Effects of Low Dose and Low Dose Rate Radiation - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120354160, 9781483281834

Effects of Low Dose and Low Dose Rate Radiation

1st Edition

Editors: Oddvar F. Nygaard Warren K. Sinclair John T. Lett
eBook ISBN: 9781483281834
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 17th August 1992
Page Count: 348
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Advances in Radiation Biology, Volume 6: Effects of Low Dose and Low Dose Rate Radiation examines the biological effects of low dose and low dose rate ionizing radiation on a broad scale, covering various articles from microdosimetry to analyses of human responses. Estimates of the effects on humans from low doses or from sustained exposures to low dose rates of ionizing radiations are of critical importance for the assessment of radiation risks under occupational and environmental conditions. This book consists of such knowledge that is essential for radiation protection and governmental regulatory activities pertaining to radiation exposure. This volume is intended for radiobiologists, radiation epidemiologists, radiation physicists, radiation safety personnel, health officials, and individuals involved in regulatory activities.

Table of Contents


Introduction and Overview

Track Structure Considerations in Low Dose and Low Dose Rate Effects of Ionizing Radiation

I. Introduction

II. Features of Radiation Tracks

III. Dose Responses and Extrapolation to Low Doses

IV. Conclusions


Dose-Time-Response Models for Radiation Carcinogenesis

I. Introduction

II. Descriptive Models

III. Radiobiological Principles

IV. Mechanistic Models

V. Directions of Future Research

VI. Conclusions


Radiation-Induced Mutation in Mammalian Cells at Low Doses and Dose Rates

I. Introduction

II. Mutation Measurements

III. Comment on Mutation Data

IV. Novel Mutation Systems: Enhancing Mutant Detection

V. The Bottom Line(s)

Appendix 1: Mammalian Cell Line Sensitivities

Appendix 2: A Brief Survey of the Nature of Radiation-Induced Mutations


Commentary to Thacker: A Consideration of the Mechanisms of Induction of Mutations in Mammalian Cells by Low Doses and Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiation

I. Introduction

II. DNA Damage, Repair, and Mutations

III. Mechanism of Induction of Chromosomal Mutations by Ionizing Radiations

IV. Mutation Induction (Chromosomal and Point) by Ionizing Radiation

V. Conclusion


Oncogenic Cell Transformation In Vitro

I. Introduction

II. Cellular and Molecular Events in Oncogenic Transformation

III. Choice of Cellular Systems: Criteria and Endpoints for Oncogenic Transformation

IV. In Vivo Correlations of Transformation In Vitro

V. Concluding Remarks: Future Research Directions


Commentary 1 to Cox and Little: The Unbridged Gap between In Vivo and In Vitro Models for Evaluation of Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Radiation-Induced Oncogenic Transformation

I. Introduction

II. Stages of Neoplastic Development

III. Model Systems for Studying Neoplastic Progression

IV. Summary


Commentary 2 to Cox and Little: Radiation-Induced Oncogenic Transformation: The Interplay between Dose, Dose Protraction, and Radiation Quality

I. Introduction

II. Review of Pertinent Experimental Data

III. Biophysical Modeling of Inverse Dose Rate Effects

IV. Practical Consequences in the Field of Radiation Protection

V. Conclusions


The Role of Animal Experiments in Estimates of Radiation Risk

I. Introduction

II. Stochastic Effects

III. The Use of Experimental Data: Qualitative and Quantitative

IV. Protracted and Low Dose Rate Studies

V. Transfer to Risk Estimates across Populations

VI. Summary


Commentary to Fry: Radiation Carcinogenesis Studies in Animals—Advantages, Limitations, and Caveats

I. Introduction

II. Random Processes and Carcinogenic Effects

III. Molecular Biology of Radiation Carcinogenesis

IV. The Grade of Malignancy and the Absorbed Dose

V. The Relative Biological Effectiveness of High Linear Energy Transfer Radiation

VI. Influence of the Time Factor for High Linear Energy Transfer Radiation

VII. Caveats of Cancer Risks for Humans


Radiation Carcinogenesis in Humans

I. Introduction

II. Carcinogenesis

III. Conclusions


Commentary 1 to Schull and Weiss: Low Dose Extrapolation, Time following Exposure, and Transport between Populations

I. Low Dose Extrapolation

II. Changes in Excess Risk over Time following Exposure

III. Transport of Risk Estimates from One Population to Another


Commentary 2 to Schull and Weiss: Human Cellular Radiosensitivity - The Search for the Diagnostic Holy Grail or a Poisoned Chalice

I. Introduction

II. The Response of Individuals

III. Measurements of Cellular Radiosensitivity

IV. Genetically Disposed Individuals

V. Modifications to Survival Assays

VI. Sensitivity of Tumor-Derived Cells

VII. Other Assays

VIII. Conclusions and the Future


Commentary 3 to Schull and Weiss: Increased Definition of Abnormal Radiosensitivity Using Low Dose Rate Testing

I. Introduction

II. Evidence for DNA Repair Involvement in Cases of Protection at Low Dose Rates

III. Chronic Exposure Expands the Range of Radioresponse

IV. Increased Resolution of Mildly Hypersensitive Responses Is Possible with Chronic Dose Delivery

V. Possible Mechanisms of Protection on Dose Rate Protraction


Radiation Protection: Recent Recommendations of the ICRP and the NCRP and Their Biological Basis

I. Introduction

II. History of ICRP and NCRP Recommendations

III. Deterministic Effects, Stochastic Effects, and Detriment

IV. The Risk of Radiation-Induced Cancer to 1985

V. Recent Evaluations of the Risk of Radiation-Induced Fatal Cancer

VI. Uncertainties in Risk Coefficients for Fatal Cancer

VII. Tissue Weighting Factors (wT)and Detriment

VIII. Radiations Other Than Low Linear Energy Transfer X and Y Rays




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© Academic Press 1992
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Oddvar F. Nygaard

Warren K. Sinclair

John T. Lett

Ratings and Reviews