# Electrons in Solids

## 1st Edition

### An Introductory Survey

**Authors:**Richard Bube

**eBook ISBN:**9780323159333

**Imprint:**Academic Press

**Published Date:**1st January 1981

**Page Count:**244

## Description

Electronics in Solids: An Introductory Survey presents a modern picture of electrons in solids using wave properties as the integrating theme of the conceptual background. It looks at lattice waves, light waves, and electron waves—along with their particle-like correlatives, phonons, photons, and electrons. The first chapters of the book provide a background on wave equations, boundary conditions, and general wave properties for the student so that the transition to the nonclassical world of quantum mechanics can be more easily assimilated. The last chapters examine optical properties, electrical properties, junctions, and magnetic properties of solids. This book is written for students of quantum mechanics and those examining the electrical, optical, and magnetic properties of solids, without relying too much on advanced knowledge on atomic or solid-state physics.

## Table of Contents

Preface

1 Particles and Waves

Classical Views of Electrons, Light, and Energy

Some Challenging Observations

The New Approach

Problems

Suggested Background Reading

2 General Properties of Waves

Wave Equations

Traveling Waves and Standing Waves

Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

Transverse Waves in an Infinite String

Transverse Waves in a Finite String

Some Wave Analogies

Longitudinal Waves in a Rod

Problems

3 Lattice Waves

Transverse Waves in a One-Dimensional Infinite Lattice

Transverse Waves in a One-Dimensional Finite Lattice

Longitudinal Waves in a One-Dimensional Infinite Lattice

Waves in a One-Dimensional Lattice with Two Types of Atom

Reststrahlen Absorption

Problems

4 Light Waves

Materials for Which σ = 0

Materials for Which σ ≠ 0

Optical Absorption Coefficient

Problems

5 Matter Waves

The Schroedinger Wave Equation

Procedure for Solving the Wave Equation

Free-Electron Model of a Confined Electron

Physical Interpretation of the Wave Function

Linear Harmonic Oscillator

The Hydrogen Atom

Problems

6 The Free-Electron Model

What Energies Are Allowed?

What Is the Density of Allowed States as a Function of Energy?

What Is the Probability That a State Is Occupied?

Photoemission

Thermionic Emission

Field Emission

Spin Paramagnetism

Heat Capacity

Problems

7 Energy Bands

One-Dimensional Periodic Potential

The Tight-Binding Approximation

Effect of Periodic Potential on Free Electrons

Density of States in a Band

Summary of Different Band Representations

Electron Velocity

Effective Mass

Holes

Bands and Bonds

Problems

8 Optical Properties

Reflection

Summary of Absorption Processes

Transitions across the Band Gap

Excitons

Imperfections

Free Carriers

Polarization of Bound Electrons

Photoelectronic Effects

Problems

9 Electrical Properties

Ohm's Law and Electrical Conductivity

Temperature Dependence of Conductivity

Temperature Dependence of Mobility

Different Types of Relaxation Time

Fermi Level in Semiconductors

Intrinsic Semiconductor

Donor and Acceptor Imperfections

Electrical Conductivity in Extrinsic Semiconductors

Hall Effect

Different Kinds of Mobility

Other Galavanomagnetothermoelectric Effects

Quantum High Magnetic Field Effects

Superconductivity

Problems

10 Junctions

Surfaces

Metal-Metal Junctions

Metal-Semiconductor Junctions

Semiconductor-Semiconductor Junctions: Homojunctions

Applications of the p-n Junction

The Tunnel Diode

Semiconductor-Semiconductor Junctions: Heterojunctions

Problems

11 Magnetic Properties

Electric and Magnetic Moments

Magnetic Properties of an Atom

Diamagnetism

Paramagnetism

Ferromagnetism

Antiferromagnetism

Ferrimagnetism

Ferromagnetic Domains

Ferromagnetic Hysteresis

Magnetic Bubble Memories

Problems

Appendix A Vector Calculus

The Gradient: ▽φ

The Divergence : ▽ • A

The Curl : ▽ x A

Appendix B Units and Conversion Factors

Appendix C Maxwell's Equations

Maxwell's First Equation : ▽ • D

Maxwell's Second Equation : ▽ • B

Maxwell's Third Equation: ▽ x ɛ

Maxwell's Fourth Equation: ▽ x H

Dielectric Relaxation Time

The Wave Equation

Electromagnetic Plane Waves

Electromagnetic Field Energy

Appendix D Elements of Formal Wave Mechanics

Index

## Details

- No. of pages:
- 244

- Language:
- English

- Copyright:
- © Academic Press 1981

- Published:
- 1st January 1981

- Imprint:
- Academic Press

- eBook ISBN:
- 9780323159333