Electrical Engineering: Know It All - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781856175289, 9780080949666

Electrical Engineering: Know It All

1st Edition

Authors: Clive Maxfield John Bird Tim Williams Walt Kester Dan Bensky
eBook ISBN: 9780080949666
Paperback ISBN: 9781856175289
Imprint: Newnes
Published Date: 25th August 2008
Page Count: 1128
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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 An Introduction to Electric Circuits 1.1 SI units 1.2 Charge 1.3 Force 1.4 Work 1.5 Power 1.6 Electrical potential and e.m.f. 1.7 Resistance and conductance 1.8 Electrical power and energy 1.9 Summary of terms, units and their symbols 1.10 Standard symbols for electrical components 1.11 Electric current and quantity of electricity 1.12 Potential difference and resistance 1.13 Basic electrical measuring instruments 1.14 Linear and non-linear devices 1.15 Ohm’s law 1.16 Multiples and sub-multiples 1.17 Conductors and insulators 1.18 Electrical power and energy 1.19 Main effects of electric current Chapter 2 Resistance and Resistivity 2.1 Resistance and resistivity 2.2 Temperature coefficient of resistance Chapter 3 Series and parallel networks 3.1 Series circuits 3.2 Potential divider 3.3 Parallel networks 3.4 Current division 3.5 Relative and absolute voltages Chapter 4 Capacitors and Inductors 4.1 Introduction to capacitors 4.2 Electrostatic field 4.3 Electric field strength 4.4 Capacitance 4.5 Capacitors 4.6 Electric flux density 4.7 Permittivity 4.8 The parallel plate capacitor 4.9 Capacitors connected in parallel and series 4.10 Dielectric strength 4.11 Energy stored 4.12 Practical types of capacitor 4.13 Inductance 4.14 Inductors 4.15 Energy stored Chapter 5 D.c. circuit theory 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Kirchhoff’s laws 5.3 The superposition theorem 5.4 General d.c. circuit theory 5.5 Thévenin’s theorem 5.6 Constant-current source 5.7 Norton’s theorem 5.8 Thévenin and Norton equivalent networks Chapter 6 Alternating voltages and currents 6.1 The a.c. generator 6.2 Waveforms 6.3 A.c. values 6.4 The equation of a sinusoidal waveform 6.5 Combination of waveforms 6.6 Rectification Chapter 7 Complex Numbers 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Operations involving Cartesian complex numbers 7.3 Complex equations 7.4 The polar form of a complex number 7.5 Introduction 7.6 Series a.c. circuits 7.7 Introduction 7.8 Admittance, conductance and susceptance 7.9 Parallel a.c. networks Chapter 8 Transients and Laplace transforms 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Response of R–C series circuit to a step input 8.3 Response of R-L series circuit to a step input 8.4 L–R–C series circuit response 8.5 Introduction to Laplace transforms 8.6 Inverse Laplace transforms and the solution of differential equations Chapter 9 Frequency Domain Circuit Analysis 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Sinusoidal AC electrical analysis 9.3 Generalised frequency domain analysis 9.4 Bibliography Chapter 10 Digital Electronincs 10.1 Semiconductors 10.2 Semiconductor Diodes 10.3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 10.4 Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors 10.5 The Transistor as a Switch 10.6 Gallium Arsenide Semiconductors 10.7 Light-Emitting Diodes 10.8 BUF and NOT Functions 10.9 AND, OR, and XOR Functions 10.10 NAND, NOR, and XNOR Functions 10.11 Not a Lot 10.12 Functions versus Gates 10.13 NOT and BUF Gates 10.14 NAND and AND Gates 10.15 NOR and OR Gates 10.16 XNOR and XOR Gates 10.17 Pass-transistor Logic 10.18 Combining a Single Variable with Logic 0 or Logic 1 10.19 The Idempotent Rules 10.20 The Complementary Rules 10.21 The Involution Rule 10.22 The Commutative Rules 10.23 The Associative Rules 10.24 Precedence of Operators 10.25 The First Distributive Rule 10.26 The Second Distributive Rule 10.27 The Simplification Rules 10.28 DeMorgan Transformations 10.29 Minterms and Maxterms 10.30 Sum-of-Products and Product-of-Sums 10.31 Canonical Forms 10.32 Karnaugh Maps 10.33 Minimization Using Karnaugh Maps 10.34 Grouping Minterms 10.35 Incompletely Specified Functions 10.36 Populating Maps Using 0s Versus 1s 10.37 Scalar versus Vector Notation 10.38 Equality Comparators 10.39 Multiplexers 10.40 Decoders 10.41 Tri-State Functions 10.42 Combinational versus Sequential Functions 10.43 RS Latches 10.44 D-Type Latches 10.45 D-Type Flip-flops 10.46 JK and T Flip-flops 10.47 Shift Registers 10.48 Counters 10.49 Setup and Hold Times 10.50 Brick by Brick 10.51 State Diagrams 10.52 State Tables 10.53 State Machines 10.54 State Assignment 10.55 Don’t Care States, Unused