# Electrical Engineering: Know It All

## 1st Edition

**Authors:**Clive Maxfield John Bird Tim Williams Walt Kester Dan Bensky

**Paperback ISBN:**9781856175289

**eBook ISBN:**9780080949666

**Imprint:**Newnes

**Published Date:**25th August 2008

**Page Count:**1128

**View all volumes in this series:**Newnes Know It All

## Table of Contents

Chapter 1 An Introduction to Electric Circuits
1.1 SI units
1.2 Charge
1.3 Force
1.4 Work
1.5 Power
1.6 Electrical potential and e.m.f.
1.7 Resistance and conductance
1.8 Electrical power and energy
1.9 Summary of terms, units and their symbols
1.10 Standard symbols for electrical components
1.11 Electric current and quantity of electricity
1.12 Potential difference and resistance
1.13 Basic electrical measuring instruments
1.14 Linear and non-linear devices
1.15 Ohm’s law
1.16 Multiples and sub-multiples
1.17 Conductors and insulators
1.18 Electrical power and energy
1.19 Main effects of electric current
Chapter 2 Resistance and Resistivity
2.1 Resistance and resistivity
2.2 Temperature coefficient of resistance
Chapter 3 Series and parallel networks
3.1 Series circuits
3.2 Potential divider
3.3 Parallel networks
3.4 Current division
3.5 Relative and absolute voltages
Chapter 4 Capacitors and Inductors
4.1 Introduction to capacitors
4.2 Electrostatic field
4.3 Electric field strength
4.4 Capacitance
4.5 Capacitors
4.6 Electric flux density
4.7 Permittivity
4.8 The parallel plate capacitor
4.9 Capacitors connected in parallel and series
4.10 Dielectric strength
4.11 Energy stored
4.12 Practical types of capacitor
4.13 Inductance
4.14 Inductors
4.15 Energy stored
Chapter 5 D.c. circuit theory
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Kirchhoff’s laws
5.3 The superposition theorem
5.4 General d.c. circuit theory
5.5 Thévenin’s theorem
5.6 Constant-current source
5.7 Norton’s theorem
5.8 Thévenin and Norton equivalent networks
Chapter 6 Alternating voltages and currents
6.1 The a.c. generator
6.2 Waveforms
6.3 A.c. values
6.4 The equation of a sinusoidal waveform
6.5 Combination of waveforms
6.6 Rectification
Chapter 7 Complex Numbers
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Operations involving Cartesian complex numbers
7.3 Complex equations
7.4 The polar form of a complex number
7.5 Introduction
7.6 Series a.c. circuits
7.7 Introduction
7.8 Admittance, conductance and susceptance
7.9 Parallel a.c. networks
Chapter 8 Transients and Laplace transforms
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Response of R–C series circuit to a step input
8.3 Response of R-L series circuit to a step input
8.4 L–R–C series circuit response
8.5 Introduction to Laplace transforms
8.6 Inverse Laplace transforms and the solution of differential equations
Chapter 9 Frequency Domain Circuit Analysis
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Sinusoidal AC electrical analysis
9.3 Generalised frequency domain analysis
9.4 Bibliography
Chapter 10 Digital Electronincs
10.1 Semiconductors
10.2 Semiconductor Diodes
10.3 Bipolar Junction Transistors
10.4 Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors
10.5 The Transistor as a Switch
10.6 Gallium Arsenide Semiconductors
10.7 Light-Emitting Diodes
10.8 BUF and NOT Functions
10.9 AND, OR, and XOR Functions
10.10 NAND, NOR, and XNOR Functions
10.11 Not a Lot
10.12 Functions versus Gates
10.13 NOT and BUF Gates
10.14 NAND and AND Gates
10.15 NOR and OR Gates
10.16 XNOR and XOR Gates
10.17 Pass-transistor Logic
10.18 Combining a Single Variable with Logic 0 or Logic 1
10.19 The Idempotent Rules
10.20 The Complementary Rules
10.21 The Involution Rule
10.22 The Commutative Rules
10.23 The Associative Rules
10.24 Precedence of Operators
10.25 The First Distributive Rule
10.26 The Second Distributive Rule
10.27 The Simplification Rules
10.28 DeMorgan Transformations
10.29 Minterms and Maxterms
10.30 Sum-of-Products and Product-of-Sums
10.31 Canonical Forms
10.32 Karnaugh Maps
10.33 Minimization Using Karnaugh Maps
10.34 Grouping Minterms
10.35 Incompletely Specified Functions
10.36 Populating Maps Using 0s Versus 1s
10.37 Scalar versus Vector Notation
10.38 Equality Comparators
10.39 Multiplexers
10.40 Decoders
10.41 Tri-State Functions
