Electrons in Solids

Electrons in Solids

An Introductory Survey

1st Edition - January 1, 1981

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  • Author: Richard Bube
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323159333

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Electronics in Solids: An Introductory Survey presents a modern picture of electrons in solids using wave properties as the integrating theme of the conceptual background. It looks at lattice waves, light waves, and electron waves—along with their particle-like correlatives, phonons, photons, and electrons. The first chapters of the book provide a background on wave equations, boundary conditions, and general wave properties for the student so that the transition to the nonclassical world of quantum mechanics can be more easily assimilated. The last chapters examine optical properties, electrical properties, junctions, and magnetic properties of solids. This book is written for students of quantum mechanics and those examining the electrical, optical, and magnetic properties of solids, without relying too much on advanced knowledge on atomic or solid-state physics.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1 Particles and Waves

    Classical Views of Electrons, Light, and Energy

    Some Challenging Observations

    The New Approach


    Suggested Background Reading

    2 General Properties of Waves

    Wave Equations

    Traveling Waves and Standing Waves

    Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

    Transverse Waves in an Infinite String

    Transverse Waves in a Finite String

    Some Wave Analogies

    Longitudinal Waves in a Rod


    3 Lattice Waves

    Transverse Waves in a One-Dimensional Infinite Lattice

    Transverse Waves in a One-Dimensional Finite Lattice

    Longitudinal Waves in a One-Dimensional Infinite Lattice

    Waves in a One-Dimensional Lattice with Two Types of Atom

    Reststrahlen Absorption


    4 Light Waves

    Materials for Which σ = 0

    Materials for Which σ ≠ 0

    Optical Absorption Coefficient


    5 Matter Waves

    The Schroedinger Wave Equation

    Procedure for Solving the Wave Equation

    Free-Electron Model of a Confined Electron

    Physical Interpretation of the Wave Function

    Linear Harmonic Oscillator

    The Hydrogen Atom


    6 The Free-Electron Model

    What Energies Are Allowed?

    What Is the Density of Allowed States as a Function of Energy?

    What Is the Probability That a State Is Occupied?


    Thermionic Emission

    Field Emission

    Spin Paramagnetism

    Heat Capacity


    7 Energy Bands

    One-Dimensional Periodic Potential

    The Tight-Binding Approximation

    Effect of Periodic Potential on Free Electrons

    Density of States in a Band

    Summary of Different Band Representations

    Electron Velocity

    Effective Mass


    Bands and Bonds


    8 Optical Properties


    Summary of Absorption Processes

    Transitions across the Band Gap



    Free Carriers

    Polarization of Bound Electrons

    Photoelectronic Effects


    9 Electrical Properties

    Ohm's Law and Electrical Conductivity

    Temperature Dependence of Conductivity

    Temperature Dependence of Mobility

    Different Types of Relaxation Time

    Fermi Level in Semiconductors

    Intrinsic Semiconductor

    Donor and Acceptor Imperfections

    Electrical Conductivity in Extrinsic Semiconductors

    Hall Effect

    Different Kinds of Mobility

    Other Galavanomagnetothermoelectric Effects

    Quantum High Magnetic Field Effects



    10 Junctions


    Metal-Metal Junctions

    Metal-Semiconductor Junctions

    Semiconductor-Semiconductor Junctions: Homojunctions

    Applications of the p-n Junction

    The Tunnel Diode

    Semiconductor-Semiconductor Junctions: Heterojunctions


    11 Magnetic Properties

    Electric and Magnetic Moments

    Magnetic Properties of an Atom






    Ferromagnetic Domains

    Ferromagnetic Hysteresis

    Magnetic Bubble Memories


    Appendix A Vector Calculus

    The Gradient: ▽φ

    The Divergence : ▽ • A

    The Curl : ▽ x A

    Appendix B Units and Conversion Factors

    Appendix C Maxwell's Equations

    Maxwell's First Equation : ▽ • D

    Maxwell's Second Equation : ▽ • B

    Maxwell's Third Equation: ▽ x ɛ

    Maxwell's Fourth Equation: ▽ x H

    Dielectric Relaxation Time

    The Wave Equation

    Electromagnetic Plane Waves

    Electromagnetic Field Energy

    Appendix D Elements of Formal Wave Mechanics


Product details

  • No. of pages: 244
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1981
  • Published: January 1, 1981
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323159333

About the Author

Richard Bube

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