States, and Latch-Up Conditions Chapter 11 Analog Electronics 11.1 Operational Amplifiers Defined 11.2 Symbols and connections 11.3 Operational amplifier parameters 11.4 Operational amplifier characteristics 11.5 Operational amplifier applications 11.6 Gain and bandwidth 11.7 Inverting amplifier with feedback 11.8 Operational amplifier circuits 11.9 Departures from the Ideal 11.10 The ideal op-amp 11.11 The practical op-amp 11.12 Comparators 11.13 Voltage references Chapter 12 Circuit simulation 12.1 Types of analysis 12.2 Netlists and component models 12.3 Logic simulation 12.4 Practical investigation Chapter 13 Interfacing 13.1 Mixing analogue and digital 13.2 Generating digital levels from analogue inputs 13.3 Classic data interface standards 13.4 High performance data interface standards Chapter 14 Microcontrollers and Microprocessors 14.1 Microprocessor systems 14.2 Single-chip microcomputers 14.3 Microcontrollers 14.4 PIC microcontrollers 14.5 Programmed logic devices 14.6 Programmable logic controllers 14.7 Microprocessor systems 14.8 Data representation 14.9 Data types 14.10 Data storage 14.11 The microprocessor 14.12 Microprocessor operation 14.13 A microcontroller system 14.14 Practical investigation 14.15 Symbols introduced in this chapter Chapter 15 Power Electronics 15.1. Switchgear 15.2. Surge Suppression 15.3. Conductors 15.4. Capacitors 15.5. Resistors 15.6. Fuses 15.7. Supply Voltages 15.8. Enclosures 15.9. Hipot, Corona, and BIL 15.10. Spacings 15.11. Metal Oxide Varistors 15.12. Protective Relays 15.13. Symmetrical Components 15.14. Per Unit Constants 15.15. Circuit Simulation 15.16. Simulation Software 15.17. Basics 15.18. Amplitude Responses 15.19. Phase Responses 15.20. PID Regulators 15.21. Nested Control Loops 15.22 General 15.23 Input and output parameters 15.24 Abnormal conditions 15.25 Mechanical requirements 15.26 Batteries Chapter 16 Signals and Signal Processing 16.1 Origins of Real-World Signals and Their Units of Measurement 16.2 Reasons for Processing Real-World Signals 16.3 Generation of Real-World Signals 16.4 Methods and Technologies Available for Processing Real-World Signals 16.5 Analog Versus Digital Signal Processing 16.6 A Practical Example 16.7 References Chapter 17 Filter Design 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Passive filters 17.3 Active filters 17.4 First-order filters 17.5 Design of first-order filters 17.6 Second-order filters 17.7 Using the transfer function 17.8 Using normalized tables 17.9 Using identical components 17.10 Second-order high-pass filters 17.11 Additional problems 17.12 Bandpass filters 17.13 Additional problems 17.14 Switched capacitor filter 17.15 Monolithic switched capacitor filter 17.16 The notch filter 17.17 Choosing components for filters 17.18 Testing filter response 17.19 Fast Fourier Transforms 17.20 The Fast Fourier Transform 17.21 FFT Hardware Implementation and Benchmarks 17.22 DSP Requirements for Real-Time FFT Applications 17.23 Spectral Leakage and Windowing 17.24 References 17.25 Digital Filters 17.26 Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filters 17.27 FIR Filter Implementation in DSP Hardware Using Circular Buffering 17.28 Designing FIR Filters 17.29 FIR Filter Design Using the Windowed-Sinc Method 17.30 FIR Filter Design Using the Fourier Series Method with Windowing 17.31 FIR Filter Design Using the Frequency Sampling Method 17.32 FIR Filter Design Using the Parks-McClellan Program 17.33 Designing High-Pass, Band-Pass, and Band-Stop Filters Based on Low-Pass Filter Design 17.34 Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filters 17.35 IIR Filter Design Techniques 17.36 Summary: FIR Versus IIR Filters 17.37 Multirate Filters 17.38 Adaptive Filters 17.39 References Chapter 18 Control and Instrumentation Systems 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Systems
18.3 Control systems models 18.4 Measurement elements 18.5 Signal processing 18.6 Correction elements 18.7 Control systems 18.8 Introduction 18.9 Gain 18.10 Dynamic systems 18.11 Differential equations 18.12 Transfer function 18.13 System transfer functions 18.14 Sensitivity 18.15 Block manipulation 18.16 Multiple inputs Chapter 19 Communications Systems 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Analogue modulation techniques 19.3 The balanced modulator/demodulator 19.4 Frequency modulation and demodulation 19.5 FM modulators 19.6 FM demodulators 19.7 Digital modulation techniques 19.8 Introduction to Information Theory 19.9 Probability 19.9 Information Theory 19.10 Summary 19.11 Applications and Technologies 19.12 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) 19.13 Bluetooth 19.14 