Elastomers and Rubber Compounding Materials - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444429940, 9780444601186

Elastomers and Rubber Compounding Materials

1st Edition

Editors: I Franta
eBook ISBN: 9780444601186
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1989
Page Count: 607
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Elastomers and Rubber Compounding Materials reviews the properties of elastomers and particular groups of ingredients and chemicals mixed into the basic elastomer to form a rubber compound.
After introducing the history of rubber industry and the general properties of rubber, the book discusses the properties, classification, concentration, stabilization, modification, application, transport, and storage of latex. It presents as well the methods of production, composition, physical properties, and chemical reactions of dry rubber. The book then focuses on the production and classification of different synthetic rubbers, such as styrene-butadiene, isoprene, butadiene, ethylene-propylene, and chloroprene. It also discusses the production, properties, and applications of elastomers, vulcanization chemicals, fillers, stabilizers, plasticizers, blowing agents, and textile reinforcing materials used in formulating rubber compounds.
This book will be of great value not only to those who are in the rubber industry, but also to students of polymer science and rubber technology.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Introductory Part

1.1 Brief history of rubber

1.2 Introduction and general description of rubbers

1.3 Some general properties of rubber

Chapter 2. Natural Rubber

2.1 Latex

2.1.1 Properties

2.1.2 Classification

2.1.3 Concentration

2.1.4 Stabilization (preservation)

2.1.5 Modification

2.1.6 Application

2.1.7 Transport and storage

2.2 Dry rubber

2.2.1 Older method of production

2.2.2 New method of production

2.2.3 Market grading of natural rubber

2.2.4 Technically classified rubber (TC rubber)

2.2.5 New specifications (Standard Malaysian Rubber - SMR)

2.2.6 Composition

2.2.7 Physical properties

2.2.8 Chemical reactions of natural rubber

Chapter 3. Synthetic Rubbers Production Methods

3.1 Survey of the development of synthetic rubbers

3.2 Classification of polymerization reactions

3.3 Polymerization of functional groups

3.4 Free radical chain addition polymerization

3.5 Emulsion polymerization

3.6 Copolymerization

3.7 Addition polymerization by cationic mechanism

3.8 Addition polymerization by anionic mechanism

3.9 Stereospecific polymerization with coordination catalysts

3.10 Graft and block copolymerization

Chapter 4. Synthetic Rubbers

4.1 Classification of rubbers according to their uses and properties

4.1.1 Rubbers for general and special purposes

4.1.2 Comparison of rubbers according to important properties

4.2 Styrene-butadiene rubber

4.2.1 Production

4.2.2 Commercial grades

4.2.3 The structure of styrene-butadiene rubber

4.2.4 Vulcanization

4.2.5 Properties of SBR compounds and vulcanizates

4.2.6 SBR applications

4.2.7 Styrene-butadiene copolymers with a higher content of styrene

4.2.8 Styrene-butadiene latices

4.3 Isoprene rubbers

4.3.1 Production

4.3.2 Commercial grades

4.3.3 Structure

4.3.4 Vulcanization

4.3.5 Properties of IR compounds and vulcanizates

4.3.6 IR applications

4.3.7 Polyisoprene latex

4.3.8 Isoprene copolymers

4.3.9 trans-1,4-Polyisoprene

4.4 Butadiene rubber

4.4.1 Historical development of butadiene rubber

4.4.2 Production of solution butadiene rubber

4.4.3 Structure and properties of butadiene polymers

4.4.4 Commercial grades

4.4.5 Vulcanization

4.4.6 Properties of BR vulcanizates

4.4.7 BR applications

4.4.8 trans-1,4-Polybutadiene

4.5 Ethylene-propylene rubber

4.5.1 Production

4.5.2 Structure and properties of the ethylene-propylene polymers

4.5.3 Commercial grades

4.5.4 EPM vulcanization

4.5.5 EPDM vulcanization

4.5.6 Compounding and properties of EPR vulcanizates

4.5.7 EPR applications

4.6 Chloroprene rubber

4.6.1 Production

4.6.2 Structure and properties

4.6.3 Vulcanization

4.6.4 Commercial grades and CR applications

4.6.5 Chloroprene latices

4.7 Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber

4.7.1 Production

4.7.2 Commercial grades

4.7.3 Structure and properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene polymers

4.7.4 Vulcanization

4.7.5 NBR compounding

4.7.6 Properties of the NBR vulcanizates

4.7.7 NBR applications

4.7.8 Solutions

4.7.9 Carboxylated nitrile rubber

4.7.10 Latices

4.7.11 Liquid and powdered nitrile rubber

4.8 Butyl rubber, chlorobutyl rubber and bromobutyl rubber

4.8.1 Production

4.8.2 Commercial grades

4.8.3 Structure

4.8.4 Vulcanization

4.8.5 Properties of IIR

4.8.6 Butyl rubbers applications

4.8.7 Butyl rubber latex

4.9 Polyurethane rubbers

4.9.1 Production

4.9.2 Structure and properties

4.9.3 Polyurethane applications

4.10 Polysulphide rubbers

4.10.1 Production

4.10.2 Structure

4.10.3 Plasticization and vulcanization

4.10.4 Properties of polysulphide rubbers

4.10.5 Commercial grades

4.10.6 Polysulphide rubber applications

4.10.7 Latices

4.10.8 Liquid polymers

