Edible Sea Urchins: Biology and Ecology

Edible Sea Urchins: Biology and Ecology

2nd Edition - October 4, 2006

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  • Editor: John M. Lawrence
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080465586

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Description

Sea urchins are a major component of the world ocean. They are important ecologically and often greatly affect marine communities. They have an excellent fossil record and consequently are of interest to paleontologists. Research has increased in recent years stimulated first by a recognition of their ecological importance and then because of their economic importance. Scientists around the world are actively investigating their potential for aquaculture. This book is designed to provide a broad understanding of the biology and ecology of sea urchins. Synthetic chapters consider biology of sea urchins as a whole to give a broad view. The topics of these chapters include reproduction, metabolism, endocrinology, larval ecology, growth, digestion, carotenoids, disease and nutrition. Subsequent chapters consider the ecology of individual species that are of major importance ecologically and economically. These include species from Japan, New Zealand, Australia, Europe, North America, South America and Africa.

Key Features

* First comprehensive book devoted to the biology and ecology of sea urchins
* NEW chapter on Nutrition of Sea Urchins and Ecology of Diadema
* Brand NEW illustrations
* Hot NEW topic: Immunology of the Sea Urchin
* Chapters written by internationally recognized experts
* Each chapter revised and updated from the first edition
* Biological chapters include reproduction, endocrinology, carotenoids and disease
* Ecological chapters include species of major economic interest for fisheries and aquaculture

Readership

Marine biologists, students and researchers studying aquaculture, fisheries, and developmental biology

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. The edible sea urchins
    John M. Lawrence
    1. Prehistory fishing of sea urchins
    2. Contemporary commercial fishing of sea urchins
    3. Aquaculture of sea urchins
    4. The edible sea urchins
    5. Life-history strategies of sea urchins
    6. Conclusion
    References

    Chapter 2. Gametogenesis and reproduction of sea urchins
    Charles W. Walker, Tatsuya Unuma, Michael P. Lesser
    1. Introduction
    2. Structure of the gonads of the sea urchin
    3. Interacting gametogenic and nutritive phagocyte cycles in the sea urchin gonad: stages, physiology and molecular biology
    3.1. Stages in gametogenesis
    3.2. Nutritive phagocytes in ovaries and testes
    3.3. Inter-gametogenesis and NP phagocytosis
    3.4. Pre-gametogenesis and NP renewal
    3.5. Gametogenesis and NP utilization
    3.6. End of gametogenesis: NP exhaustion and spawning
    3.7. Environmental control of gametogenesis
    4. Conclusions
    References

    Chapter 3. Biochemical and energy requirements of gonad development
    Adam G. Marsh, Stephen A. Watts
    1. Introduction
    2. Cellular energy utilization
    3. Energy metabolism during development
    4. Biochemical components of cellular metabolism
    5. Gonad growth
    6. Gonad energy metabolism
    6.1. Protein metabolism
    6.2. Carbohydrate metabolism
    6.3. Anaerobic metabolism
    7. Feeding and metabolism
    8. Summary
    References

    Chapter 4. Reproductive endocrinology of sea urchins
    Kristina M. Wasson, Stephen A. Watts
    1. Sea urchin gonad
    2. Exogenous regulation of reproduction
    2.1. Environmental factors
    2.2. Endocrine disruptors
    3. Endogenous regulation of reproduction
    3.1. Steroids
    3.1.1. Sex steroids in the gonads
    3.1.2. Steroid converting enzymes in the gonads
    3.1.3. Sex steroids in the gonads
    3.1.4. Response to exogenous administration of sex steroids
    3.2. Protein and peptidergic factors
    3.3. Catecholaminergic and cholinergic factors
    4. Mechanisms of regulation
    4.1. Paracrine
    4.2. Endocrine
    5. Gene regulation in reproduction
    6. Conclusions
    References

    Chapter 5. Echinoid larval ecology
    Larry R. McEdward, Benjamin G. Miner
    1. Introduction
    2. The echinoid life cycle
    3. Life cycle diversity
    4. Echinoid larval diversity
    5. Reproductive ecology
    5.1. Egg provisioning
    5.2. Fertilization ecology
    6. Larval ecology
    6.1. Reproductive strategies
    6.2. Feeding
    6.3. Larval growth
    6.4. Phenotypic plasticity
    6.5. Swimming
    6.6 Mortality and defense
    7. Recruitment ecology
    7.1. Larval transport and dispersal
    7.2. Settlement
    7.3. Metamorphosis and recruitment
    8. Conclusions
    References

