Electrical Applications 2

Electrical Applications 2

1st Edition - November 30, 1991

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  • Author: David W. Tyler
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483140582

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Electrical Applications 2 covers the BTEC NII level objectives in Electrical Applications U86/330. To understand the applications, a knowledge of the underlying principles is needed and these are covered briefly in the text. Key topics discussed are: the transmission and distribution of electrical energy; safety and regulations; tariffs and power factor correction; materials and their applications in the electrical industry; transformers; DC machines; illumination; and fuse protection. Included in each chapter are worked examples which should be carefully worked through before progressing to the next section. At the ends of chapters, further problems are provided for consolidation and self-testing; where these have numerical answers, they may be found at the end of the book. In a subject such as this, many problems ask for explanations and descriptions and here the answers must be sought in the text. When dealing with a descriptive question, a good diagram almost always helps to give a clear answer and saves many words of explanation. The book aims to promote this approach by the use of over 170 figures throughout the eight chapters.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1 Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy

    Synchronous Generators

    Economics of Generation and Transmission

    Overhead Lines

    Comparison between Overhead Lines and Underground Cables




    Fault Finding

    Switchgear, Definitions and Uses

    Substation Layout and Equipment

    The Three-Phase System

    Load Balancing

    Industrial Installations

    General Arrangement

    Distribution Systems

    Radial System

    Ring System

    Distributor Calculations


    Distributor Fed at Both Ends

    Problems for Section 1

    2 Regulations

    Safety and Regulations

    The Electricity Supply Regulations

    Electricity (Factories Act) Special Regulations

    Fixed Apparatus

    Substations and Transformers

    The Institution of Electrical Engineers' Regulations for Electrical Installations

    The Health and Safety at Work Act

    Outline of the Requirements of the HASAWA

    The Health and Safety Inspectorate

    Comparison between the Scopes of the Regulations

    Problems for Section 2

    3 Tariffs and Power Factor Correction

    Generation and Transmission Costs

    Capital Charges

    Running Charges

    Power Factor

    Maximum Demand

    Diversity Factor

    Load Factor

    Cost of Electrical Energy



    Problems for Section 3

    4 Materials and Their Applications in the Electrical Industry

    Conductor Materials for Overhead Lines and Underground Cables

    Performance of Insulating Materials

    Loss Angle Δ

    Breakdown Voltage

    Insulating Materials for Cables

    Cable Construction

    Materials Used in Electronic Circuits

    Conductor Screening and Coaxial Cable

    Printed Circuits

    Circuit Damage due to Overcurrents

    Heating of Cables

    Permitted Volt-Drops in Cables

    Effect of Ambient Temperature on Rating

    Cables in Ducts or in Close Proximity

    Heat Sinks

    The Insulation of Overhead Lines

    Eddy Current and Hysteresis Losses

    Magnetic Materials

    Minimization of Losses

    Permanent Magnets

    Magnetic Screening

    Problems for Section 4

    5 Transformers

    Principle of Action of the Transformer

    EMF Equation

    The Single-Phase Transformer

    The Three-Phase Transformer

    Transformer Cooling

    The Auto-Transformer

    Advantages of the Auto-Transformer over the Double-Wound Transformer

    Disadvantages of the Auto-Transformer

    Current Transformers

    Voltage or Potential Transformers

    Measurement of Power and Power

    Problems for Section 5

    6 DC Machines

    Principle of Action

    Power, Force and Torque

    Fleming's Rules

    For Motors

    For Generators

    The Action of the Commutator

    The Ring-Wound Armature

    The Lap Winding

    The Wave Winding

    The EMF and Speed Equations

    DC Machine Connections




    The DC Motor

    Speed/Armature Current Characteristics

    The Torque Equation

    Torque/Armature Current Characteristics

    Motor Applications

    Speed Control

    DC Motor Starters

    The Addition of Resistance to the Armature Circuit

    The Manually-Operated Face-Plate Starter

    The Automatic Contactor-Type Starter

    Electronic Means

    The DC Generator




    Armature Reaction

    Further Work on Commutation

    Armature Reaction

    Compensating Windings and Interpoles

    Changes in Characteristics due to Armature Reaction

    Losses in DC Machines

    Field Loss

    Armature Loss

    Commutator Losses

    Bearing Friction


    The Power Flow Diagram

    For a Motor

    For a Generator

    Problems for Section 6

    7 Illumination

    Lighting Standards

    Luminance and Luminous Intensity

    The Lumen and the Steradian

    The Inverse Square Law

    The Cosine Law

    The Polar Diagram

    Reflection and Refraction of Light

    Use of the Polar Diagram

    Indirect Illumination of a Surface

    Types of Lamp

    The Incandescent Lamp

    The High-Pressure Discharge Lamp

    The Low-Pressure Mercury (Fluorescent) Tube

    The Low-Pressure Sodium Discharge Lamp

    The Halogen Lamp

    The Mercury-Metal Halide Lamp

    The High-Pressure Sodium Lamp

    Types of Luminaire


    Problems for Section 7

    8 Fuse Protection

    Fault Level


    Fuse Protection

    Operation of Fuses

    The Semi-Enclosed Rewireable Fuse

    The High Rupturing Capacity (HRC) Fuse

    Fuse Characteristics

    Problems for Section 8

    Solutions to Problems


Product details

  • No. of pages: 152
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Newnes 1991
  • Published: November 30, 1991
  • Imprint: Newnes
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483140582

About the Author

David W. Tyler

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