Electric Motors and Drives

Electric Motors and Drives

Fundamentals, types and applications

1st Edition - January 1, 1990

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  • Author: Austin Hughes
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483105277

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Electric Motors and Drives: Fundamentals, Types and Applications provides information regarding the inner workings of motor and drive system. The book is comprised of nine chapters that cover several aspects and types of motor and drive systems. Chapter 1 discusses electric motors, and Chapter 2 deals with power electronic converters for motor drives. Chapter 3 covers the conventional d.c. motors, while Chapter 4 tackles inductions motors – rotating field, slip, and torque. The book also talks about the operating characteristics of induction motors, and then deals with the inverter-fed induction motor drives. The stepping motor systems; the synchronous, switched reluctance, and brushless d.c. drives; and the motor/drive selection are also covered. The text will be of great use to individuals who wish to familiarize themselves with motor and drive systems.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1 Electric Motors


    Producing Rotation

    Electromagnetic Force

    Magnetic Flux and Flux Density

    Force on a Conductor

    Magnetic Circuits

    Magnetomotive Force (MMF)

    Electric Circuit Analogy and Reluctance

    The Air-Gap

    Air-Gap Flux Densities


    Magnetic Circuits in Motors

    Torque Production

    Magnitude of Torque


    Specific Loadings and Specific Output

    Specific Loadings

    Torque and Motor Volume

    Specific Output Power - Importance of Speed

    Motional EMF

    Power Relationships - Stationary Conditions

    Power Relationships - Conductor Moving at Velocity V

    Equivalent Circuit

    Motoring Condition

    Behavior without Load

    Behavior when Loaded

    Relative Magnitudes of V, E and Efficiency

    General Properties of Electric Motors

    Operating Temperature and Cooling

    Torque per Unit Volume

    Power per Unit Volume - Importance of Speed

    Size Effects - Specific Torque and Efficiency

    Efficiency and Speed

    Rated Voltage

    Short-Term Overload

    2 Power Electronic Converters for Motor Drives


    General Arrangement of Drive

    Voltage Control - D.C. Output from D. C Supply

    Switching Control

    Transistor Chopper

    Chopper with Inductive Load - Over-Voltage Protection

    Features of Power Electronic Converters

    D.C. from A.C. - Controlled Rectification

    The Thyristor and Controlled Rectification

    Single Pulse Rectifier

    Single-Phase Fully Controlled Converter - Output Voltage and Control

    3-Phase Fully Controlled Converter

    Firing Circuits

    A.C. from D.C. - Inversion

    Single-Phase Inverter

    Output Voltage Control

    Sinusoidal PWM

    3-phase Inverter

    Forced and Natural Commutation

    Converter Waveforms and Acoustic Noise

    Cooling of Power Switching Devices

    Thermal Resistance

    Arrangement of Heat-Sinks and Forced-Air Cooling

    Cooling Fans

    3 Conventional D.C. Motors


    Torque Production

    Function of the Commutator

    Operation of the Commutator - Interpoles

    Motional E.M.F.

