Electron Beams, Lenses, and Optics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122380020, 9781483271781

Electron Beams, Lenses, and Optics

1st Edition

Volume 2

Authors: A. B. El-Kareh J. C. J. El-Kareh
eBook ISBN: 9781483271781
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1970
Page Count: 334
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Electron Beams, Lenses, and Optics, Volume 2 deals with the aberrations relating to electronic optics.

This book discusses the geometrical aberrations of lenses; spherical aberration of electric and magnetic lenses; and measurement of the spherical aberration of various electric and magnetic lenses. The theory of diffraction; influence of space charge in high density electron beams; and chromatic aberration are also deliberated.

This publication likewise covers the classification of the geometrical aberrations; derivation of the coefficient of spherical aberration according to Glaser; and pepper-pot method or Hartmann's test. The Fraunhofers diffraction through a circular aperture; force due to coulomb repulsion; and upper limit of the chromatic aberration of magnetic lenses are also included.

This volume is valuable to industrial scientists and engineers concerned with electrostatic and magnetic lenses.

Table of Contents

List of Symbols

IX. Geometrical Aberrations of Lenses

9.1 Types of Aberrations

9.2 Third-Order Theory

9.3 Geometrical Aberrations

9.4 Classification of the Geometrical Aberrations

9.5 Description of the Aberration Figures

9.6 Calculation of the Geometrical Aberration Coefficients

9.7 Solution for Paraxial Rays

9.8 Calculation of the Aberrations

9.9 Spherical Aberration

9.10 Coma Coefficient

9.11 Anisotropie Coma Coefficient

9.12 Curvature Coefficient

9.13 Astigmatism Coefficient

9.14 Anisotropie Astigmatism Coefficient

9.15 Distortion Coefficient

9.16 Anisotropie Distortion Coefficient

Further Reading

X. The Spherical Aberration of Electric and Magnetic Lenses

10.1 The Impossibility of Canceling the Spherical Aberration

10.2 Definition of the Coefficient Cs

10.3 Disk of Minimum Confusion

10.4 The Spherical Aberration of the Combination of Two Thin Lenses

10.5 Conversion of Cs from One Object Position to Another

10.6 Derivation of the Coefficient of Spherical Aberration according to Glaser

10.7 Glaser's Expression for Cs of Purely Magnetic Fields

10.8 Spherical Aberration of a Magnetic Lens with a Bell-Shaped Field Distribution

10.9 Spherical Aberration of the Symmetrical Magnetic Lens

10.10 Spherical Aberration of an Electrostatic Immersion Lens

10.11 Spherical Aberration of Einzel Lenses

Further Reading

XI. Measurement of the Spherical Aberration of Various Electric and Magnetic Lenses

11.1 The Pepperpot Method or Hartmann's Test

11.2 The Shadow Method

11.3 The Halo Method

11.4 The Knife-Edge Method

11.5 The Tilt Method

11.6 The Diffraction Method

11.7 The Combined Tilt and Diffraction Method

Further Reading

XII. Theory of Diffraction

12.1 General Properties of a Wave

12.2 The Plane Wave

12.3 The de Broglie and Planck Relations

12.4 Huygens' Principle

12.5 Diffraction

12.6 The Wave Equation

12.7 Kirchhoff's Diffraction Equation

12.8 Fraunhofers Diffraction through a Circular Aperture

12.9 Resolving Power of an Ideal Optical System

XIII. The Influence of Space Charge in High Density Electron Beams

13.1 Force Due to Magnetic Attraction

13.2 Force Due to Coulomb Repulsion

13.3 The Universal Curve

13.4 Numerical Examples

Further Reading

XIV. Chromatic Aberration

14.1 Development of the Expressions for Chromatic Aberration

14.2 Chromatic Aberration at the Focal Point

14.3 Upper Limit of the Chromatic Aberration of Magnetic Lenses

14.4 Upper Limit of the Chromatic Aberration of Electrostatic Lenses

14.5 Coefficient of Chromatic Aberration

14.6 Chromatic Aberration of a Magnetic Lens with the Glaser Bell-Shaped Field

14.7 Minimum Value of Cc and 8

14.8 Chromatic Aberration of the Symmetrical Magnetic Lens

14.9 Current Limit at the Focus Due to the Velocity Spread of the Emitted Electrons

14.10 Numerical Example

14.11 Simplified Derivation

Further Reading




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© Academic Press 1970
Academic Press
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About the Author

A. B. El-Kareh

J. C. J. El-Kareh