Electromigration in Thin Films and Electronic Devices - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781845699376, 9780857093752

Electromigration in Thin Films and Electronic Devices

1st Edition

Materials and Reliability

Editors: Choong-Un Kim
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845699376
eBook ISBN: 9780857093752
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 28th August 2011
Page Count: 352
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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Part I: Introduction

Chapter 1: Modeling of electromigration phenomena

Abstract:

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Analytical methods

1.3 Numerical methods

1.4 Conclusion

Chapter 2: Modeling electromigration using the peridynamics approach

Abstract:

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Previous approaches to modeling electromigration (EM)

2.3 Peridynamics (PD)

2.4 PD and EM

2.5 Illustrative example

2.6 Computational requirements: present and future

2.7 Conclusions

Chapter 3: Modeling, simulation, and X-ray microbeam studies of electromigration

Abstract:

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Modeling and simulation approaches

3.3 Experimental, modeling and simulation findings

3.4 Conclusions

3.5 Acknowledgments

Part II: Electromigration in copper interconnects

Chapter 4: X-ray microbeam analysis of electromigration in copper interconnects

Abstract:

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Samples and X-ray microdiffraction methods

4.3 Electromigration (EM)-induced strains in conductor lines

4.4 Conclusions and summary

4.6 Appendix

Chapter 5: Voiding in copper interconnects during electromigration

Abstract:

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Void nucleation

5.3 Void growth

5.4 Immortality

5.5 Future trends

5.6 Acknowledgements

Chapter 6: The evolution of microstructure in copper interconnects during electromigration

Abstract:

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Copper microstructure evolution during electromigration

6.3 Plasticity and materials degradation mechanisms in copper interconnects

6.4 Implications for the reliability of advanced copper interconnect schemes

6.5 Conclusions and future trends

Chapter 7: Scaling effects on electromigration reliability of copper interconnects

Abstract:

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Mass transport during electromigration (EM)

7.3 Effect of via scaling on EM reliability

7.4 Multi-linked statistical tests for via reliability

7.5 Methods to improve the EM lifetime

7.6 Conclusion and future trends

7.7 Acknowledgements

Chapter 8: Electromigration failure in nanoscale copper interconnects

Abstract:

8.1 Process solutions being developed for copper interconnects

8.2 Electromigration (EM) scaling by generation

8.3 Suppression by metal capping: blocking rate-limiting EM pathways

8.4 Copper microstructure impact

8.5 Conclusions

8.6 Acknowledgements

Part III: Electromigration in solder

Chapter 9: Electromigration-induced microstructural evolution in lead-free and lead–tin solders

Abstract:

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Intermetallic compound formation

9.3 Void formation

9.4 Formation of whisker and hillock

9.5 Grain reorientation and grain rotation

9.6 Dissolution and recrystallization

Chapter 10: Electromigration in flip-chip solder joints

Abstract:

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Electromigration (EM)-induced voiding failure of solder interconnects

10.3 Joule heating-enhanced dissolution of under bump metallurgy (UBM) and the diffusion of on-chip metal interconnects

10.4 Stress-related degradation of solder interconnects under EM

10.5 Thermomigration (TM) behavior in solder interconnects under a thermal gradient

10.6 Conclusions

10.7 Acknowledgements

Index


Description

Understanding and limiting electromigration in thin films is essential to the continued development of advanced copper interconnects for integrated circuits. Electromigration in thin films and electronic devices provides an up-to-date review of key topics in this commercially important area.

Part one consists of three introductory chapters, covering modelling of electromigration phenomena, modelling electromigration using the peridynamics approach and simulation and x-ray microbeam studies of electromigration. Part two deals with electromigration issues in copper interconnects, including x-ray microbeam analysis, voiding, microstructural evolution and electromigration failure. Finally, part three covers electromigration in solder, with chapters discussing topics such as electromigration-induced microstructural evolution and electromigration in flip-chip solder joints.

With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Electromigration in thin films and electronic devices is an essential reference for materials scientists and engineers in the microelectronics, packaging and interconnects industries, as well as all those with an academic research interest in the field.

Key Features

  • Provides up-to-date coverage of the continued development of advanced copper interconnects for integrated circuits
  • Comprehensively reviews modelling of electromigration phenomena, modelling electromigration using the peridynamics approach and simulation, and x-ray microbeam studies of electromigration
  • Deals with electromigration issues in copper interconnects, including x-ray microbeam analysis, voiding, microstructural evolution and electromigration failure

Readership

Materials scientists and engineers in the microelectronics, packaging and interconnects industries, as well as all those with an academic research interest in the field.


Details

No. of pages:
352
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2011
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780857093752
Hardcover ISBN:
9781845699376
Paperback ISBN:
9780081016961

About the Editors

Choong-Un Kim Editor

Choong-Un Kim is Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Texas at Arlington, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Texas at Arlington, USA