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Electronic Noses and Tongues in Food Science - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128002438, 9780128004029

Electronic Noses and Tongues in Food Science

1st Edition

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Editor: Maria Rodriguez Mendez
Series Editor: Victor Preedy
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128002438
eBook ISBN: 9780128004029
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 12th February 2016
Page Count: 332
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Electronic Noses and Tongues in Food Science describes the electronic products of advanced chemical and physical sciences combined with intuitive integration of microprocessors, advanced bioinformatics and statistics. These include, for example, voltammetric, bio-electronic, piezoelectric platforms made from a variety of components including, nanoparticles, enzyme biosensors, heavy metals, graphite-epoxy composites, metal oxide semiconductors, microelectrodes, microfluidic channels, pre-manufactured gas sensors, redox enzymes and others and is an ideal resource for understanding and utilizing their power in Food Science settings.

Devices used to analyse one particular food item can theoretically be adapted for other food items or components. This does not just mean the re-deploying the physical platforms but also the mode of bioinformatic and statistical analysis. This includes artificial neural networks (ANN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), partial least squares (PLS), principal component analysis (PCA) etc. In other words, there is cross transference of chemistry, physics, concepts, techniques, findings and approaches from one food to another. Electronic noses and tongues are two of these devices but are advancing in application and importance.

This book provides examples of the use of electronic noses and tongues to characterise components that contribute to sensory or compositional profiles, from ripening to harvesting and from storage of raw materials to packaging and consumption. These devises are suitable for high-throughput analysis, quality control or to determine the nature and extent of spoilage and adulteration, and have also been used to ascertain the geographical origins of food and mixtures.

Key Features

  • Presents latest developments in the application of electronic nose and tongue technologies to a variety of food-specific needs
  • Includes both electronic nose, electronic tongue and combined technology insights
  • Each chapter has sections on: The physical and chemical platforms; Analysis of specific foods; Applications to other foods and areas of food science