Zigbee 19.15 Conflict and Compatibility 19.16 Ultra-wideband Technology 19.17 Summary 19.18 References Chapter 20 Principles of Electromagnetics 20.1 THE NEED FOR ELECTROMAGNETICS 20.2 THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM 20.3 ELECTRICAL LENGTH 20.4 THE FINITE SPEED OF LIGHT 20.5 ELECTRONICS 20.6 ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNALS 20.7 RF TECHNIQUES 20.8 MICROWAVE TECHNIQUES 20.9 INFRARED AND THE ELECTRONIC SPEED LIMIT 20.10 VISIBLE LIGHT AND BEYOND 20.11 LASERS AND PHOTONICS 20.12 SUMMARY 20.13 BIBLIOGRAPHY: GENERAL TOPICS FOR CHAPTER 20 20.14 BIBLIOGRAPHY: STATE-OF-THE-ART ELECTRONICS 20.15 Web resources 20.16 THE ELECTRIC FORCE FIELD 20.17 OTHER TYPES OF FIELDS 20.18 VOLTAGE AND POTENTIAL ENERGY 20.19 CHARGES IN METALS 20.20 THE DEFINITION OF RESISTANCE 20.21 ELECTRONS AND HOLES 20.22 ELECTROSTATIC INDUCTION AND CAPACITANCE 20.23 INSULATORS (DIELECTRICS) 20.24 STATIC ELECTRICITY AND LIGHTNING 20.24 THE BATTERY REVISITED 20.25 ELECTRIC FIELD EXAMPLES 20.26 CONDUCTIVITY AND PERMITTIVITY OF COMMON MATERIALS 20.27 BIBLIOGRAPHY: ELECTRIC FIELDS AND CONDUCTION 20.28 BIBLIOGRAPHY: STATIC ELECTRICITY AND LIGHTNING 20.29 Web Resources Chapter 21 MAGNETIC FIELDS 21.1 MOVING CHARGES: SOURCE OF ALL MAGNETIC FIELDS 21.2 MAGNETIC DIPOLES 21.3 EFFECTS OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD 21.4 THE VECTOR MAGNETIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL MOMENTUM 21.5 MAGNETIC MATERIALS 21.6 MAGNETISM AND QUANTUM PHYSICS 21.7 BIBLIOGRAPHY Chapter 22 Electromagnetic Transients and EMI 22.1. Line Disturbances 22.2. Circuit Transients 22.3. Electromagnetic Interference Chapter 23 Traveling Wave Effects 23.1. Basics 23.2. Transient Effects 23.3. Mitigating Measures Chapter 24 Transformers 24.1 Voltage and turns ratio 24.2 Practical investigation Chapter 25 Electromagnetic Machines 25.1 Energy conversion 25.2 Electromagnetic devices 25.3 Industrial rotary and linear motors Chapter 26 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) 26.1 Introduction 26.2 Common terms 26.3 The EMC model 26.4 EMC requirements 26.5 Product design 26.6 Device selection 26.7 Printed circuit boards 26.8 Interfaces 26.9 Power supplies and power-line filters 26.10 Signal line filters 26.11 Enclosure design 26.12 Interface cable connections 26.13 Golden rules for effective design for EMC 26.14 System design 26.15 Buildings 26.16 Conformity assessment 26.17 EMC testing and measurements 26.18 Management plans 26.19 References Chapter 27 Power Generation 27.1 Introduction 27.2 Airgap flux and open-circuit e.m.f.1,6,7,8,11,17,19,23 27.3 Alternating current windings 27.4 Coils and insulation 27.5 Temperature rise 27.6 Output equation 27.7 Armature reaction 27.8 Reactances and time constants11, 83, 84, 86–91 27.9 Steady-state operation 27.10 Synchronising 27.11 Operating charts 27.12 On-load excitation 27.13 Sudden three-phase short circuit 6,7,11,19 27.14 Excitation systems 27.15 Turbogenerators92–137 27.16 Generator-transformer connection 27.17 Hydrogenerators 27.18 Salient-pole generators other than hydrogenerators 27.19 Synchronous compensators 27.20 Induction generators157–164 27.21 Standards 27.22 Introduction 27.23 Cells and batteries 27.24 Primary cells 27.25 Secondary cells and batteries 27.26 Battery applications 27.27 Acknowledgements 27.28 References Chapter 28 Power Transmission and Distribution 28.1 General 28.2 Conductors and earth wires 28.3 Conductor fittings 28.4 Electrical characteristics 28.5 Insulators 28.6 Supports 28.7 Lightning 28.8 Loadings 28.9 Introduction 28.10 Magnetic circuit 28.11 Windings and insulation 28.12 Connections 28.13 Three-winding transformers 28.14 Quadrature booster transformers 28.15 On-load tap changing 28.16 Cooling 28.17 Fittings 33.18 Parallel operation 28.19 Auto-transformers 28.20 Special types 28.21 Circuit-switching devices 28.22 Materials 28.23 Primary-circuit-protection devices 28.24 LV switchgear 28.25 HV secondary distribution switchgear 28.26 HV primary distribution switchgear 28.27 HV transmission switchgear 28.28 Generator switchgear 28.29 Switching conditions 28.30 Introduction 28.31 Basic concepts of transient analysis 28.32 Protection of system and equipment against transient overvoltage 28.33 References Chapter 29 Power Quality 29.1 Introduction 29.2 Definition of power quality terms 29.3 Sources of problems 29.4 Effects of power quality problems 29.5 Measuring power quality 29.6 Amelioration of power quality problems 29.7 Power quality codes and standards 29.8 Bibliography Appendix A General reference A.1 Standard electrical quantities —their symbols and units Appendix B B.1 Differential equations


