# Elementary Processes at High Energy Pt B

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Elementary Processes at High Energy, Part B documents the proceedings of the eighth Course of the International School of Subnuclear Physics, held in Erice, Italy in July 1970. The said conference is devoted to different areas of great influence and importance to the field of particle physics. The book is divided into three parts. Part I covers specialized topics such as the status of some relevant problems in nuclear physics; possible failure of the Pomeranchuk Theorem; and external fields in the Lee-Wick Theory. Part II discusses the future of high-energy physics, and Part III is the closing lecture, which includes the history and present status of weak interactions. The text is recommended for physicists who would like to know more about the advancements and the general direction of research in particle physics, high-energy physics, and related fields.

## Table of Contents

Contents

Part A

Contributors

Foreword

Opening Lecture

N. Cabibbo: Electron Positron Annihilations

1. Introduction

2. The Single Photon Channel

3. New Particles and the Photon Propagator

4. Weak Interactions

5. Annihilation Into Hadrons

6. Hadron Processes at Higher Energies

References

Discussion

Theoretical Lectures

A. Martin: Rigorous Results From Field Theory and Unitarity

1. Introduction

2. Review of Field Theoretical Results On Scattering Amplitude

3. Positivity and Extension Of Dispersion Relations

4. Upper Bounds On The High Energy Amplitudes

4.1. The Spinless Case

4.2. Superconvergence Relations

4.3. Generalizations of The Froissart Bound to Nondiagonal Processes

5. The Question of The Pomeranchuk Theorem

6. Lower Bounds On The Forward Amplitude

7. Lower Bounds For Large Momentum Transfers: Form Factors and Large-angle

Scattering

Bibliography

References

Discussion 1

Discussion 2

Discussion 3

T. D. Lee: A Finite Theory Of Quantum Electrodynamics

1. Introduction

2. Indefinite Metric and Unitarity

3. Modified Photon Field

4. Modified Fermion Field

5. Feynman Diagrams

6. Experimental Consequences

7. Causality

8. Remarks

References

Discussion 1

Discussion 2

G. Veneziano: Narrow-Resonance Models Compatible with Duality and Their Developments

Introduction

1. Duality and Dual Resonance Models

2. The 4-Point Function, Derivation and Properties

3. The n-Point Function For Scalar Particles

3.1. Crossing, Duality and Projective Transformations

3.2. Koba-Nielsen Form

3.3. Chan Form

3.4. Properties

4. The Group Of Projective Transformations

5. Manifestly Dual Formulation with Operators

5.1. Level Structure and States Of Negative Norm

5.2. Duality Properties

5.3. Ward Identities and Ghost Cancellation

6. Further Developments

6.1. Developments At The Tree-Approximation Level

6.2 Unitarization Attempts

References

Discussion 1

Discussion 2

Discussion 3

?. Harari: Models For Hadronic Reactions: Duality, Absorption and Quarks

1. Introduction

2. Concluding Remarks

References

Discussion 1

Discussion 2

Discussion 3

Discussion 4

Review Lectures

W. Thirring: Why Is Gravitation Fascinating?

1. Introduction

2. Orders of Magnitude

3. Gravitational Collapse

4. Gravitational Radiation

5. Strong Universality

6. The Equivalence Principle

6.1. Constant Gravitational Potential

6.2. Constant Gravitational Field

6.3. Strong and Weak Equivalence

Bibliography

References

Discussion 1

Discussion 2

W. Thirring: A Trip Behind The Schwarzschild Radius

A Trip Behind The Schwarzschild Radius

References

T. D. Lee: Remarks On The |Δ/| = ½ Rule in Nonleptonic Weak Decays

1. Introduction

2. Soft Pion Limit

3. Nonorigin of The |Δ/| = ½ Rule

4. A Possible Origin of The |Δ/| = ½ Rule

Appendix. Evaluation of The σ Term

References

Discussion

?. D. Lee: Symmetry Principles In Physics

1. Introduction

2. Nonobservables, Symmetry Transformations and Conservation Laws

3. Asymmetries and Observables

4. Time Reversal

5. Complementarity of Symmetry Violations

6. Aesthetical Considerations

References

G. Salvini: Electromagnetic Production Of Hadronic Resonances

1. Present State Of Quantum Electrodynamics. Experimental Limits Of Present Day Accelerators

1.1. A Fast Survey On The Machines

1.2. Present State Of Quantum Electrodynamics At High Energy

1.3. Conclusions On The Present Verification On Quantum Electrodynamics At High Energy

References (Section 1)

