Electron Optics

Electron Optics

2nd Edition - January 1, 1972

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  • Authors: P. Grivet, P. W. Hawkes, A. Septier
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483137858

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Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and prism optics are also described. This book will be useful to graduating students, as well as to beginners who sometimes feel lost in the abundant specialized literature.

Table of Contents

  • Preface to the Second English Edition

    Preface to the First English Edition

    Part 1. Optics

    1. Fundamental Features and Basic Techniques

    1.1 The Historical Background

    1.2 Outline of a Demonstration in Electron Optics

    1.3 The Object

    1.4 The Fluorescent Screen

    1.5 Photography

    1.6 The Optical Bench

    2. The Distribution of Potential and Field in Electrostatic Lenses

    2.1 Solution of the Laplace Equation

    2.2 The Electrolytic Tank

    2.3 The Resistance Network

    3. The Field Distribution in Magnetic Lenses

    3.1 Direct Calculation of the Magnetic Field

    3.2 Direct Methods of Measuring the Induction B and Its Gradient

    3.3 The Use of Electrical Analogues

    4. The Optical Properties of Electrostatic Lenses

    4.1 Image Formation

    4.2 The Gaussian Approximation

    4.3 Optical Formalism

    4.4 Relativistic Lenses

    4.5 Practical Determination of Electron Trajectories

    4.6 Experimental Determination of the Standard Cardinal Elements

    5. The Optical Properties of Magnetic Lenses

    5.1 The Form of the Trajectories in an Axially Symmetric Field

    5.2 The Gaussian Approximation

    5.3 Properties of Magnetic Lenses

    5.4 Relativistic Lenses

    5.5 Methods of Determining the Fundamental Rays

    5.6 Calculation of the Trajectories and Optical Elements

    6. Similarities and Differences between Glass Optics and Electron Optics

    6.1 Electrostatic Lenses

    6.2 Magnetic Lenses

    6.3 The Refractive Index in Interference Phenomena and the "Wave" Mechanics of the Electron

    7. Lens Defects

    7.1 The Limits of the Gaussian Approximation

    7.2 Third Order Aberrations

    7.3 Calculation of the Aberration Coefficients

    7.4 Chromatic Aberration

    7.5 Mechanical Defects

    7.6 Measurement of the Aberration Coefficients, and Their Orders of Magnitude

    7.7 Correction of the Aberrations

    8. Some Electrostatic Lenses and Triode Guns

    8.1 Two Coaxial Cylinders

    8.2 Lenses Formed from Three Diaphragms

    8.3 "Mesh" or "Grid" Lenses

    8.4 The Immersion Objective

    8.5 The Triode Electron Gun

    9. Magnetic Lens Models

    9.1 The Long Solenoid

    9.2 Models Representing Short Systems

    9.3 The Unshielded Short Coil

    9.4 Shielded Coils

    9.5 Superconducting Coils

    10. Strong Focusing Lenses

    10.1 The Strong Focusing Principle

    10.2 The Field Distribution

    10.3 The First Order Optical Properties

    10.4 Combinations of Lenses

    10.5 A Chain of N Identical Crossed Quadrupole Lenses

    10.6 Applications of Quadrupole Lenses

    10.7 The Aberrations of Quadrupole Lenses

    10A. Prism Optics

    10A.1 Magnetic Prisms

    10A.2 Electrostatic Prisms

    Table 1. Some Useful Constants

    Table 2. Some Useful Formula

    Table 3. Fundamental Characteristics of Free Electrons in Motion

    Table 4. The Legendre Functions of Fractional Order



Product details

  • No. of pages: 412
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1972
  • Published: January 1, 1972
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483137858

About the Authors

P. Grivet

P. W. Hawkes

A. Septier

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