The Newnes Know It All Series takes the best of what our authors have written to create hard-working desk references that will be an engineer's first port of call for key information, design techniques and rules of thumb. Guaranteed not to gather dust on a shelf!

Electrical engineers need to master a wide area of topics to excel. The Electrical Engineering Know It All covers every angle including Real-World Signals and Systems, Electromagnetics, and Power systems.

Key Features

• A 360-degree view from our best-selling authors • Topics include digital, analog, and power electronics, and electric circuits • The ultimate hard-working desk reference; all the essential information, techniques and tricks of the trade in one volume


Electrical and Electronics Engineers; Field Application Engineers, New Graduates


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About the Authors

Clive Maxfield Author

Clive "Max" Maxfield received a BS in Control Engineering from Sheffield Polytechnic, England in 1980. He began his career as a mainframe CPU designer for International Computers Limited (ICL) in Manchester, England. Max now finds himself a member of the technical staff (MTS) at Intergraph Electronics, Huntsville, Alabama. Max is the author of dozens of articles and papers appearing in magazines and at technical conferences around the world. Max's main area of interest are currently focused in the analog, digital, and mixed-signal simulation of integrated circuits and multichip modules.

Affiliations and Expertise

Engineer, TechBytes, and Editor of PLDesignline.com EDA industry consultant, EDN columnist, and Embedded Systems Guru

John Bird Author

John Bird, the author of over 100 textbooks on engineering and mathematical subjects, is the former Head of Applied Electronics in the Faculty of Technology at Highbury College, Portsmouth, U.K. More recently, he has combined freelance lecturing at Portsmouth University, with technical writing and Chief Examiner responsibilities for City and Guilds Telecommunication Principles and Mathematics, and examining for the International Baccalaureate Organisation. John Bird is currently a Senior Training Provider at the Royal Naval School of Marine Engineering in the Defence College of Marine and Air Engineering at H.M.S. Sultan, Gosport, Hampshire, U.K. The school, which serves the Royal Navy, is one of Europe’s largest engineering training establishments.

Affiliations and Expertise

Royal Naval School of Marine Engineering, HMS Sultan, Gosport; formerly University of Portsmouth and Highbury College, UK

Tim Williams Author

Tim Williams worked for a variety of companies as an electronic design engineer, before startinghis own consultancy specializing in EMC design and test advice and training. He has monitored the progress of the EMC Directive and its associated standards since it was first made public, over the last 25 years.

Affiliations and Expertise

Elmac Services, Wareham, UK

Walt Kester Author

Affiliations and Expertise

Analog Devices technical staff

Dan Bensky Author

Alan Bensky, MScEE, an electronics engineering consultant with over 25 years of experience in analog and digital design, management, and marketing. Specializing in wireless circuits and systems, Bensky has carried out projects for varied military and consumer applications. He is the author of Short-range Wireless Communication, Second Edition, published by Elsevier, 2004, and has written several articles in international and local publications. He has taught courses and gives lectures on radio engineering topics. Bensky is a senior member of IEEE.

Affiliations and Expertise

RF/Wireless Designer & Consultant