2. Photons, Vectons, Hadrons: Vector Dominance

2.1. Introduction To The Vector Dominance Model

2.2. Measurement Of The Coupling Constants γv

2.3. Conclusions. Comparison with Theory

References (Section 2)

3. Vector Dominance and Photoproduction. Looking For New Vector Bosons

3.1. Photoproduction

3.2. Vector Dominance In Photoproduction Of Vector Mesons

3.3. Vector Meson Photoproduction In Complex Nuclei

3.4. Photon Absorption In Complex Nuclei

3.5. Looking For New Vector Bosons

3.6. Conclusions

References (Section 3)

Discussion 1

Discussion 2

Discussion 3

B. Maglić: Problems In Meson Spectroscopy

Introduction

1. Fine Structure In Meson Spectrum

1.1. Classification Of Meson States In Terms Of Simple Quark Model and Comparison with Experimental Facts

1.2. Comparison Of R-Structure with The Quark L-Excitation Model

1.3. Remark On Singlet-Triplet Splitting in Quark Model Of Bosons

2. Empirical Regularity in Meson Spectrum

2.1. Linear Trajectory Continues

2.2. Correspondence Between Peak Number and Spin?

2.3. Is There An Empirical Regularity in I = 0 and I = ½ Spectrum?

2.4. Boson Trajectories Of Dalitz

2.5. Cascade Decays Of Resonance and Narrowing Of Resonance Widths with the Mass

3. Mesons Heavier Than Two Nucleons and « Direct Channel» Resonances

3.1. «Direct Channel» Resonances

3.2. Bumps In dσ/dΩ (Backward)

3.3. Bumps In σannih(p̄p) vs. s

3.4. Search For Bumps in Charge Exchange (p̄p -> n̄n)

3.5. New Heavy Bosons

4. Anomalous Fine Structure In Meson Spectrum: Splitting Of The A2-Meson

4.1. Anomalous Fine-Structure Constant

4.2. Facts About A2 Splitting

4.3. Some Important Experimental Veracities About The A2 Splitting

4.4. Momentum-Transfer Selection and Its Possible Consequences

4.5. Interference with States of Higher Isospin

4.6. Proposed Interpretations Of A2 Splitting and Their Comparison with Experimental Facts

4.7. Is Anomalous Fine Structure Common To All Resonances?

5. Structure In π-π Interaction Near Threshold. The Old Problem Of Lowenergy π-π Scattering Revisited In The Light Of New Predictions and New Results

6. How Far Are We From Doing Real Pion-Pion Collision Experiments ? « Precetron ». The Principle Of Self-Colliding Orbits and Its Possible Application to π-π and μ-μ Collisions

6.1. The Concept of Self-Colliding Orbits

References

Discussion 1

Discussion 2

Discussion 3

Part B

Seminars on Specialized Topics

U. Amaldi, Jr.: Status Of Some Relevant Problems in Nuclear Physics

1. Introduction

2. Quasi-Free Scattering Reactions

3. Elastic Electron Scattering

4. A Sketch Of The Present Status Of The Theory of Nuclei

5. Conclusions

References

Discussion

R. A. Brandt: Probing The Light Cone

1. Introduction

2. Experiments Which Probe The Light Cone

3. Short-Distance Behavior in Quantum Field Theory

4. Light-Cone Behavior in Quantum Field Theory

5. Dimensionality

6. Mass Dispersion Relations

7. Deep Inelastic Electron Proton Scattering

8. Massive μ-Pair Production

9. Correcting Vector Meson Dominance

References

Discussion 1

Discussion 2

F. Buccella: A Mixing Operator For The SU3 X SU3 Chiral Algebra

A Mixing Operator For The SU3 X SU3 Chiral Algebra

References

Discussion

R. C. Casella: Possible Failure Of The Pomeranchuk Theorem. Shrinkage Of The Forward Elastic Peak and Oscillations

Possible Failure Of The Pomeranchuk Theorem. Shrinkage Of The Forward Elastic Peak and Oscillations

References

Discussion

S. Coleman: An Improved Energy-Momentum Tensor

1. Lagrangians, Currents, and Energy-Momentum Tensors

2. Scale Invariance and The New Energy-Momentum Tensor

3. Renormalizability

4. Gravity

References

Discussion 1

Discussion 2

M. Conversi: Preliminary Results On Bhabha Scattering, Muon Pair Annihilation and Hadron Production By e+, e- Colliding Beams In The GeV Region