10.42 Combinational versus Sequential Functions
10.43 RS Latches
10.44 D-Type Latches
10.45 D-Type Flip-flops
10.46 JK and T Flip-flops
10.47 Shift Registers
10.48 Counters
10.49 Setup and Hold Times
10.50 Brick by Brick
10.51 State Diagrams
10.52 State Tables
10.53 State Machines
10.54 State Assignment
10.55 Don’t Care States, Unused States, and Latch-Up Conditions
Chapter 11 Analog Electronics
11.1 Operational Amplifiers Defined
11.2 Symbols and connections
11.3 Operational amplifier parameters
11.4 Operational amplifier characteristics
11.5 Operational amplifier applications
11.6 Gain and bandwidth
11.7 Inverting amplifier with feedback
11.8 Operational amplifier circuits
11.9 Departures from the Ideal
11.10 The ideal op-amp
11.11 The practical op-amp
11.12 Comparators
11.13 Voltage references
Chapter 12 Circuit simulation
12.1 Types of analysis
12.2 Netlists and component models
12.3 Logic simulation
12.4 Practical investigation
Chapter 13 Interfacing
13.1 Mixing analogue and digital
13.2 Generating digital levels from analogue inputs
13.3 Classic data interface standards
13.4 High performance data interface standards
Chapter 14 Microcontrollers and Microprocessors
14.1 Microprocessor systems
14.2 Single-chip microcomputers
14.3 Microcontrollers
14.4 PIC microcontrollers
14.5 Programmed logic devices
14.6 Programmable logic controllers
14.7 Microprocessor systems
14.8 Data representation
14.9 Data types
14.10 Data storage
14.11 The microprocessor
14.12 Microprocessor operation
14.13 A microcontroller system
14.14 Practical investigation
14.15 Symbols introduced in this chapter
Chapter 15 Power Electronics
15.1. Switchgear
15.2. Surge Suppression
15.3. Conductors
15.4. Capacitors
15.5. Resistors
15.6. Fuses
15.7. Supply Voltages
15.8. Enclosures
15.9. Hipot, Corona, and BIL
15.10. Spacings
15.11. Metal Oxide Varistors
15.12. Protective Relays
15.13. Symmetrical Components
15.14. Per Unit Constants
15.15. Circuit Simulation
15.16. Simulation Software
15.17. Basics
15.18. Amplitude Responses
15.19. Phase Responses
15.20. PID Regulators
15.21. Nested Control Loops
15.22 General
15.23 Input and output parameters
15.24 Abnormal conditions
15.25 Mechanical requirements
15.26 Batteries
Chapter 16 Signals and Signal Processing
16.1 Origins of Real-World Signals and Their Units of Measurement
16.2 Reasons for Processing Real-World Signals
16.3 Generation of Real-World Signals
16.4 Methods and Technologies Available for Processing Real-World Signals
16.5 Analog Versus Digital Signal Processing
16.6 A Practical Example
16.7 References
Chapter 17 Filter Design
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Passive filters
17.3 Active filters
17.4 First-order filters
17.5 Design of first-order filters
17.6 Second-order filters
17.7 Using the transfer function
17.8 Using normalized tables
17.9 Using identical components
17.10 Second-order high-pass filters
17.11 Additional problems
17.12 Bandpass filters
17.13 Additional problems
17.14 Switched capacitor filter
17.15 Monolithic switched capacitor filter
17.16 The notch filter
17.17 Choosing components for filters
17.18 Testing filter response
17.19 Fast Fourier Transforms
17.20 The Fast Fourier Transform
17.21 FFT Hardware Implementation and Benchmarks
17.22 DSP Requirements for Real-Time FFT Applications
17.23 Spectral Leakage and Windowing
17.24 References
17.25 Digital Filters
17.26 Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filters
17.27 FIR Filter Implementation in DSP Hardware Using Circular Buffering
17.28 Designing FIR Filters
17.29 FIR Filter Design Using the Windowed-Sinc Method
17.30 FIR Filter Design Using the Fourier Series Method with Windowing
17.31 FIR Filter Design Using the Frequency Sampling Method
17.32 FIR Filter Design Using the Parks-McClellan Program
17.33 Designing High-Pass, Band-Pass, and Band-Stop Filters Based on Low-Pass Filter Design
17.34 Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filters
17.35 IIR Filter Design Techniques
17.36 Summary: FIR Versus IIR Filters
17.37 Multirate Filters
17.38 Adaptive Filters
17.39 References
Chapter 18 Control and Instrumentation Systems
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Systems

