019 symmetrical fold

6020 synanthropic organism

6021 synclinal valley

6022 syncline; synclinal fold

6023 synclinorium

6024 syndicate

6025 syneclise

6026 syngenetic ice wedge

6027 synoptic eddy

6028 synoptic meteorology

6029 synoptic processes

6030 synsedimentary folding

6031 synthetic map

6032 synusia

6033 system of farming; farming system

6034 systems analysis; systems approach

6035 syzygy

T

6036 tableland

6037 tablemount; table mountain

6038 tabular iceberg; barrier iceberg; table iceberg

6039 tacheometry; tachymetry

6040 tafone; tafoni pl

6041 taiga; boreal forest

6042 taiga pergelisol

6043 taiga soils

6044 tail dune

6045 tailing storage; tip-heap

6046 tailings

6047 takyr

6048 takyr-soil

6049 talik

6050 tall herbaceous vegetation; tall grass vegetation; tall-grassland

6051 talus; scree

6052 talus cone

6053 talus slope

6054 tanker

6055 taoism; daoism

6056 taphrogenesis

6057 tariff

6058 tariff bappier; customs barrier; tariff wall

6059 taryn

6060 tax

6061 tear fault; transcurrent fault

6062 technical ice

6063 technogenic landscape; industrial landscape

6064 tectogenesis

6065 tectonic adj

6066 tectonic epochs

6067 tectonic fracture

6068 tectonic lake

6069 tectonic mountains

6070 tectonic movements

6071 tectonic plate; lithospheric plate

6072 tectonic valley

6073 tectonics

6074 tectonosphere

6075 teleconnections

6076 temperate adj

6077 temperate climate

6078 temperate forest zone

6079 temperate glacier; warm glacier; isothermal glacier

6080 temperate zone; mid-latitude zone

6081 temperature

6082 temperature anomaly; thermal anomaly

6083 temperature coefficient of freezing

6084 temperature coefficient of melting

6085 temporal adj

6086 tenth wave; wreck wave; freak wave

6087 tephra

6088 tephrochronology

6089 terai

6090 terminal basin

6091 terminal moraine; end moraine

6092 terminal port

6093 termination

6094 termite mound; termitarium

6095 terra fusca

6096 terra rossa

6097 terrace

6098 terrace cultivation

6099 terracette; «sheep tracks»

6100 terracing

6101 terrain; locality

6102 terrestrial adj

6103 terrestrial fauna; land animals

6104 terrestrial magnetism; Earth′s magnetic field; geomagnetism

6105 terrestrial radiation; outgoing long-wave radiation

6106 terrigenous adj

6107 terrigenous deposits; terrigenous sediments

6108 terrigenous runoff

6109 territorial adj

6110 territorial capacity

6111 territorial concentration of production; agglomeration of enterprises; localization of enterprises

6112 territorial connections

6113 territorial differentiation

6114 territorial disputes; territorial claims

6115 territorial division of labour; geographical division of labour

6116 territorial interest

6117 territorial organization of society

6118 territorial pattern

6119 territorial production complex; industrial agglomeration; industrial complex