    Chapter 6. Growth and survival of post-settlement sea urchins
    Thomas A. Ebert
    1. Growth
    1.1. Introduction
    1.2. Skeletal composition
    1.3. Resorption
    1.4 Natural growth lines
    1.5. Tagging
    1.6. Growth models
    2. Survival
    References

    Chapter 7. Feeding, digestion and digestibility
    John M. Lawrence, Addison L. Lawrence, Stephen A. Watts
    1. Ingestion
    1.1. Food chemistry
    1.1.1. Attractants
    1.1.2. Stimulants and deterrents
    1.2. Environmental conditions
    1.2.1. Hydrodynamics
    1.2.2. Light
    l.2.3. Temperature
    1.3. Food shape
    1.4. Physiological state
    1.4.1. Nutritional state
    1.4.2. Body size
    1.4.3. Reproductive state
    2. Digestion
    2.1. Structure of the gut
    2.2. Digestive enzymes
    2.3. Gut transit time
    2.4. Role of microorganisms in digestion
    3. Digestibility
    4. Conclusions
    References

    Chapter 8. Carotenoids in sea urchins
    Miyuki Tsushima
    1. Introduction
    2. Carotenoids distribution in sea urchins
    3. Metabolism of carotenoids in sea urchins
    4. The effect of dietary carotenoids on gonad color in sea urchins
    5. The role of carotenoids in sea urchins
    5.1. Egg production and development
    5.2. Biological functions
    6. Conclusions
    References

    Chapter 9. Disease in sea urchins
    K. Tajima, J.R.M.C. Silva, J.M. Lawrence
    1. Introduction
    2. Bacterial disease in Japanese sea urchins
    2.1. Evidence for bacterial disease
    2.2. Symptoms of the disease
    2.3. Isolation and description of the disease-causing bacterium
    2.3.1. Summer disease
    2.3.2. Spring disease
    2.4. Biological responses to bacterial infection
    2.5. Bacterial control
    3. Immunological response to bacterial diseases in sea urchins
    3.1. General concept of the immune response
    3.2. Coelomocyte types
    3.3. Phagocytosis
    3.4. Inflammatory process
    3.5. Origin of the coelomocytes
    3.6. Coelomic fluid and coelomocyte concentration
    3.7. Coagulation and encapsulation
    3.8. The complement system and humoral factors
    4. Conclusions
    References

    Color Plates

    Chapter 10. Ecology of Centrostephanus
    N. Andrew, M. Byrne
    1. Biogeography
    2. Ecological impacts
    2.1. Habitat structure
    2.2. Food and feeding ecology
    3. Population regulation
    3.1. Recruitment
    3.2. Predation and disease
    3.3. Competition
    3.4. Physical factors
    4. Reproduction
    4.1. Reproductive cycle
    4.2. Habitat related patterns
    4.2. Development and larval ecology
    5. Growth and age
    6. Conclusions
    References

    Chapter 11. Ecology of Diadema
    T. R. McClanahan, N. Muthiga
    1. Introduction
    1.1. Species of Diadema
    1.2. Biogeography and large-scale distribution
    1.3. Local distribution and abundance patterns
    2. Population biology and ecology
    2.1. Reproductive biology and ecology
    2.2. Reproductive cycles
    2.3. Feeding ecology
    2.4. Growth and longevity
    2.5. Pelagic larval dynamics
    2.6. Benthic population dynamics
    3. Community ecology and coexistence
    3.1. Ecosystem effects
    3.2. Competitive interactions with other sea urchins
    3.3. Competitive interactions with fish
    3.4. Predation and predators
    4. Herbivory and grazing effects
    4.1. Herbivory
    4.2. Bioerosion
    5. Conclusions
    References

    Chapter 12. Ecology of Loxechinus albus
    J. Vásquez
    1. Introduction
    2. Morphology
    3. Distribution
    4. Habitat and substrate preferences
    5. Food
    6. Reproductive ecology
    7. Population ecology
    8. Community ecology
    9. El Niño
    10. Conclusion
    References

    Chapter 13. Ecology of Paracentrotus lividus
    C.-. Boudouresque, M. Verlacque
    1. Introduction
    2. Distribution and habitat
    2.1. Habitat
    2.2. Densities
    2.3. Short- and long-term changes in density
    2.4. Co-occurring species
    3. Food and feeding
    3.1. Food preferences
    3.2. Consumption rate
    3.3. Ecological consequences of feeding
    3.4. Competition with other herbivores
    4. Movement and migration
    5. Mortality
    5.1. Predators
    5.2. Diseases and parasites
    5.3. Other causes of mortality
    6. Growth
    7. Reproduction
    7.1. Reproductive cycles
    7.2. Spawning
    7.3. Recruitment
    8. Conclusions
    References