18.3 Control systems models
18.4 Measurement elements
18.5 Signal processing
18.6 Correction elements
18.7 Control systems
18.8 Introduction
18.9 Gain
18.10 Dynamic systems
18.11 Differential equations
18.12 Transfer function
18.13 System transfer functions
18.14 Sensitivity
18.15 Block manipulation
18.16 Multiple inputs
Chapter 19 Communications Systems
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Analogue modulation techniques
19.3 The balanced modulator/demodulator
19.4 Frequency modulation and demodulation
19.5 FM modulators
19.6 FM demodulators
19.7 Digital modulation techniques
19.8 Introduction to Information Theory
19.9 Probability
19.9 Information Theory
19.10 Summary
19.11 Applications and Technologies
19.12 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN)
19.13 Bluetooth
19.14 Zigbee
19.15 Conflict and Compatibility
19.16 Ultra-wideband Technology
19.17 Summary
19.18 References
Chapter 20 Principles of Electromagnetics
20.1 THE NEED FOR ELECTROMAGNETICS
20.2 THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
20.3 ELECTRICAL LENGTH
20.4 THE FINITE SPEED OF LIGHT
20.5 ELECTRONICS
20.6 ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNALS
20.7 RF TECHNIQUES
20.8 MICROWAVE TECHNIQUES
20.9 INFRARED AND THE ELECTRONIC SPEED LIMIT
20.10 VISIBLE LIGHT AND BEYOND
20.11 LASERS AND PHOTONICS
20.12 SUMMARY
20.13 BIBLIOGRAPHY: GENERAL TOPICS FOR CHAPTER 20
20.14 BIBLIOGRAPHY: STATE-OF-THE-ART ELECTRONICS
20.15 Web resources
20.16 THE ELECTRIC FORCE FIELD
20.17 OTHER TYPES OF FIELDS
20.18 VOLTAGE AND POTENTIAL ENERGY
20.19 CHARGES IN METALS
20.20 THE DEFINITION OF RESISTANCE
20.21 ELECTRONS AND HOLES
20.22 ELECTROSTATIC INDUCTION AND CAPACITANCE
20.23 INSULATORS (DIELECTRICS)
20.24 STATIC ELECTRICITY AND LIGHTNING
20.24 THE BATTERY REVISITED
20.25 ELECTRIC FIELD EXAMPLES
20.26 CONDUCTIVITY AND PERMITTIVITY OF
COMMON MATERIALS
20.27 BIBLIOGRAPHY: ELECTRIC FIELDS AND CONDUCTION
20.28 BIBLIOGRAPHY: STATIC ELECTRICITY AND LIGHTNING
20.29 Web Resources
Chapter 21 MAGNETIC FIELDS
21.1 MOVING CHARGES: SOURCE OF ALL MAGNETIC FIELDS
21.2 MAGNETIC DIPOLES
21.3 EFFECTS OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD
21.4 THE VECTOR MAGNETIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL MOMENTUM
21.5 MAGNETIC MATERIALS
21.6 MAGNETISM AND QUANTUM PHYSICS
21.7 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Chapter 22 Electromagnetic Transients and EMI
22.1. Line Disturbances
22.2. Circuit Transients
22.3. Electromagnetic Interference
Chapter 23 Traveling Wave Effects
23.1. Basics
23.2. Transient Effects
23.3. Mitigating Measures
Chapter 24 Transformers
24.1 Voltage and turns ratio
24.2 Practical investigation
Chapter 25 Electromagnetic Machines
25.1 Energy conversion
25.2 Electromagnetic devices
25.3 Industrial rotary and linear motors
Chapter 26 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Common terms
26.3 The EMC model
26.4 EMC requirements
26.5 Product design
26.6 Device selection
26.7 Printed circuit boards
26.8 Interfaces
26.9 Power supplies and power-line filters
26.10 Signal line filters
26.11 Enclosure design
26.12 Interface cable connections
26.13 Golden rules for effective design for EMC
26.14 System design
26.15 Buildings
26.16 Conformity assessment
26.17 EMC testing and measurements
26.18 Management plans
26.19 References
Chapter 27 Power Generation
27.1 Introduction
27.2 Airgap flux and open-circuit e.m.f.1,6,7,8,11,17,19,23
27.3 Alternating current windings
27.4 Coils and insulation
27.5 Temperature rise
27.6 Output equation
27.7 Armature reaction
27.8 Reactances and time constants11, 83, 84, 86–91
27.9 Steady-state operation
27.10 Synchronising
27.11 Operating charts
27.12 On-load excitation
27.13 Sudden three-phase short circuit 6,7,11,19
27.14 Excitation systems
27.15 Turbogenerators92–137
27.16 Generator-transformer connection
27.17 Hydrogenerators
27.18 Salient-pole generators other than hydrogenerators
27.19 Synchronous compensators
27.20 Induction generators157–164
27.21 Standards
27.22 Introduction
27.23 Cells and batteries
27.24 Primary cells
27.25 Secondary cells and batteries
27.26 Battery applications
27.27 Acknowledgements
27.28 References
Chapter 28 Power Transmission and Distribution
28.1 General
28.2 Conductors and earth wires
28.3 Conductor fittings
28.4 Electrical characteristics
28.5 Insulators
28.6 Supports
28.7 Lightning
28.8 Loadings
28.9 Introduction
28.10 Magnetic circuit
28.11 Windings and insulation
28.12 Connections
28.13 Three-winding transformers
28.14 Quadrature booster transformers
28.15 On-load tap changing
28.16 Cooling
28.17 Fittings
33.18 Parallel operation
28.19 Auto-transformers
28.20 Special types
28.21 Circuit-switching devices
28.22 Materials
28.23 Primary-circuit-protection devices
28.24 LV switchgear
28.25 HV secondary distribution switchgear
28.26 HV primary distribution switchgear
28.27 HV transmission switchgear
28.28 Generator switchgear
28.29 Switching conditions
28.30 Introduction
28.31 Basic concepts of transient analysis
28.32 Protection of system and equipment against transient overvoltage
28.33 References
Chapter 29 Power Quality
29.1 Introduction
29.2 Definition of power quality terms
29.3 Sources of problems
29.4 Effects of power quality problems
29.5 Measuring power quality
29.6 Amelioration of power quality problems
29.7 Power quality codes and standards
29.8 Bibliography
Appendix A General reference
A.1 Standard electrical quantities —their symbols and units
Appendix B
B.1 Differential equations