6120 territorial production links

6121 territorial structure of economy

6122 territorial waters; territorial seas

6123 territory

6124 tertiarization

6125 Tertiary

6126 tertiary industry; service industry; tertiary sector

6127 testing area

6128 Tethys; Tethys Ocean

6129 textile industry

6130 texture of rock

6131 texture of soil; soil texture

6132 thalassocratic period

6133 thalassocraton

6134 thalweg; talweg

6135 thaw

6136 thaw slumping

6137 thawed patch

6138 thawing; defreezing of ground

6139 thawing front

6140 thematic atlas

6141 thematic cartography; thematic mapping

6142 thematic map

6143 theocratic state

6144 theodolite

6145 theodolite survey; theodolite surveying

6146 thermal1

6147 thermal abrasion

6148 thermal2 adj

6149 thermal advection

6150 thermal balance of water body

6151 thermal bar

6152 thermal belts

6153 thermal content in water body

6154 thermal denudation

6155 thermal equator; heat equator

6156 thermal erosion; thermo-erosion

6157 thermal expansion of the ocean; ocean thermal expansion

6158 thermal front

6159 thermal low; thermal depression

6160 thermal metamorphism of ice

6161 thermal pollution

6162 thermal regime of soil

6163 thermal spring; geothermal spring

6164 thermal stratification

6165 thermal vegetation

6166 thermal waste

6167 thermal water

6168 thermal wind

6169 thermic power plant

6170 thermoabrasional niche

6171 thermobiont

6172 thermocline

6173 thermo-electricity

6174 thermohaline analysis; T-S analysis

6175 thermohaline convection; thermohaline circulation

6176 thermoisopleth

6177 thermokarst

6178 thermokarst cave-in

6179 thermokarst depression

6180 thermokarst funnel

6181 thermokarst lake; thaw lake

6182 thermokarst mound

6183 thermokarst terrain

6184 thermophile

6185 thermosphere

6186 thermostad

6187 thickness of aquifer

6188 thin section

6189 thinning

6190 Third World

6191 thorn forest; thorn woodland

6192 three-field system of farming

6193 threshold

6194 threshold population

6195 throughflow; inter-flow

6196 thrust fault; overfault

6197 thrust plane

6198 thufur

6199 thunder

6200 thunderstorm

6201 thunderstorm electricity

6202 thunderstorm squall

6203 thundery cloud system

6204 tidal adj

6205 tidal basin

6206 tidal bore; bore; eagre

6207 tidal creek

6208 tidal current; reversing current

6209 tidal delta

6210 tidal energy; tidal power

6211 tidal flat; mudflat

6212 tidal glacier; tidewater glacier

6213 tidal power station

6214 tidal pump

6215 tidal range; tide range

6216 tidal sea

6217 tidal wave

6218 tide

6219 tide crack in ice

6220 tide cycle

6221 tideless sea

6222 tierra caliente

6223 tierra fria

6224 tierra helada

6225 tierra templada

6226 tight-closed fracture

6227 till1

6228 till plain; till plateau

6229 tillage1

6230 tillite

6231 tilloid

6232 timber; lumber (amer)

6233 time

6234 time equation

6235 time scale

6236 time series

6237 time zone

6238 tirs

6239 tolar

6240 tolerance

6241 toltre

6242 tomillar

6243 tonnage

6244 topographic barrier

6245 topographic base

6246 topographic map

6247 topographic survey

6248 topographical manuscript

6249 topography

6250 topological adj

6251 topological map

6252 toponym; place-name; geographic name

6253 toponymy

6254 topsoil

6255 tor

6256 tornado

6257 torrent; flashy flow

6258 torrid zone; torrid belt

6259 total capacity of reservoir

6260 total cloudiness; total cloud cover

6261 total radiation

6262 total runoff

6263 tour; travel; trip; touristic trip

6264 tourism

6265 tourist arrival

6266 tourist departure

6267 tourist flow

6268 tourist industry

6269 tourist map

6270 tourist season

6271 touristic attraction

6272 touristic site; touristic zone; recreation area; touristic area; touristic region

6273 tower karst; turmkarst

6274 town

6275 towpath

6276 toxic waste

6277 trace element

6278 tracer

6279 traction

6280 trade; commerce

6281 trade winds; trade-wind circulation; northeast trades

6282 trade-wind desert

6283 trade-wind front

6284 trade-wind inversion

6285 trade-wind zone

6286 traffic

6287 traffic capacity

6288 traffic congestion; traffic jam

6289 traffic intensity

6290 transboundary impact

6291 transboundary pollutants transfer

6292 transcription system of place-names

6293 transect

6294 transection glacier; transfluent glacier; twinned glacier

6295 transfer costs

6296 transfer of funds

6297 transfluence of glacier; glacial transfluence

6298 transformation of an air mass

6299 transformation of nature

6300 transgression

6301 transgressive bedding

6302 transhumance; cattle driving

6303 transit

6304 transition economy

6305 transition zone; transitory zone

6306 translocation

6307 transmission capacity of soil

6308 transmission line

6309 transnational corporation; multinational corporation

6310 transparency of water; water transparency

6311 transparent ice

6312 transpiration

6313 transpiration ratio

6314 transport; transportation (amer)

