Electrical Stimulation Research Techniques - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125474405, 9780323152754

Electrical Stimulation Research Techniques

1st Edition

eBook ISBN: 9780323152754
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th August 1981
Page Count: 386
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Methods in Psychological Physiology, Volume 3: Electrical Stimulation Research Techniques is a compilation of papers that focus on the different theories and techniques of electrical stimulation and its applications to psychology. The first five chapters cover different kinds of electrical stimulation, their basic principles, and techniques involved. These include extracellular and intracellular stimulation, the microstimulation technique, and the stimulation of the brain. Chapters 6 to 9 discuss the beneficial effects and uses of these stimulation techniques, such as motivation and reinforcement, memory research, its relation to brain lesions, and the implications for electroconvulsive therapy. The last two chapters talk about the electrical stimulation of the peripheral nerve and the grid and peripheral shock stimulation. The book is recommended for psychotherapists who wish to learn more about the use of electrical stimulation techniques as treatment, and for neurologists who would like to further understand the effects of electrical stimulation.

Table of Contents




Chapter 1 Extracellular Stimulation

I. Introduction

II. Basic Principles—The DC Case

III. Other Basic Principles

IV. Other Facts

Appendix I: Current Flow

Appendix II: Current Flow in the Brain


Chapter 2 Intracellular Stimulation

I. Introduction

II. Intracellular Stimulating and Recording with Separate Electrodes

III. A Simple Circuit for Intracellular Stimulation with Two Electrodes

IV. Intracellular Stimulation and Recording with a Single Electrode

V. Current-Monitoring Techniques

VI. Summary


Chapter 3 Microstimulation Technique

I. Introduction

II. Electrode

III. Stimulating Current

IV. Single versus Repetitive Stimulation

V. Stimulus Artifact

VI. Identification of Electrode Tracks

VII. Electrode Insertion


Chapter 4 Stimulation of the Brain via Metallic Electrodes

I. Introduction

II. The Metal-Tissue Interface

III. Preparatory Techniques

IV. Summary

Appendix: A Simple, Accurate, and Optoelectricaily Isolated Constant Current Stimulator


Chapter 5 Depth Stimulation of the Brain

I. Electrodes and Polarization

II. Physical Aspects of Brain Stimulation

III. Biological Aspects of Brain Stimulation

IV. Possibilities and Limitations of Brain Stimulation

V. Conclusions


Chapter 6 Subcortical Stimulation for Motivation and Reinforcement

I. Introduction

II. Electrodes

III. Connecting Cable and Slip Rings

IV. Atlases and Implantation Coordinates

V. Forms of Stimulation

VI. Stimulators

VII. Monitoring

VIII. Mode of Excitation

IX. Determining the Locus of the Electrode Tip

X. Determining Which Neural Systems are Excited

XI. Conclusions


Chapter 7 Electrical Stimulation as a Tool in Memory Research

I. Introduction

II. EBS as a Tool for the Study of Memory

III. Electrical Stimulation Parameters

IV. Research Strategies with EBS


Chapter 8 Brain Stimulation Effects Related to Those of Lesions

I. Introduction

II. The Effect of Electrode Implantation

III. The Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Tissue

IV. Behavioral Consequences of Punctures, Electrode Implantation, and Stimulation

V. Summary


Chapter 9 Electroconvulsive Therapy—Who Needs It?

I. Introduction

II. A Brief History of Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

III. Does ECT Work?

IV. Do the Positive Benefits Outweigh the Adverse Effects?

V. The Heuristic Contributions of ECT Research

VI. The Future of Electroconvulsive Therapy


Chapter 10 Electrical Stimulation of Peripheral Nerve

I. Introduction

II. General Principles of Peripheral Nerve Stimulation

III. Electrodes

IV. Stimulus Intensity

V. Selective Activation

VI. Concluding Comments


Chapter 11 Grid and Peripheral Shock Stimulation

I. Introduction

II. Apparatus for Delivering the Shock to the Subject

III. Additional Equipment Required for Grid-Floor Shock

IV. Electrical Properties of the Animal

V. Classification of Shock Sources by General Properties

VI. Practical AC Source Designs

VII. Sources that Minimize the Variability of Grid-Floor Shock

VIII. Translating between Different Sources and Situations: Equal Aversion Functions

IX. The Usable Range of Aversive Shock Intensities

X. An Outline of Basic Techniques for the Measurement and Control of Electric Shock Motivation




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© Academic Press 1981
Academic Press
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