    Equivalent Circuit

    D.C. Motor - Steady-State Characteristics

    No-Load Speed

    Performance Calculation - Example

    Behavior when Loaded

    Base Speed and Field Weakening

    Transient Behavior - Current Surges

    Shunt, Series and Compound Motors

    Shunt Motor - Steady-State Operating Characteristics

    Series Motor - Steady-State Operating Characteristics

    Universal Motors

    Compound Motors

    Four Quadrant Operation and Regenerative Braking

    Full Speed Regenerative Reversal

    Dynamic Braking

    4 D.C. Motor Drives


    Thyristor D.C. Drives

    Motor Operation with Converter Supply

    Motor Current Waveforms

    Converter Output Impedance: Overlap

    Four-Quadrant Operation and Inversion

    Single-Converter Reversing Drives

    Double Converter Reversing Drives

    Power Factor and Supply Effects

    Control Arrangements for D.C Drives

    Current Control

    Torque Control

    Speed Control

    Overall Operating Region

    Armature Voltage Feedback and IR Compensation

    Drives without Current Control

    Chopper-Fed D.C. Motor Drives

    Performance of Chopper-fed D.C. Motor Drives

    Torque-Speed and Control Arrangements

    Developments in Industrial D. C Drives

    D.C Servo Drives


    Position Control

    5 Induction Motors-Rotating Field, Slip and Torque


    Outline of Approach

    The Rotating Magnetic Field

    Production of Rotating Magnetic Field

    Field Produced by Each Phase-Winding

    Resultant Field

    Direction of Rotation

    Main (Air-Gap) Flux and Leakage Flux

    Magnitude of Rotating Flux Wave

    Excitation Power and VA


    Torque Production

    Rotor Construction


    Rotor Induced E.M.F., Current and Torque

    Influence of Rotor Current on Flux

    Reduction of Flux by Rotor Current

    Stator Current-speed Characteristics

    6 Operating Characteristics of Induction Motors

    Methods of Starting Cage Motors

    Star/Delta (Wye/Mesh) Starter

    Autotransformer Starter

    Resistance or Reactance Starter

    Solid-State Soft Starting

    Run-up and Stable Operating Regions

    High Inertia Loads - Overheating

    Steady-State Rotor Losses and Efficiency

    Steady-State Stability - Pull-out Torque and Stalling

    Torque-Speed Curves - Influence of Rotor Parameters

    Cage Rotor

    Double Cage Rotors

    Deep Bar Rotors

    Starting and Run-up of Slip-ring Motors

    Influence of Supply Voltage on Torque-Speed Curve

    Generating and Braking

    Generating Region - Overhauling Loads

    Plug Reversal and Plug Braking

    Injection Braking

    Speed Control

    Pole-Changing Motors

    Voltage Control of High-Resistance Cage Motors

    Speed Control of Wound-Rotor Motors

    Power-Factor Control and Energy Optimization

    Slip Energy Recovery (Wound-Rotor Motors)

    Single-Phase Induction Motors

    Principle of Operation

    Capacitor-Run Motors

    Split-Phase Motors

    Shaded-Pole Motors

    7 Inverter-Fed Induction Motor Drives


    Comparison with D.C. Drive

    Inverter-Fed Induction Motors

    Steady-State Operation - Importance of Achieving Full Flux

    Torque-Speed Characteristics - Constant V/f Operation

    Permissible Range of Continuous Operation

    Limitations Imposed by the Inverter - Constant Power and Constant Torque Regions

    Limitations Imposed by Motor

    Control Arrangements for Inverter-Fed Drives

    Open-Loop Speed Control

    Closed-Loop Speed Control

    Vector Control

    8 Stepping Motor Systems


    Open-Loop Position Control

    Generation of Step Pulses and Motor Response

    High Speed Running and Ramping

    Principle of Motor Operation

    Variable Reluctance Motor

    Hybrid Motor


    Motor Characteristics

    Static Torque-Displacement Curves


    Step Position Error and Holding Torque

    Half Stepping

    Step Division - Mini-Stepping

    Drive Circuits and Steady-State Characteristics

    Requirements of Drive

    Pull-Out Torque under Constant-Current Conditions

    Drive Circuits and Pull-Out Torque-Speed Curves

    Resonances and Instability

    Transient Performance

    Step Response

    Starting from Rest

    Optimum Acceleration and Closed-Loop Control

    9 Synchronous, Switched Reluctance and Brushless D.D. Drives


    Synchronous Motors

    Excited Rotor Motors


    Power Factor Control

    Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Hysteresis Motors

    Reluctance Motors

    Controlled-Speed Synchronous Motor Drives

    Open-Loop Inverter-Fed Synchronous Motor Drives

    Self-Synchronous (Closed-Loop) Operation

    Operating Characteristics and Control

    Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    Principle of Operation

    Power Converter

    Characteristics and Control

    Brushless D.C. Motors

    Characteristics and Control

    10 Motor/Drive Selection


    Power Range for Motors and Drives

    Maximum Speed and Speed Range

    Load Requirements - Torque-Speed Characteristics

    Constant-Torque Load

    Fan and Pump Loads

    General Application Considerations

    Regenerative Operation and Braking

    Duty Cycle and Rating

    Enclosures and Cooling

    Dimensional Standards

    Supply Interaction and Harmonics

    Further Reading


Product details

  • No. of pages: 316
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Newnes 1990
  • Published: January 1, 1990
  • Imprint: Newnes
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483105277

About the Author

Austin Hughes

Austin Hughes was a long-time member of the innovative motors and drives research team at the University of Leeds, UK, and has established a reputation for an informal style that opens up complex subjects to a wide readership, including students and managers as well as technicians and engineers.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Leeds, UK

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