## Description

Chapter 1 An Introduction to Electric Circuits
1.1 SI units
1.2 Charge
1.3 Force
1.4 Work
1.5 Power
1.6 Electrical potential and e.m.f.
1.7 Resistance and conductance
1.8 Electrical power and energy
1.9 Summary of terms, units and their symbols
1.10 Standard symbols for electrical components
1.11 Electric current and quantity of electricity
1.12 Potential difference and resistance
1.13 Basic electrical measuring instruments
1.14 Linear and non-linear devices
1.15 Ohm’s law
1.16 Multiples and sub-multiples
1.17 Conductors and insulators
1.18 Electrical power and energy
1.19 Main effects of electric current
Chapter 2 Resistance and Resistivity
2.1 Resistance and resistivity
2.2 Temperature coefficient of resistance
Chapter 3 Series and parallel networks
3.1 Series circuits
3.2 Potential divider
3.3 Parallel networks
3.4 Current division
3.5 Relative and absolute voltages
Chapter 4 Capacitors and Inductors
4.1 Introduction to capacitors
4.2 Electrostatic field
4.3 Electric field strength
4.4 Capacitance
4.5 Capacitors
4.6 Electric flux density
4.7 Permittivity
4.8 The parallel plate capacitor
4.9 Capacitors connected in parallel and series
4.10 Dielectric strength
4.11 Energy stored
4.12 Practical types of capacitor
4.13 Inductance
4.14 Inductors
4.15 Energy stored
Chapter 5 D.c. circuit theory
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Kirchhoff’s laws
5.3 The superposition theorem
5.4 General d.c. circuit theory
5.5 Thévenin’s theorem
5.6 Constant-current source
5.7 Norton’s theorem
5.8 Thévenin and Norton equivalent networks
Chapter 6 Alternating voltages and currents
6.1 The a.c. generator
6.2 Waveforms
6.3 A.c. values
6.4 The equation of a sinusoidal waveform
6.5 Combination of waveforms
6.6 Rectification
Chapter 7 Complex Numbers
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Operations involving Cartesian complex numbers
7.3 Complex equations
7.4 The polar form of a complex number
7.5 Introduction
7.6 Series a.c. circuits
7.7 Introduction
7.8 Admittance, conductance and susceptance
7.9 Parallel a.c. networks
Chapter 8 Transients and Laplace transforms
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Response of R–C series circuit to a step input
8.3 Response of R-L series circuit to a step input
8.4 L–R–C series circuit response
8.5 Introduction to Laplace transforms
8.6 Inverse Laplace transforms and the solution of differential equations
Chapter 9 Frequency Domain Circuit Analysis
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Sinusoidal AC electrical analysis
9.3 Generalised frequency domain analysis
9.4 Bibliography
Chapter 10 Digital Electronincs
10.1 Semiconductors
10.2 Semiconductor Diodes
10.3 Bipolar Junction Transistors
10.4 Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors
10.5 The Transistor as a Switch
10.6 Gallium Arsenide Semiconductors
10.7 Light-Emitting Diodes
10.8 BUF and NOT Functions
10.9 AND, OR, and XOR Functions
10.10 NAND, NOR, and XNOR Functions
10.11 Not a Lot
10.12 Functions versus Gates
10.13 NOT and BUF Gates
10.14 NAND and AND Gates
10.15 NOR and OR Gates
10.16 XNOR and XOR Gates
10.17 Pass-transistor Logic
10.18 Combining a Single Variable with Logic 0 or Logic 1
10.19 The Idempotent Rules
10.20 The Complementary Rules
10.21 The Involution Rule
10.22 The Commutative Rules
10.23 The Associative Rules
10.24 Precedence of Operators
10.25 The First Distributive Rule
10.26 The Second Distributive Rule
10.27 The Simplification Rules
10.28 DeMorgan Transformations
10.29 Minterms and Maxterms
10.30 Sum-of-Products and Product-of-Sums
10.31 Canonical Forms
10.32 Karnaugh Maps
10.33 Minimization Using Karnaugh Maps
10.34 Grouping Minterms
10.35 Incompletely Specified Functions
10.36 Populating Maps Using 0s Versus 1s
10.37 Scalar versus Vector Notation
10.38 Equality Comparators
10.39 Multiplexers
10.40 Decoders
10.41 Tri-State Functions
10.42 Combinational versus Sequential Functions
10.43 RS Latches
10.44 D-Type Latches
10.45 D-Type Flip-flops
10.46 JK and T Flip-flops
10.47 Shift Registers