4.11 Chlorosulphonated and chlorinated polyethylene

4.11.1 Production of CSM

4.11.2 Structure of CSM

4.11.3 CSM vulcanization

4.11.4 Properties of CSM

4.11.5 Commercial grades and CSM applications

4.11.6 Production, structure and grades of CM

4.11.7 Compounding and properties of CM

4.12 Polyacrylate rubber

4.12.1 Production

4.12.2 Structure and commercial grades

4.12.3 ACM vulcanization

4.12.4 ACM compounding

4.12.5 Properties

4.12.6 ACM applications

4.13 Fluorocarbon rubbers

4.13.1 Production

4.13.2 Commercial types

4.13.3 The structure and properties of the fluorocarbon polymers

4.13.4 Vulcanization

4.13.5 FKM compounding

4.13.6 Properties of F KM vulcanizates

4.13.7 FKM applications

4.13.8 Fluorosilicone elastomers

4.14 Silicone rubbers

4.14.1 Structure and properties

4.14.2 Production

4.14.3 Vulcanization of silicone rubbers

4.14.4 Properties and applications

4.14.5 Commercial grades of silicone rubbers

4.15 Epichlorohydrin rubber

4.15.1 Production

4.15.2 Commercial grades

4.15.3 Vulcanization of Hydrin rubbers

4.15.4 Properties of Hydrin compounds and vulcanizates

4.15.5 Hydrin rubber applications

4.15.6 Polypropylene oxide rubber

4.16 Thermoplastic elastomers

4.16.1 Styrene-diene block copolymers

4.16.2 Styrene-olefin block copolymers

4.16.3 Thermoplastic polyurethanes

4.16.4 Copolyester ethers

4.16.5 Polyolefin thermoplastic copolymers

4.17 Ethylene-vinyl acetate rubber

4.18 Other rubbers

4.19 Liquid rubbers

Chapter 5. Reclaimed Rubber

5.1 The principle of the reclaiming process

5.1.1 Natural rubber

5.1.2 Styrene-butadiene rubber

5.2 Reclaiming additives

5.2.1 Reclaiming oils

5.2.2 Chemical reclaiming agents

5.2.3 Choice of reclaiming additives

5.3 Production of reclaimed rubber

5.3.1 Preparation of waste rubber for reclaiming

5.3.2 Reclaiming processes

5.3.3 Final treatment of the reclaim - refining

5.4 Evaluation of the reclaimed rubber

5.5 Advantages of reclaimed rubber

5.6 Reclaim applications

5.7 The problem of the utilization of waste rubber

Chapter 6. Compounding Materials and Special Purpose Additives

6.1 Vulcanizing agents

6.1.1 Sulphur

6.1.2 Selenium and tellurium

6.1.3 Sulphur donors

6.1.4 Reactive resins

6.1.5 Quinone dioxime

6.1.6 Peroxides

6.1.7 Diamines

6.1.8 Metal oxides

6.1.9 Diisocyanates

6.1.10 Other vulcanizing agents

6.2 Activators and retarders of vulcanization, scorch inhibitors

6.2.1 Vulcanization activators

6.2.2 Vulcanization retarders and scorch inhibitors

6.3 Vulcanization accelerators

6.3.1 Slow accelerators

6.3.2 Fast accelerators

6.3.3 Very fast accelerators

6.3.4 Ultra-accelerators

6.3.5 Various accelerators

6.4 Fillers

6.4.1 Carbon black

6.4.2 Non-black fillers

6.5 Antidegradants

6.5.1 General description of antidegradants

6.5.2 Staining antidegradants

6.5.3 Non-staining antidegradants

6.6 Softeners, plasticizers, processing aids

6.6.1 Main types of softeners

6.6.2 Effect of plasticizers on the properties of compounds and rubber

6.6.3 Effect of the character of the plasticizer on the properties of the compounds of the rubber vulcanizates

6.6.4 Use of softeners in individual types of rubber

6.7 Physical surface protection (waxes)

6.8 Factices

6.8.1 Brown factice

6.8.2 White factice

6.8.3 Special factices

6.9 Blowing agents

6.9.1 Inorganic blowing agents

6.9.2 Organic blowing agents

6.10 Peptizing agents

6.10.1 Bis(2-benzamidophenyl)disulphide

6.10.2 N,S-Dibenzoyl-2-aminothiophenol

6.10.3 Zinc 2-benzamidothiophenolate

6.10.4 Pentachlorothiophenol

6.10.5 Zinc pentachlorothiophenolate

6.10.6 Other peptizing agents

6.11 Reclaiming agents

Chapter 7. Textile Materials for Rubber Reinforcement

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Basic classification of fibres

7.3 Definition of fundamental concepts and properties of textile reinforcing materials

7.3.1 Basic terminology

7.3.2 Description and definition of important quantities determining the properties of fibrous reinforcing materials

7.4 Fibre production

7.4.1 Cotton

7.4.2 Viscose rayon

7.4.3 Polyamide silk

7.4.4 Polyester silk

7.4.5 Glass fibres

7.4.6 Steel fibres

7.4.7 Asbestos

7.5 Basic properties of fibres

7.6 Production of cord threads and fabrics

7.6.1 Production of cord threads - twisting

7.6.2 Production of fabrics

7.7 Adhesive and heat treatment

7.7.1 Adhesive systems

7.7.2 Heat treatment of cords and cord fabrics

7.8 Reinforcing systems of individual rubber products

7.8.1 Comparison of the properties of individual reinforcing materials and the conditions of their use

7.8.2 Tyres

7.8.3 Conveyor belts

7.8.4 Driving belts

7.8.5 Hoses

7.8.6 Other rubber products

7.8.7 Other methods of use of technical fibres and textile materials in the rubber industry

7.9 Testing methods for cords and fabrics

7.9.1 Testing methods for the evaluation of cord threads

7.9.2 Testing of fabrics

7.10 Prospects for further development

General References on Rubber

Specific References

Subject Index


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© Elsevier 1989
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About the Editor

I Franta

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