6315 transport corridor

6316 transport geography; transportation geography; geography of transport

6317 transport junction; transport node; transport hub

6318 transport network; communication network

6319 transport providing

6320 transport system

6321 transportation slope

6322 transportation way; ways of communication

6323 transported moraine; transported debris

6324 transsedimentation

6325 transverse adj

6326 transverse dune

6327 transverse Mercator projection

6328 transverse projection

6329 transverse valley

6330 trap; trap rock

6331 trap landscape

6332 traversing; polygonometry

6333 travertine; tufa; calcareous tuff

6334 travertine mound

6335 travertine terrace

6336 treaty port

6337 tree

6338 tree layer

6339 tree-line; timber-line (amer); tree-limit

6340 trellis drainage pattern

6341 trench

6342 triangular delta; cuspate delta

6343 triangulation; triangular survey

6344 Trias; Triassic

6345 tribalism

6346 tribe

6347 tributary; influent; affluent

6348 trichohygrophyte

6349 trigonometric levelling

6350 trigonometric point

6351 trigonometric survey

6352 trilateration

6353 trimline

6354 triple point; triple state

6355 tripolar world; threecentric world

6356 trophic adj

6357 trophic level

6358 trophic zone

6359 tropholytic zone

6360 tropic

6361 tropic of Cancer

6362 tropic of Capricorn

6363 tropical adj

6364 tropical air mass; tropical air

6365 tropical black soil

6366 tropical climate

6367 tropical cyclone; tropical storm; tropical revolving storm

6368 tropical diseases; tropical endemic disease

6369 tropical dry forest

6370 tropical fauna

6371 tropical forest

6372 tropical karst

6373 tropical lake

6374 tropical monsoon

6375 tropical vegetation

6376 tropical zone; tropical belt

6377 tropics

6378 tropopause

6379 tropopause funnel

6380 tropophyte

6381 troposphere

6382 troug; glaciated valley; vallée f en U; glacial valley; U-shaped valley; hglacial trough

6383 trough end

6384 trough of wave

6385 trough shoulder; shoulder

6386 trough valley of glaciated shelf

6387 true dip

6388 true horizon

6389 true north

6390 true south

6391 truncated cyclone

6392 truncated high

6393 truncated soil

6394 truncated spur

6395 trunk glacier

6396 trunk valley

6397 trusteeship territory; trust territory

6398 tsunami

6399 tuff; volcanic tuff

6400 tuff-breccia

6401 tufflava

6402 tugai

6403 tumulus; burial mound; barrow

6404 tundra; tundra zone

6405 tundra fauna

6406 tundra gley soil

6407 tundra soils

6408 tundra vegetation; tundra flora

6409 tunnel

6410 tunnel valley

6411 turbidite

6412 turbidity

6413 turbidity current

6414 turbidity of water

6415 turbosphere

6416 turbulent flow

6417 turf; peat

6418 turf cover

6419 turf process

6420 turnover water supply; water recycling

6421 turnpike; toll road

6422 tussock

6423 tussocky bog

6424 tuz

6425 twig-fall

6426 twilight

6427 twilight colours

6428 two-field system of farming

6429 Tyndall figures

6430 type of landscape

6431 type of terrain

6432 type of vegetation

6433 typhoon

U

6434 ubac

6435 ubiquist; eurytopic organism; cosmopolite

6436 ubiquity; ubiquitous materials

6437 ultisol

6438 ultra-abyssal zone; hadal zone

6439 ultraviolet radiation

6440 umbrisol

6441 unavailable water

6442 unconfind aquifer; free groundwaters

6443 unconfined avalanche; non-channeled avalanche

6444 unconsolidated rock; loose rock

6445 undercutting

6446 under-developed country

6447 underflow; underchannel water

6448 underground; metro; tube; subway (amer)