    Chapter 14. Ecology of Psammechinus miliaris
    M. Kelly, A. Hughes, E. Cook
    1. Appearance
    2. Distribution
    3. Habitat
    4. Density
    5. Population structure
    6. Food and trophic ecology
    7. Growth rates, ageing, and energy partitioning
    8. Reproduction
    9. Conclusions
    References

    Chapter 15. Ecology of Echinometra
    T. R. McClanahan, N. Muthiga
    1. Introduction
    1.1. Species of Echinometra
    1.2. Biogeography and large-scale distribution
    1.3. Local distribution and abundance patterns
    2. Population biology and ecology
    2.1. Reproductive biology and ecology
    2.2. Feeding ecology
    2.3. Energetics
    2.4. Growth and longevity
    2.5. Pelagic larval dynamics
    2.6. Benthic population dynamics
    3. Community ecology and coexistence
    3.1. Competitive interactions with other herbivores
    3.2. Competitive interactions with other sea urchins
    3.3. Competitive interactions with fish
    3.4. Predation and predators
    4. Herbivory and grazing effects
    4.1. Herbivory
    4.2. Erosion of calcium carbonate
    5. Conclusion
    References

    Chapter 16. Ecology of Evechinus chloroticus
    M. Barker
    1. Introduction
    2. Geographic distribution
    3. Habitat
    4. Associated species
    4.1. Kelp
    4.2. Gastropods
    5. Feeding
    5.1. Diet
    5.2. Feeding rate
    6. Movement
    7. Reproduction
    7.1. Gametogenesis
    7.2. Reproductive cycle
    7.3. Reproductive output
    7.4. Size at sexual maturity
    7.5. Spawning
    8. Larval development
    9. Recruitment
    10. Population biology
    10.1. Growth
    10.2. Mortality
    10.3. Population genetics
    References

    Chapter 17. Ecology of Heliocidaris erythrogramma
    John K. Keesing
    1. Introduction
    2. Population genetics and colour variability
    3. Reproduction, development, settlement and recruitment
    4. Growth and age
    5. Movement and feeding
    6. Influence on benthic plants, occurrence of urchin barrens and feeding fronts
    7. Predators, parasites, commensals and other ecological interactions
    8. Conclusions
    References

    Chapter 18. Ecology of Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis
    Robert Scheibling, B. Hatcher
    1. Distribution and abundance
    1.1. Geographic range
    1.2. Population density and spatial distribution
    1.3. Physiological tolerance limits
    2. Food and feeding
    2.1. Food preferences and nutrition
    2.2. Feeding behavior
    2.3. Feeding rates
    3. Growth
    3.1. Determinants of growth
    3.2. Growth rates
    4. Reproduction
    4.1. Reproductive timing
    4.2. Gonad growth and gamete production
    4.3. Fertilization rates
    5. Settlement and recruitment
    5.1. Larval development and settlement behaviour
    5.2. Temporal and spatial patterns of settlement
    5.3. Temporal and spatial patterns of recruitment
    5.4. Early post-settlement mortality
    6. Predation
    6.1. Predators
    6.2. Behavioural responses to predators
    6.3. Predation as a mechanism of population regulation
    7. Disease and parasitism
    7.1. Microbial pathogens
    7.2. Macroparasitic infections
    8. Mortality due to abiotic factors
    9. Ecological role
    References

    Chapter 19. Ecology of Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Laura Rodgers-Bennett
    1. Introduction
    2. Sea urchin grazing and kelp forest ecosystems
    3. Growth and survival
    3.1. Growth
    3.2. Survival
    3.3. Aging
    4. Reproduction
    5. Fertilization
    6. Larvae
    6.1. Larval period
    6.2. Blastulae and larval behavior
    6.3. Larval cloning
    7. Settlement and recruitment
    8. Population regulation
    8.1. Competition
    8.2. Predation
    8.3. Disease
    8.4. Physical factors and ocean warming
    9. Genetics
    10. Fisheries
    10.1. West coast fisheries
    10.2. Fishery experiments
    10.3. Fishery enhancement
    10.4. Gonad enhancement
    11. Fishery management
    12. Conservation
    12.1. Metapopulation dynamics
    12.2. Sea urchins as ecosystem engineers
    12.3. Ecosystem management
    References