10.48 Counters
10.49 Setup and Hold Times
10.50 Brick by Brick
10.51 State Diagrams
10.52 State Tables
10.53 State Machines
10.54 State Assignment
10.55 Don’t Care States, Unused States, and Latch-Up Conditions
Chapter 11 Analog Electronics
11.1 Operational Amplifiers Defined
11.2 Symbols and connections
11.3 Operational amplifier parameters
11.4 Operational amplifier characteristics
11.5 Operational amplifier applications
11.6 Gain and bandwidth
11.7 Inverting amplifier with feedback
11.8 Operational amplifier circuits
11.9 Departures from the Ideal
11.10 The ideal op-amp
11.11 The practical op-amp
11.12 Comparators
11.13 Voltage references
Chapter 12 Circuit simulation
12.1 Types of analysis
12.2 Netlists and component models
12.3 Logic simulation
12.4 Practical investigation
Chapter 13 Interfacing
13.1 Mixing analogue and digital
13.2 Generating digital levels from analogue inputs
13.3 Classic data interface standards
13.4 High performance data interface standards
Chapter 14 Microcontrollers and Microprocessors
14.1 Microprocessor systems
14.2 Single-chip microcomputers
14.3 Microcontrollers
14.4 PIC microcontrollers
14.5 Programmed logic devices
14.6 Programmable logic controllers
14.7 Microprocessor systems
14.8 Data representation
14.9 Data types
14.10 Data storage
14.11 The microprocessor
14.12 Microprocessor operation
14.13 A microcontroller system
14.14 Practical investigation
14.15 Symbols introduced in this chapter
Chapter 15 Power Electronics
15.1. Switchgear
15.2. Surge Suppression
15.3. Conductors
15.4. Capacitors
15.5. Resistors
15.6. Fuses
15.7. Supply Voltages
15.8. Enclosures
15.9. Hipot, Corona, and BIL
15.10. Spacings
15.11. Metal Oxide Varistors
15.12. Protective Relays
15.13. Symmetrical Components
15.14. Per Unit Constants
15.15. Circuit Simulation
15.16. Simulation Software
15.17. Basics
15.18. Amplitude Responses
15.19. Phase Responses
15.20. PID Regulators
15.21. Nested Control Loops
15.22 General
15.23 Input and output parameters
15.24 Abnormal conditions
15.25 Mechanical requirements
15.26 Batteries
Chapter 16 Signals and Signal Processing
16.1 Origins of Real-World Signals and Their Units of Measurement
16.2 Reasons for Processing Real-World Signals
16.3 Generation of Real-World Signals
16.4 Methods and Technologies Available for Processing Real-World Signals
16.5 Analog Versus Digital Signal Processing
16.6 A Practical Example
16.7 References
Chapter 17 Filter Design
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Passive filters
17.3 Active filters
17.4 First-order filters
17.5 Design of first-order filters
17.6 Second-order filters
17.7 Using the transfer function
17.8 Using normalized tables
17.9 Using identical components
17.10 Second-order high-pass filters
17.11 Additional problems
17.12 Bandpass filters
17.13 Additional problems
17.14 Switched capacitor filter
17.15 Monolithic switched capacitor filter
17.16 The notch filter
17.17 Choosing components for filters
17.18 Testing filter response
17.19 Fast Fourier Transforms
17.20 The Fast Fourier Transform
17.21 FFT Hardware Implementation and Benchmarks
17.22 DSP Requirements for Real-Time FFT Applications
17.23 Spectral Leakage and Windowing
17.24 References
17.25 Digital Filters
17.26 Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filters
17.27 FIR Filter Implementation in DSP Hardware Using Circular Buffering
17.28 Designing FIR Filters
17.29 FIR Filter Design Using the Windowed-Sinc Method
17.30 FIR Filter Design Using the Fourier Series Method with Windowing
17.31 FIR Filter Design Using the Frequency Sampling Method
17.32 FIR Filter Design Using the Parks-McClellan Program
17.33 Designing High-Pass, Band-Pass, and Band-Stop Filters Based on Low-Pass Filter Design
17.34 Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filters
17.35 IIR Filter Design Techniques
17.36 Summary: FIR Versus IIR Filters
17.37 Multirate Filters
17.38 Adaptive Filters
17.39 References
Chapter 18 Control and Instrumentation Systems
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Systems