6449 underground stream

6450 undergrowth; young growth; underwood

6451 underlying surface

6452 underpopulation

6453 undershrub

6454 underthrust

6455 unemployment; unemployment level; unemployment rate

6456 unequilibrium models

6457 uneven development

6458 unfrozen ground; non-frozen ground

6459 uniclinal shifting

6460 uniform steady flow

6461 uniformitarianism

6462 uninverted relief

6463 union

6464 unitary state

6465 universal time

6466 universe; cosmos; space2

6467 unsaturated air

6468 unsorted polygon

6469 unstable air mass

6470 unsteady flow

6471 unstratified adj

6472 updating of map

6473 updraught

6474 up-floating of glacier

6475 upland

6476 upper atmosphere

6477 upper bedding plane of stratum

6478 upper front

6479 upper frontal zone

6480 upper pool

6481 upper snow drifting

6482 upper water mass

6483 upper-level anticyclone; upper-air anticyclone

6484 upper-level cyclone; upper-air cyclone

6485 upscaling

6486 upset of environmental balance; ecological imbalance

6487 upstream adv adj

6488 upwash; uprush

6489 upwelling

6490 urban adj

6491 urban agglomeration

6492 urban area; urbanized territory

6493 urban climate

6494 urban containment

6495 urban ecology

6496 urban fringe

6497 urban geography

6498 urban landscape

6499 urban macrocephaly

6500 urban morphology

6501 urban planning; town planning

6502 urban population

6503 urban region; urban field; umland

6504 urban renewal; redevelopment

6505 urban settlement

6506 urban sprawl; urban growth; city expansion

6507 urban system

6508 urban transport

6509 urban village

6510 urban-industrial agglomeration

6511 urbanism

6512 urbanization

6513 urman

6514 uryoma

6515 usable ground water resources

6516 utilization of icebergs

6517 uvala; karst basin

6518 uzboi

V

6519 vadose water

6520 valley; river valley

6521 valley floor; floor of a valley

6522 valley glacier

6523 valley train

6524 valley-and-gully terrain

6525 value

6526 value added

6527 vapour pressure

6528 variability

6529 variable cloudness

6530 varved clay; varve

6531 varzea

6532 vauclusian spring

6533 veering of wind

6534 vegetable-growing

6535 vegetated sand dune

6536 vegetation; vegetation cover

6537 vegetation indices

6538 vegetation of solonchaks

6539 vegetation zone; zone of vegetation

6540 vein; lode

6541 vein ice

6542 veld

6543 velocity head; dynamic head

6544 velocity profile

6545 verglas; glazed frost; glaze

6546 verification of forecast

6547 vernal adj

6548 vernal equinox; spring equinox

6549 vernalization

6550 vertical

6551 vertical aerial photograph

6552 vertical circulation of water

6553 vertical columns in snow

6554 vertical dissection of mountains

6555 vertical exaggeration

6556 vertical profile

6557 vertical scale

6558 vertical temperature gradient; temperature gradient; lapse rate

6559 vesicle

6560 viaduct

6561 vicarious species

6562 viewshed analysis

6563 village; hamlet

6564 vine-growing; viticulture

6565 vineyard

6566 violent species; violent

6567 virgation

6568 virgin land; virgin soil

6569 virtual map

6570 viscous adj

6571 visibility; range of visibility

6572 visible ground ice

6573 visible light; light radiation; visible radiation

6574 visual pollution

6575 vital rates

6576 vital space; living space

6577 vitalism

6578 vlei

6579 voice of sea

6580 void ratio

6581 volcanic adj

6582 volcanic belt

6583 volcanic bomb

6584 volcanic bottom material

6585 volcanic cloud

6586 volcanic conduit

6587 volcanic cone

6588 volcanic dome

6589 volcanic dust

6590 volcanic earthquake

6591 volcanic eruption; eruption

6592 volcanic gases

6593 volcanic island

6594 volcanic lake; crater lake