    Chapter 20. Ecology of Strongylocentrotus intermedius
    Yukio Agatsuma
    1. Introduction
    2. Geographic distribution
    3. Reproduction
    3.1. Size at maturity
    3.2. Difference in reproductive cycle among localities
    3.3. Fixation of reproductive cycle in each area
    3.4. Spawning structure
    4. Larval ecology
    4.1. Occurrence
    4.2. Distribution
    4.3. Length of larval life and survival
    5. Settlement and metamorphosis
    6. Food and feeding after settlement
    6.1. Food habit
    6.2. Food ingestion and absorption
    6.3. Diurnal changes in food intake
    6.4. Chemical stimulus on feeding
    7. Growth
    7.1. Longevity and growth rings
    7.2. Energy transformation to growth
    7.3. Differences in growth among localities
    7.4. Food and growth
    7.5. Water temperature and growth
    7.6. Gonadal growth
    8. Habitat
    8.1. Juvenile habitat
    8.2. Habitat structure
    9. Community ecology
    9.1. Bio-economy
    9.2. Grazing effect on algal communities
    10. Population dynamics
    10.1. Fluctuation in larval occurrence
    10.2. Juvenile recruitment
    10.3. Fluctuation in gonadal growth
    10.4 Effect of fisheries on population size
    10.5 Predation
    11. Conclusions
    References

    Chapter 21. Ecology of Strongylocentrotus nudus
    Yukio Agatsuma
    1. Introduction
    2. Geographic distribution
    3. Reproduction
    3.1. Reproductive cycle
    3.2. Spawning cues
    4. Larval ecology
    4.1. Occurrence
    4.2. Growth and survival
    5. Metamorphosis and settlement
    5.1. Algal communities
    5.2. Chemical inducer
    6. Food and feeding after settlement
    6.1. Food
    6.2. Food ingestion and absorption
    6.3. Food selectivity
    6.4. Chemical defense of algae
    6.5. Abiotic factors on feeding
    6.6. Foraging
    7. Growth
    7.1. Somatic growth
    7.2. Gonadal growth
    8. Habitat
    8.1. Juvenile habitat
    8.2. Movement
    9. Community ecology
    10. Population dynamics
    10.1. Recruitment of juveniles
    10.2. Annual fluctuations
    10.3. Decrease in population size
    11. Conclusions
    References

    Chapter 22. Ecology of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, Pseudocentrotous depressus, and Anthocidaris crassispina
    Yukio Agatsuma
    1. Introduction
    2. Geographic distribution
    3. Reproduction
    3.1. Reproductive cycle
    3.2. Abiotic factors and maturation
    3.3. Spawning cue
    4. Larval ecology
    5. Settlement and metamorphosis
    5.1. Induction with algae
    5.2. Chemical inducer
    6. Food and feeding after settlement
    6.1. Food
    6.2. Feeding and food selectivity
    7. Growth
    7.1. Longevity and growth rings
    7.2. Somatic growth
    7.3. Gonadal growth
    8. Habitat
    9. Community ecology
    10. Population dynamics
    11. Conclusions
    References

    Chapter 23. Ecology of Lytechinus
    Stephen A. Watts, James B. McClintock, John M. Lawrence
    1. The genus Lytechinus
    2. Habitats
    2.1. Lytechinus variegatus
    2.2. Lytechinus semituberculatus and Lytechinus pictus
    3. Abundance
    3.1. Lytechinus variegatus
    3.2. Lytechinus semituberculatus and Lytechinus pictus
    4. Factors influencing distribution and abundance
    4.1. Abiotic factors
    4.2. Biotic factors
    5. Food and feeding
    6. Growth and survival
    7. Reproduction
    7.1. Lytechinus variegatus
    7.2. Lytechinus pictus
    8. Larval ecology and recruitment
    9. Population ecology
    9.1. Predation
    9.2. Competition
    10. Community ecology
    11. Conclusion
    Acknowledgments
    References

    v
    John M. Lawrence, Yukio Agatsuma
    1. The genus Tripneustes
    2. Distribution
    3. Habitats
    4. Behavior
    5. Food
    6. Growth
    7. Reproduction
    8. Recruitment
    9. Mortality
    10. Community
    10.1. Effects of feeding
    10.2. Competition
    10.3. Predation
    11. Conclusions
    References

    Chapter 25. Sea-urchin roe cuisine
    John M. Lawrence
    References

Product details

  • No. of pages: 380
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2006
  • Published: October 4, 2006
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080465586

About the Editor

John M. Lawrence

Department of Integrative Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA. John has several awards including Medalist, Florida Academy of Sciences and Distinguished Scientist Award, Marine Biological Association of Western Universities; He has over 40 years of teaching and research experience. He has authored three books, and published over ~300 scientific papers.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

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