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Electrons in Solids 2e - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780121385521, 9780323161893

Electrons in Solids 2e

2nd Edition

An Introductory Survey

Author: Richard Bube
eBook ISBN: 9780323161893
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th March 1988
Page Count: 330
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Electrons in Solids, Second Edition: An Introductory Survey introduces the reader to electrons in solids and covers topics ranging from particles and waves to the free electron model, energy bands, and junctions. Optical and electrical properties are also discussed, along with magnetic properties. The wavelike properties of all of matter are chosen as an integrating theme into which to weave such themes as crystal lattice vibrations (with their effect on electron mobility and electrical and thermal conductivity), electromagnetic waves (with their effect on optical reflection and absorption), and electronic transport in solids (with its dependence on the wavelike properties of electrons). This book is comprised of 11 chapters and begins with an overview of particles and waves, together with classical views of electrons, light, and energy. The general properties of waves are then discussed, with particular reference to traveling waves, standing waves, transverse waves, and longitudinal waves. Lattice waves, light waves, and matter waves are also considered. The reader is also introduced to wave equations, boundary conditions, and general wave properties. The remaining chapters are devoted to optical, electrical, and magnetic properties as well as junctions, including metal-metal junctions, metal-semiconductor junctions, and metal-semiconductor junctions. This monograph is intended for undergraduates and first-year graduate students with a background primarily in materials science, metallurgy, or one of the other engineering disciplines.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the First Edition

1 Particles and Waves

Classical Views of Electrons, Light, and Energy

Some Challenging Observations

The New Approach

Topics for Discussion

Suggested Background Reading

2 General Properties of Waves

Basic Wave Properties

Wave Equations

Traveling Waves and Standing Waves

Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

Transverse Waves in an Infinite String

Transverse Waves in a Finite String

Reflection and Transmission of Waves in a String

Some Wave Analogies

Longitudinal Waves in a Rod

Summary of Wave Systems

3 Lattice Waves

Transverse Waves in a One-Dimensional Infinite Lattice

Transverse Waves in a One-Dimensional Finite Lattice

Measurement of Dispersion Curves for Lattice Waves

Longitudinal Waves in a One-Dimensional Infinite Lattice

Density of States for Lattice Waves

Waves in a One-Dimensional Lattice with Two Types of Atom

Reststrahlen Absorption

4 Light Waves

Properties of Electric and Magnetic Fields

Dielectric Relaxation Time

Electromagnetic Wave Equation

The Case of No Absorption

Description of Optical Absorption

Absorption due to Electrical Conductivity

5 Matter Waves

The Schroedinger Wave Equation

Procedure for Solving the Wave Equation

Free-Electron Model of a Confined Electron

Physical Interpretation of the Wave Function

Reflection, Transmission and Tunneling of Electron Waves

Linear Harmonic Oscillator

The Hydrogen Atom

The Periodic Table and the Pauli Exclusion Principle

6 The Free-Electron Model

What Energies are Allowed?

What Is the Density of Allowed States as a Function of Energy?

What Is the Probability That a State Is Occupied?


Thermionic Emission

Field Emission

Heat Capacity

7 Energy Bands

Bonds and Energy Gaps

One-Dimensional Periodic Potential

The Tight-Binding Approximation

Effect of Periodic Potential on Free Electrons

Density of States in a Band

Summary of Different Band Representations

Electron Velocity

Effective Mass


8 Optical Properties


Summary of Absorption Processes

Transitions across the Band Gap



Free Carriers

Plasma Resonance Absorption

Polarization of Bound Electrons

Photoelectronic Effects

Optical Spectra

Photoelectronic Applications

9 Electrical Properties

Ohm's Law and Electrical Conductivity

Temperature Dependence of Conductivity

Temperature Dependence of Mobility

Different Types of Relaxation Time

Fermi Level in Semiconductors

Intrinsic Semiconductor

Donor and Acceptor Imperfections

Electrical Conductivity in Extrinsic Semiconductors

Hall Effect

Different Kinds of Mobility

Other Galvanomagnetothermoelectric Effects

Quantum High Magnetic Field Effects

Amorphous Semiconductors

Other Conductivity Mechanisms and Materials

10 Junctions


Metal-Metal Junctions

Metal-Semiconductor Junctions: Schottky Barriers

Metal-Semiconductor Junctions: Ohmic Contacts

Semiconductor-Semiconductor Junctions: Homojunctions

Applications of the p-n Junction

The Tunnel Diode

Semiconductor-Semiconductor Junctions: Heterojunctions

Quantum Wells and Superlattices

11 Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Properties of an Atom


Free Electron Paramagnetism

Bound Electron Paramagnetism




Ferromagnetic Domains

Ferromagnetic Hysteresis

Magnetic Bubble Memories

New Magnetic Materials

Appendix A Vector Calculus

The Gradient: ∇φ

The Divergence: ▽ • A

The Curl: ▽ x A

Appendix B Units and Conversion Factors

Appendix C Electromagnetic Plane Waves and Field Energy

Electromagnetic Plane Waves

Electromagnetic Field Energy

Appendix D Elements of Formal Wave Mechanics

Appendix E Sample Problems


List of Problems

Answers to Problems



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© Academic Press 1981
28th March 1988
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Richard Bube

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