Food scientists, technologists, food industry workers, as well as research scientists.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Part I: The Electronic Nose
    • Chapter 1: Electronic Noses and Tongues in the Food Industry
      • Abstract
      • 1.1. Introduction
      • 1.2. Biomimetic systems
      • 1.3. Electronic noses and tongues
      • 1.4. Pattern recognition
      • 1.5. Applications to the food industry
      • 1.6. Conclusions
    • Chapter 2: Apple Analysis and the Electronic Nose
      • Abstract
      • 2.1. Introduction: Apple analysis using an electronic nose
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 3: Electronic Nose in Dairy Products
      • Abstract
      • 3.1. Introduction
      • 3.2. Cheese odor
      • 3.3. Odor and chemicals
      • 3.4. Odor evaluation
      • 3.5. Electronic nose
      • 3.6. Electronic noses for dairy products: an overview
      • 3.7. Conclusions
    • Chapter 4: Coffee and the Electronic Nose
      • Abstract
      • 4.1. Introduction
      • 4.2. Coffee volatile composition
      • 4.3. Coffee data analysis for electronic nose
      • 4.4. Electronic nose applications in coffee analysis
      • 4.5. Conclusion and future challenges
    • Chapter 5: Bakery Products and Electronic Nose
      • Abstract
      • 5.1. Introduction
      • 5.2. Factors affecting the aroma of bakery products
      • 5.3. Composition of volatile compounds in bakery products
      • 5.4. E-nose applications in bakery and cereal products
      • 5.5. Conclusions
    • Chapter 6: Electronic Noses for Monitoring the Quality of Fruit
      • Abstract
      • 6.1. Introduction
      • 6.2. Electronic noses for monitoring the ripeness stage of fruit
      • 6.3. Electronic noses for assessing the postharvest quality of fruit
      • 6.4. Mass spectrometry–based electronic noses and sensor fusion techniques
      • 6.5. Outlook and conclusions
    • Chapter 7: Possible Application of Electronic Nose Systems for Meat Safety: An Overview
      • Abstract
      • 7.1. Introduction
      • 7.2. Sampling, identification, and analysis of meat volatiles
      • 7.3. Electronic nose systems
      • 7.4. Challenges and future direction
    • Chapter 8: Multivariate Approaches to Electronic Nose and PTR–TOF–MS Technologies in Agro-Food Products
      • Abstract
      • 8.1. Introduction
      • 8.2. Electronic nose application to citrus fruits
      • 8.3. Electronic nose application to dairy products
      • 8.4. PTR–TOF–MS technology and its applications
      • 8.5. Multivariate approaches
      • 8.6. Future trends
    • Chapter 9: Olive Oil and Electronic Nose
      • Abstract
      • 9.1. Introduction
      • 9.2. Case study 1: Evaluation of oxidation status in virgin olive oils
      • 9.3. Case study 2: Classification of EVOOs
      • 9.4. Case study 3: Classification of EVOO samples by PTR-MS
      • 9.5. Case study 4: Process monitoring by PTR-MS
    • Chapter 10: Rapeseed Analysis by an Electronic Nose
      • Abstract
      • 10.1. Introduction
      • 10.2. Quality assessment criteria for rapeseed
      • 10.3. Identification of microbiologically infested and burnt rapeseed using an electronic nose equipped with conducting polymer sensors
      • 10.4. Identification of microbiologically infested and burnt rapeseed using an electronic nose equipped with metal oxide and quartz microbalance sensors
      • 10.5. Identification of microbiologically infested rapeseed carried out using an electronic nose equipped with colorimetric odor sensors
      • 10.6. Summary and prospects
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 11: Rice and the Electronic Nose
      • Abstract
      • 11.1. Introduction
      • 11.2. Quality of rice
      • 11.3. Classification Method of Rice
      • 11.4. Electronic nose for rice
      • 11.5. Data analysis
      • 11.6. Rice analysis: comparison of performance using three different e-noses
      • 11.7. Results and discussions
      • 11.8. Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 12: Electronic Noses for the Quality Control of Spices
      • Abstract
      • 12.1. Introduction to spices and culinary herbs
      • 12.2. Classical methods of spice analysis
      • 12.3. Deployment of electronic noses for spice analysis
      • 12.4. Case studies for the analysis of spices
      • 12.5. Conclusions
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 13: Tea and the Use of the Electronic Nose
      • Abstract
      • 13.1. Introduction
      • 13.2. Tea chemistry
      • 13.3. Traditional black tea quality evaluation techniques
      • 13.4. Black tea processing—a brief overview
      • 13.5. Literature survey on electronic nose-based tea quality evaluation
      • 13.6. Case study
      • 13.7. Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 14: Wine Applications With Electronic Noses
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 14.1. Introduction
      • 14.2. Electronic noses operation
      • 14.3. Wine applications of electronic noses
      • 14.4. Conclusions and future trends
  • Part II: The Electronic Tongue
    • Chapter 15: Electronic Tongue Principles and Applications in the Food Industry
      • Abstract
      • 15.1. Introduction
      • 15.2. Electronic tongue definition and principles
      • 15.3. Sample pretreatment requirements for food analysis by e-tongue
      • 15.4. Taste and taste compounds discrimination by e-tongue
      • 15.5. Application areas in food
      • 15.6. Conclusions
    • Chapter 16: Beer Analysis Using an Electronic Tongue
      • Abstract
      • 16.1. Introduction
      • 16.2. Taste sensor—electronic tongue with global selectivity
      • 16.3. Seven kinds of taste qualities
      • 16.4. Materials and methods in the beer measurement
      • 16.5. Analysis of beer
      • 16.6. Conclusions
    • Chapter 17: Analysis of Coffees Using Electronic Tongues
      • Abstract
      • 17.1. Introduction
      • 17.2. Coffee analysis
      • 17.3. Electronic tongues using electrochemical techniques
      • 17.4. Electronic tongues using electrical impedance
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 18: Gliadins in Foods and the Electronic Tongue
      • Abstract
      • 18.1. Introduction
      • 18.2. Gliadins and the celiac disease
      • 18.3. Sensor devices for gliadin and/or gluten detection in foods
      • 18.4. Conclusions and final remarks
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 19: Electronic Tongues Applied to Grape and Fruit Juice Analysis
      • Abstract
      • 19.1. Introduction
      • 19.2. Orange juice and combinations of different beverages
      • 19.3. Apple juice
      • 19.4. Other fruit juices
      • 19.5. Grape juices
      • 19.6. Conclusion
    • Chapter 20: Meat and Fish Spoilage Measured by Electronic Tongues
      • Abstract
      • 20.1. Introduction
      • 20.2. Electronic tongues
      • 20.3. Meat and fish spoilage assessment using e-tongues
      • 20.4. Conclusions
    • Chapter 21: Milk and Dairy Products Analysis by Means of an Electronic Tongue
      • Abstract
      • 21.1. Introduction
      • 21.2. Analysis of taste and flavor
      • 21.3. Freshness evaluation, aging, and microbial growth monitoring
      • 21.4. Fermentation monitoring and analysis of fermented milk products
      • 21.5. Estimation of fat content
      • 21.6. Classification according to dairy origin/brand
      • 21.7. Industry-oriented applications
      • 21.8. Conclusions
    • Chapter 22: Monitoring of Fermentation and Biotechnological Processes
      • Abstract
      • 22.1. Introduction
      • 22.2. Requirements for the sensors for bioprocess monitoring
      • 22.3. Model fermentation solutions
      • 22.4. Food additives
      • 22.5. Food fermentations
      • 22.6. Conclusions
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 23: Phenolic Compounds Analyzed With an Electronic Tongue
      • Abstract
      • 23.1. Introduction
      • 23.2. Examples on the literature
      • 23.3. Voltammetric BioE-tongue
      • 23.4. Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 24: Electronic Tongue for the Estimation of Important Quality Compounds in Finished Tea
      • Abstract
      • 24.1. Introduction
      • 24.2. Electronic tongue for tea: the current state of art
      • 24.3. Objectives and philosophy
      • 24.4. The voltammetric electronic tongue setup
      • 24.5. Case study I: estimation of total theaflavins and thearubigins in black tea (Ghosh et al., 2012)
      • 24.6. Case study II: estimation of theaflavin fractions from electronic tongue response
      • 24.7. Conclusions
    • Chapter 25: Drinking Water Analysis Using Electronic Tongues
      • Abstract
      • 25.1. Introduction
      • 25.2. The e-tongue
      • 25.3. Drinking water quality
      • 25.4. The e-tongue for drinking water analysis
      • 25.5. Conclusions and future aspects
    • Chapter 26: Electronic Tongues for the Organoleptic Characterization of Wines
      • Abstract
      • 26.1. Introduction
      • 26.2. Principles of e-tongues
      • 26.3. E-tongues dedicated to the quality control of wines
      • 26.4. Assessment of chemical parameters
      • 26.5. Prediction of scores given by a panel of experts
      • 26.6. Conclusions and future trends
      • Acknowledgments
  • Part III: Combined Nose and Tongue
    • Chapter 27: Olive Oil and Combined Electronic Nose and Tongue
      • Abstract
      • 27.1. Introduction
      • 27.2. Electronic noses and electronic tongues employed in olive oils
      • 27.3. Fusion of electronic noses and electronic tongues in the analysis of olive oils
      • 27.4. Future trends and perspective
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 28: Alcoholic Fermentation Using Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue
      • Abstract
      • 28.1. Introduction
      • 28.2. E-nose applications
      • 28.3. E-tongue applications
      • 28.4. E-nose and e-tongue applications
    • Chapter 29: Wine and Combined Electronic Nose and Tongue
      • Abstract
      • 29.1. Introduction
      • 29.2. E-nose and e-tongue
      • 29.3. The hybrid e-tongue
      • 29.4. The electronic panel
  • Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2016
12th February 2016
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Maria Rodriguez Mendez