6595 volcanic mountains

6596 volcanic plateau

6597 volcanic rock

6598 volcanic slag

6599 volcanic spine

6600 volcanic thunderstorm

6601 volcanic vent; volcanic pipe; vent

6602 volcanism; volcanic activity

6603 volcano

6604 volcanology; vulcanology

6605 volume of runoff

6606 vortex; eddy; whirl

6607 vortex chain

6608 vortex entrainment

6609 vorticity

6610 voyage round the World

6611 V-shaped valley

6612 Vulcanian eruption

6613 vulnerability

6614 vulnerable area; environmentally sensitive area

W

6615 wadi; oued

6616 walking tourisme; hiking

6617 war pollution; war contamination

6618 warm air mass

6619 warm current

6620 warm front

6621 warm occlusion

6622 warm pole

6623 wash

6624 washing out

6625 wash-out

6626 waste; waste product

6627 waste burial

6628 waste land; barren lands

6629 waste neutralization

6630 waste pile; slag heap; terricone

6631 waste processing; waste treatment

6632 waste storage; waste disposal

6633 waste storage site

6634 wasteless technology; non-waste technology; low-waste technology

6635 water; natural water

6636 water abrasion; marine abrasion; fluvial abrasion

6637 water ana salt balance

6638 water balance

6639 water balance of a glacier

6640 water balance of the atmosphere

6641 water bearing capacity

6642 water bloom; algae blooming; phytoplankton bloom

6643 water body; body of water

6644 water cloud

6645 water consumer

6646 water consumption; water use

6647 water consumption norm

6648 water content in a glacier

6649 water content of cloud

6650 water content of the air

6651 water conveying capacity

6652 water desinfection

6653 water disposal; water removal

6654 water economy

6655 water energy; hydroelectric energy; hydroelectric power

6656 water engineering; hydraulic engineering

6657 water equivalent of snow cover

6658 water exchange

6659 water exchange index

6660 water exchange time

6661 water fnd ice balance

6662 water hole

6663 water intake

6664 water lag

6665 water lag time

6666 water level

6667 water mass

6668 water permeability

6669 water permeability of soil

6670 water pocket

6671 water pollution; water contamination

6672 water protection area

6673 water protection forest

6674 water purification

6675 water quality

6676 water quality index

6677 water quality parameters

6678 water receiver

6679 water regime of soil

6680 water register

6681 water reserve in soil; soil water storage; soil moisture storage

6682 water resources

6683 water sky

6684 water spill

6685 water spout

6686 water stratification

6687 water supply; water-supply system

6688 water surface; sheet of water

6689 water table

6690 water transport

6691 water treatment; water conditioning

6692 water use

6693 water user

6694 water vapour; aqueous vapour

6695 water yield

6696 water-and-ice pulp

6697 waterfall

6698 waterfront

6699 water-gap

6700 watering place

6701 water-level weathering

6702 waterlogged adj

6703 waterlogging

6704 waterriching of soil

6705 watershed; divide

6706 watershed area

6707 waterway

6708 watten; tidal marsh; mud flat; wadden

6709 wave

6710 wave amplitude

6711 wave approach angle

6712 wave base

6713 wave cyclone

6714 wave deformation

6715 wave direction

6716 wave drag layer

6717 wave erosion; marine abrasion

6718 wave extinction; wave weakening

6719 wave height

6720 wave overturning

6721 wave period

6722 wave reflection

6723 wave refraction; refraction of waves

6724 wave repulsing wall

6725 wave shadow

6726 wave stabilisation

6727 wave strengthening

6728 wave train

6729 wave-built island; alluvian island

6730 wave-built shore; alluvian coast

6731 wave-cut niche

6732 wavelength