18.3 Control systems models
18.4 Measurement elements
18.5 Signal processing
18.6 Correction elements
18.7 Control systems
18.8 Introduction
18.9 Gain
18.10 Dynamic systems
18.11 Differential equations
18.12 Transfer function
18.13 System transfer functions
18.14 Sensitivity
18.15 Block manipulation
18.16 Multiple inputs
Chapter 19 Communications Systems
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Analogue modulation techniques
19.3 The balanced modulator/demodulator
19.4 Frequency modulation and demodulation
19.5 FM modulators
19.6 FM demodulators
19.7 Digital modulation techniques
19.8 Introduction to Information Theory
19.9 Probability
19.9 Information Theory
19.10 Summary
19.11 Applications and Technologies
19.12 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN)
19.13 Bluetooth
19.14 Zigbee
19.15 Conflict and Compatibility
19.16 Ultra-wideband Technology
19.17 Summary
19.18 References
Chapter 20 Principles of Electromagnetics
20.1 THE NEED FOR ELECTROMAGNETICS
20.2 THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
20.3 ELECTRICAL LENGTH
20.4 THE FINITE SPEED OF LIGHT
20.5 ELECTRONICS
20.6 ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNALS
20.7 RF TECHNIQUES
20.8 MICROWAVE TECHNIQUES
20.9 INFRARED AND THE ELECTRONIC SPEED LIMIT
20.10 VISIBLE LIGHT AND BEYOND
20.11 LASERS AND PHOTONICS
20.12 SUMMARY
20.13 BIBLIOGRAPHY: GENERAL TOPICS FOR CHAPTER 20
20.14 BIBLIOGRAPHY: STATE-OF-THE-ART ELECTRONICS
20.15 Web resources
20.16 THE ELECTRIC FORCE FIELD
20.17 OTHER TYPES OF FIELDS
20.18 VOLTAGE AND POTENTIAL ENERGY
20.19 CHARGES IN METALS
20.20 THE DEFINITION OF RESISTANCE
20.21 ELECTRONS AND HOLES
20.22 ELECTROSTATIC INDUCTION AND CAPACITANCE
20.23 INSULATORS (DIELECTRICS)
20.24 STATIC ELECTRICITY AND LIGHTNING
20.24 THE BATTERY REVISITED
20.25 ELECTRIC FIELD EXAMPLES
20.26 CONDUCTIVITY AND PERMITTIVITY OF
COMMON MATERIALS
20.27 BIBLIOGRAPHY: ELECTRIC FIELDS AND CONDUCTION
20.28 BIBLIOGRAPHY: STATIC ELECTRICITY AND LIGHTNING
20.29 Web Resources
Chapter 21 MAGNETIC FIELDS
21.1 MOVING CHARGES: SOURCE OF ALL MAGNETIC FIELDS
21.2 MAGNETIC DIPOLES
21.3 EFFECTS OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD
21.4 THE VECTOR MAGNETIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL MOMENTUM
21.5 MAGNETIC MATERIALS
21.6 MAGNETISM AND QUANTUM PHYSICS
21.7 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Chapter 22 Electromagnetic Transients and EMI
22.1. Line Disturbances
22.2. Circuit Transients
22.3. Electromagnetic Interference
Chapter 23 Traveling Wave Effects
23.1. Basics
23.2. Transient Effects
23.3. Mitigating Measures
Chapter 24 Transformers
24.1 Voltage and turns ratio
24.2 Practical investigation
Chapter 25 Electromagnetic Machines
25.1 Energy conversion
