Introduction (J.A. Caruso, K.L. Ackley, K.L. Sutton). Sample preparation techniques for elemental speciation studies (J. Szpunar, R. Łobinski). Introduction. Sample collection, pretreatment and storage. Sample handling prior to GC chromatographic analysis. Handling of biomaterials prior to HPLC. Conclusions - trends and perspectives. References. The use of biological substrates for preconcentration and element speciation (Y. Madrid, C. Cámara). Introduction. Accumulation mechanisms. Experimental accumulation procedures. Main analytical application of biological substrates. References.
Liquid chromatographic techniques for trace element speciation analysis (E Blanco Gonzáles, A. Sanz-Medel). Introduction. The tools of the trade. Liquid chromatography as the separation techniques in trace element speciation analysis. Interfacing liquid chromatography to atomic spectrometry. Applications to particular trace elements. References. Gas chromatographic and supercritical fluid chromatographic techniques for elemental speciation (P.C. Uden). Atomic plasma emission gas chromatographic detectors (AED). Plasma interfacing with Capillary GC. Analytical information and speciation by GC-AED. Plasma emission detectors for supercritical fluid chromatography. Atomic plasma mass spectral gas chromatographic detectors. The future of atomic emission chromatographic detection. References. Capillary electrophoresis for elemental speciation studies (J.W. Olesik). Introduction. Principles and instruments for elemental speciation using capillary electrophoresis. Detectors for elemental speciation by CE. Applications of capillary electrophoresis for elemental speciation. Conclusions: advantages and limitations of capillary electrophoresis for elemental speciation. References. Nebulizer sample introduction for HPLC IC