6733 waves of life

6734 waving; waves

6735 waxing slope; waning slope

6736 way of life

6737 weather

6738 weather chart; weather map; synoptic chart

6739 weather discomfort

6740 weather forecast; weather forecasting; meteorological forecast

6741 weather type

6742 weathering

6743 weathering crust

6744 weathering front

6745 wedging out of a stratum

6746 weeds

6747 welfare; well-being

6748 welfare geography

6749 well1

6750 west

6751 westerlies; Brave West Winds

6752 western adj; occidental adj; west adj

6753 wet snow

6754 wet snow avalanche; headwater avalanche

6755 wetland

6756 wetting front

6757 whaleback

6758 wharf

6759 whirlpool

6760 whirlpool notch

6761 whirlwind

6762 white caps; flock of sheep; horses

6763 white nights

6764 white smoker

6765 white squall

6766 white-out1

6767 white-out2

6768 wholesale trade

6769 wilderness

6770 wildfires; brushfires; bushfires; forest fire

6771 wilting point

6772 wind

6773 wind chill; chill factor

6774 wind corrasion

6775 wind direction

6776 wind divide

6777 wind energy; wind power

6778 wind farm; eolic park

6779 wind induced mixing

6780 wind power station; wind farm

6781 wind pressure; wind load

6782 wind resistance

6783 wind rose

6784 wind setup; wind-induced surge

6785 wind shadow

6786 wind slab; snow slab

6787 wind stress

6788 wind wane

6789 wind wave

6790 wind-blown furrows

6791 wind-blown snow stream

6792 wind-drift current; wind-driven current

6793 wind-driven effects; setup phenomena

6794 wind-gap

6795 windmill; wind turbine

6796 window ice

6797 windthrow

6798 windward adj

6799 windward slope

6800 winged headland

6801 winter

6802 winter crops

6803 winter flood

6804 winter hut; winter quarters

6805 winter resistance

6806 winter resort; winter sports resort

6807 winter solstice

6808 wintergreen plant

6809 wisps of mist

6810 wood industry

6811 wooded adj

6812 work sheet of a map

6813 working age

6814 world atlas

6815 world city; global city

6816 world development models

6817 world economy

6818 World Heritage Area; World Heritage Site

6819 world market

6820 World Ocean

6821 World political map

X

6822 xenophobia

6823 xeric adj; xerophitic adj; xerophilous adj

6824 xeromorphism

6825 xerophile

6826 xerophyte

6827 xerosere

6828 xerothermic adj

6829 xerothermic period

6830 xylophage

Y

6831 yachting

6832 yardang

6833 yazoo

6834 year

6835 yellow brown forest soil

6836 yellow soil

6837 yernik

6838 yield

6839 Yoldia Sea

6840 young ice

6841 young mountains; young fold mountains

6842 young shore ice

Z

6843 zenith

6844 zenith distance

6845 zenithal rains

6846 zephyr

6847 zero curtain

6848 zero-balance line

6849 zodiacal light

6850 zonal adj

6851 zonal current

6852 zonal flow; zonal winds; zonal circulation

6853 zonal index

6854 zonal soils

6855 zonal vegetation

6856 zonality; latitudinal zonation

6857 zonda

6858 zone of aeration; aerated zone

6859 zone of ecological disaster

6860 zone of environmental risk

6861 zone of superimposed ice

6862 zoning

6863 zoo; zoological garten

6864 zoochore

6865 zoocoenosis

6866 zoogenic microrelief

6867 zoogenic succession

6868 zoogeography

6869 zoophyte

6870 zooplankton

6871 zootope

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Details

No. of pages:
1072
Language:
English
Copyright:
© North Holland 2007
Published:
Imprint:
North Holland
eBook ISBN:
9780080488783
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444510426

About the Author

Vladimir Kotlyakov

Affiliations and Expertise

Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Anna Komarova

Affiliations and Expertise

Moscow, Russian Federation