1. Introduction

2. The Main Apparatus

3. The Monitoring System

4. Analysis Of The Events and Results

4.1. Wide-Angle Bhabha Scattering (53° < θ< 127°)

4.2. Annihilation Into Muon Pairs

4.3. Annihilation Into Hadron Pairs

4.4. Multi-Body Events

References

B. Ferretti: External Fields In Lee-Wick Theory

1. Introduction

2. The Model

3. Computational Rules For Transition Probability. Generalization

4. Causality and Limiting Conditions On The External Source

5. Discussion Of The Results

References

Discussion

L. Maiani: SU4. Is It A Plausible Symmetry For Hadrons?

1. Weak Interactions and SU4

2. Strong Interactions with SU4

References

Discussion

G. Preparata: Weak PCAC

1. Introduction

2. The Symmetry Breaking

3. PCAC and the Chiral World

4. Back to the Old Idea. The Weak PCAC

5. Mass Dispersion Relations. The Corrections to PCAC

6. Soft-Pion Extrapolation Theory

7. Applications

References

Discussion 1

Discussion 2

P. E. Schlein: Review Of Experimental Results On The ππ and Kπ Interactions

1. Introduction

2. Constraints In Partial Wave Analysis Of On-Mass-Shell Spinless Particle Scattering

2.1. Angular-Momentum Conservation

2.2. Charge Independence In ππ Scattering

3. How Do We Know We Have Pion Exchange?

4. Procedures For Extrapolation To The Pion Exchange Pole

5. Π-Ρ Interaction Studies In p-p Experiments

5.1. Inelasticity

5.2. Angular Correlation

5.3. Chew-Low Distributions and Pole Extrapolation

6. ΠΠ Elastic Scattering in Π-Ρ Experiments

6.1. Physical-Region Angular-Correlation Studies

6.2. Pole Extrapolation

7. ΠΠ Charge Exchange In Π-Ρ Experiments

8. ΠΠ Inelastic Scattering In Π-Ρ Experiments

8.1. The Reactions Π¯P → K+K¯n and Π+Π → K+K-

8.2. The Reactions Π¯Ρ → K°1K°1 and Π+Π → K°1K°1

8.3. The Reactions Π¯Ρ →(4π±)n and Π+Π → Π+Π Π +Π-

8.4. Results

9. Κπ Interaction In K-p Experiments

10. Off-Shell Effects in pΠ+ and Π-Π+ Elastic Scattering Near Threshold

10.1. pπ+ Scattering

10.2. Π-Π+ Scattering

Appendix I: Partial Wave Expansion Coefficients For Scattering Of Spinless Particles

Appendix II: Summary Of Some Dürr-Pilkuhn Vertex Factors

References

Discussion 1

Discussion 2

V. F. Weisskopf: What Is The Nucleon Made Of?

What Is The Nucleon Made Of?

References

Discussion

V. Alles Borelli, M. Bernardini, D. Bollini, P. L. Brunini, E. Fiorentino,

T. Massam, L. Monari, F. Palmonari and A. Zichichi: Study Of Charged Final States Produced in e+e- Interactions

1. The Experimental Set-Up

2. Data Taking and Analysis

3. Reaction (a): e+e- —> e±e∓

4. Reaction (b): e+e- —> μ±μ∓

5. Reaction (c): e+e- —> e±μ∓

6. Reaction (d): e+e- —> e±μ∓ + anything

7. Reaction (e): e+e- —> h±h∓

7.1. Proof That The Reaction (e) Is Not Due to Background

7.2. Results On The Pion Form Factor

8. Reaction (ƒ) : e+e- —> h±h∓ + anything

The future of High-Energy Physics

J. B. Adams: Rethinking The 300 GeV Machine

Rethinking The 300 GeV Machine

References

Closing Lecture

T. D. Lee: History Of Weak Interactions

1. Early History

2. Transition Period

3. Present Status

References

The 1970 International Physics Prize «Ettore Majorana»

Prizes and Scholarships

Closing Ceremony

Participants

## Product details

- No. of pages: 434
- Language: English
- Copyright: © Academic Press 1971
- Published: January 1, 1971
- Imprint: Academic Press
- eBook ISBN: 9780323150439

## About the Editor

### A Zichichi

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