25.2 Electromagnetic devices
25.3 Industrial rotary and linear motors
Chapter 26 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Common terms
26.3 The EMC model
26.4 EMC requirements
26.5 Product design
26.6 Device selection
26.7 Printed circuit boards
26.8 Interfaces
26.9 Power supplies and power-line filters
26.10 Signal line filters
26.11 Enclosure design
26.12 Interface cable connections
26.13 Golden rules for effective design for EMC
26.14 System design
26.15 Buildings
26.16 Conformity assessment
26.17 EMC testing and measurements
26.18 Management plans
26.19 References
Chapter 27 Power Generation
27.1 Introduction
27.2 Airgap flux and open-circuit e.m.f.1,6,7,8,11,17,19,23
27.3 Alternating current windings
27.4 Coils and insulation
27.5 Temperature rise
27.6 Output equation
27.7 Armature reaction
27.8 Reactances and time constants11, 83, 84, 86–91
27.9 Steady-state operation
27.10 Synchronising
27.11 Operating charts
27.12 On-load excitation
27.13 Sudden three-phase short circuit 6,7,11,19
27.14 Excitation systems
27.15 Turbogenerators92–137
27.16 Generator-transformer connection
27.17 Hydrogenerators
27.18 Salient-pole generators other than hydrogenerators
27.19 Synchronous compensators
27.20 Induction generators157–164
27.21 Standards
27.22 Introduction
27.23 Cells and batteries
27.24 Primary cells
27.25 Secondary cells and batteries
27.26 Battery applications
27.27 Acknowledgements
27.28 References
Chapter 28 Power Transmission and Distribution
28.1 General
28.2 Conductors and earth wires
28.3 Conductor fittings
28.4 Electrical characteristics
28.5 Insulators
28.6 Supports
28.7 Lightning
28.8 Loadings
28.9 Introduction
28.10 Magnetic circuit
28.11 Windings and insulation
28.12 Connections
28.13 Three-winding transformers
28.14 Quadrature booster transformers
28.15 On-load tap changing
28.16 Cooling
28.17 Fittings
33.18 Parallel operation
28.19 Auto-transformers
28.20 Special types
28.21 Circuit-switching devices
28.22 Materials
28.23 Primary-circuit-protection devices
28.24 LV switchgear
28.25 HV secondary distribution switchgear
28.26 HV primary distribution switchgear
28.27 HV transmission switchgear
28.28 Generator switchgear
28.29 Switching conditions
28.30 Introduction
28.31 Basic concepts of transient analysis
28.32 Protection of system and equipment against transient overvoltage
28.33 References
Chapter 29 Power Quality
29.1 Introduction
29.2 Definition of power quality terms
29.3 Sources of problems
29.4 Effects of power quality problems
29.5 Measuring power quality
29.6 Amelioration of power quality problems
29.7 Power quality codes and standards
29.8 Bibliography
Appendix A General reference
A.1 Standard electrical quantities —their symbols and units
Appendix B
B.1 Differential equations