Since 1996 Prof. Rodriguez-Mendez has held a permanent professor position at the University of Valladolid and in 2011 she has obtained the Chair of Inorganic Chemistry at the Industrial Engineers School of the University of Valladolid. During these years she has coordinated national and international projects dedicated to the development of electronic noses and electronic tongues to the analysis of foods, with special attention to the analysis of olive oils and wines. At the present moment she is involved in several funded Projects devoted to the development of an electronic tongue based on nanostructured biosensors for the characterisation of wines and olive oils, and to the assessment of their antioxidant potential.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Chair of Inorganic Chemistry at the University of Valladolid, Spain

About the Series Editor

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is a staff member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine within King's College London. He is also a member of the Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences (research) and the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics (teaching). Professor Preedy is also Director of the Genomics Centre of King's College London. Professor Preedy graduated in 1974 with an Honours Degree in Biology and Physiology with Pharmacology. He gained his University of London PhD in 1981. In 1992, he received his Membership of the Royal College of Pathologists and in 1993 he gained his second doctorate (DSc), for his outstanding contribution to protein metabolism in health and disease. Professor Preedy was elected as a Fellow to the Institute of Biology in 1995 and to the Royal College of Pathologists in 2000. Since then he has been elected as a Fellow to the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (2004) and The Royal Institute of Public Health (2004). In 2009, Professor Preedy became a Fellow of the Royal Society for Public Health and in 2012 a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. Professor Preedy has carried out research when attached to Imperial College London, The School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London) and the MRC Centre at Northwick Park Hospital. He has collaborated with research groups in Finland, Japan, Australia, USA and Germany. Prof Preedy is a leading expert on the science of health and has a long standing interest in neurological disease and tissue pathology. He has lectured nationally and internationally. To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 600 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Professor of Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Clinical Biochemistry; Director of the Genomics Centre, King’s College, London, UK

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