## Key Features

• A 360-degree view from our best-selling authors • Topics include digital, analog, and power electronics, and electric circuits • The ultimate hard-working desk reference; all the essential information, techniques and tricks of the trade in one volume

## Readership

Electrical and Electronics Engineers; Field Application Engineers, New Graduates

## Details

- No. of pages:
- 1128

- Language:
- English

- Copyright:
- © Newnes 2008

- Published:
- 25th August 2008

- Imprint:
- Newnes

- eBook ISBN:
- 9780080949666

- Paperback ISBN:
- 9781856175289

## About the Authors

### Clive Maxfield Author

Clive "Max" Maxfield received a BS in Control Engineering from Sheffield Polytechnic, England in 1980. He began his career as a mainframe CPU designer for International Computers Limited (ICL) in Manchester, England. Max now finds himself a member of the technical staff (MTS) at Intergraph Electronics, Huntsville, Alabama. Max is the author of dozens of articles and papers appearing in magazines and at technical conferences around the world. Max's main area of interest are currently focused in the analog, digital, and mixed-signal simulation of integrated circuits and multichip modules.

### Affiliations and Expertise

Engineer, TechBytes, and Editor of PLDesignline.com EDA industry consultant, EDN columnist, and Embedded Systems Guru

### John Bird Author

**John Bird**, the author of over 100 textbooks on engineering and mathematical subjects, is the former Head of Applied Electronics in the Faculty of Technology at Highbury College, Portsmouth, U.K. More recently, he has combined freelance lecturing at Portsmouth University, with technical writing and Chief Examiner responsibilities for City and Guilds Telecommunication Principles and Mathematics, and examining for the International Baccalaureate Organisation.
**John Bird** is currently a Senior Training Provider at the Royal Naval School of Marine Engineering in the Defence College of Marine and Air Engineering at H.M.S. Sultan, Gosport, Hampshire, U.K. The school, which serves the Royal Navy, is one of Europe’s largest engineering training establishments.

### Affiliations and Expertise

Royal Naval School of Marine Engineering, HMS Sultan, Gosport; formerly University of Portsmouth and Highbury College, UK

### Tim Williams Author

Tim Williams worked for a variety of companies as an electronic design engineer, before startinghis own consultancy specializing in EMC design and test advice and training. He has monitored the progress of the EMC Directive and its associated standards since it was first made public, over the last 25 years.

### Affiliations and Expertise

Elmac Services, Wareham, UK

### Walt Kester Author

### Affiliations and Expertise

Analog Devices technical staff

### Dan Bensky Author

Alan Bensky, MScEE, an electronics engineering consultant with over 25 years of experience in analog and digital design, management, and marketing. Specializing in wireless circuits and systems, Bensky has carried out projects for varied military and consumer applications. He is the author of Short-range Wireless Communication, Second Edition, published by Elsevier, 2004, and has written several articles in international and local publications. He has taught courses and gives lectures on radio engineering topics. Bensky is a senior member of IEEE.

### Affiliations and Expertise

RF/Wireless Designer & Consultant