Edible Oleogels

Edible Oleogels

Structure and Health Implications

1st Edition - April 15, 2001

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  • Editors: Alejandro Marangoni, Nissim Garti
  • eBook ISBN: 9781630670092
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128102220

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In an effort to provide alternatives to trans and saturated fats, scientists have been busy modifying the physical properties of oils to resemble those of fats. In this fashion, many food products requiring a specific texture and rheology can be made with these novel oil-based materials without causing significant changes to final product quality. The major approach to form these materials is to incorporate specific molecules (polymers, amphiphiles, waxes) into the oil components that will alter the physical properties of the oil so that its fluidity will decrease and the rheological properties will be similar to those of fats. These new oilbased materials are referred to as oil gels, or “oleogels,“ and this emerging technology is the focus of many scientific investigations geared toward helping decrease the incidence of obesity and cardiovascular disease.

Key Features

  • Presents a novel strategy to eliminate trans fats from our diets and avoid excessive amounts of saturated fat by structuring oil to make it behave like crystalline fat
  • Reviews recent advances in the structuring of edible oils to form new mesoscale and nanoscale structures, including nanofibers, mesophases, and functionalized crystals and crystalline particles
  • Identifies evidence on how to develop trans fat free, low saturate functional shortenings for the food industry that could make a major impact on the health characteristics of the foods we consume


Food scientists, food formulators, analytical and physical chemists, R & D scientists, food engineers, lipid scientists and technologists, health and nutrition researchers

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1: An Overview of the Past, Present, and Future of Organogels

    • Introduction
    • Fat Crystal Networks
    • Gels, Hydrogels, and Oleogels
    • Organogelling Strategies
    • Monoacylglycerides (MAGs)
    • Wax Esters
    • Lecithin and Sorbitan Tristearate
    • Phytosterols and Oryzanol
    • Long Chain Fatty Acids, Fatty Alcohols, and Their Mixtures
    • Applications of Organogels
    • This Book

    Chapter 2: Novel Strategies for Nanostructuring Liquid Oils into Functional Fats

    • Introduction
    • Structured Emulsions
    • Interesterified High-stearic Acid Fats
    • Organogels
    • Wax Ester Organogels
    • Polymer Organogels
    • Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments

    Chapter 3: Edible Oil Organogels Based on Self-assembled β-sitosterol + γ-oryzanol Tubules

    • Introduction
    • Molecular Structure and Crystal Structure of the Pure Components
    • Emulsion Gels Based on Mixtures of Plant Sterols and Sterol Esters
    • Potential Applications
    • Outlook
    • Acknowledgments

    Chapter 4: Vegetable Oil-based Ricinelaidic Acid Organogels—Phase Behavior, Microstructure, and Rheology

    • Introduction
    • Experimental Procedures
    • Results and Discussion
    • Conclusion

    Chapter 5: Hydroxystearic Acid Oleogels

    • Production of 12-Hydroxystearic Acid
    • 12-Hydroxystearic Acid Crystallization
    • Crystallographic Mismatches and Transient Junction Zones
    • Oil Binding Capacity
    • Applications of 12-Hydroxystearic Acid

    Chapter 6: Candelilla Wax as an Organogelator for Vegetable Oils—An Alternative to Develop Trans-free Products for the Food Industry

    • Introduction
    • Thermal Properties of Candelilla Wax and Candelilla Wax Solutions in Vegetable Oils
    • Mixed Self-Assembled Structures Developed by Candelilla Wax and Tripalmitin
    • Rheological Properties of CW and CW-TP Organogels
    • Candelilla Wax Dispersions as Coating Barrier of Food Products
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 7: Physical Properties of Organogels Made of Rice Bran Wax and Vegetable Oils

    • Introduction
    • Rice Bran Wax as an Oil Structuring Material
    • Thermal and Structural Properties
    • Kinetics of Gel Formation
    • Conclusion

    Chapter 8: Monoglycerides in Oils

    • Introduction
    • Phase Behavior
    • Effects of Water
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 9: Physical Properties of β-fat Gel Made of Fully-hydrogenated Rapeseed Oil and Vegetable Oils

    • Introduction
    • Materials and Methods
    • Thermal, Structural, and Morphological Properties
    • Rheological Properties
    • Gelation Mechanisms
    • Acknowledgments

    Chapter 10: Ceramide Oleogels

    • Lipid Structuring
    • Gelation Ability of Differing Ceramide Chain Length
    • Crystal Morphology of Ceramides
    • Crystal Structure of Ceramides Organogel Fibers
    • Physical Properties of Ceramide Organogel

    Chapter 11: Oleogels Based on Non-lamellar Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Structures for Food Applications

    • Introduction
    • Cubic Phases
    • Cubic Micellar Mesophases
    • The Reverse Hexagonal Mesophase
    • Phospholipids-based Oleogels
    • General Rheological Behavior of Liquid Crystalline Mesophases
    • Low-Viscosity Reverse Hexagonal Phases Containing Transcutol or Ethanol
    • Solubilization-dependence of the Hexagonal Structure by Introducing Hydrophilic, Amphiphilic, and Lipophilic Molecules
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 12: Protein-templated Oil Gels and Powders

    • Introduction
    • Oil Gels
    • Oil Powders
    • Outlook and Conclusions

    Chapter 13: Ethylcellulose Oleogels

    • Conclusion
    • Acknowledgments
    • Appendix: Experimental Procedure

    Chapter 14: Clinical Study on 12-hydroxystearic Acid Organogel Ingestion

    • Introduction
    • Overview

Product details

  • No. of pages: 352
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press and AOCS Press 2001
  • Published: April 15, 2001
  • Imprint: Academic Press and AOCS Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781630670092
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128102220

About the Editors

Alejandro Marangoni

Alejandro Marangoni is a professor and Canada Research Chair in Food and Soft Materials Science at the University of Guelph. His work concentrates on the physical properties of foods, particularly fat crystallization and structure. He has published over 200 refereed research articles and six books. He is the recipient of many awards including a 1999 Premier’s Research Excellence Award, the first Young Scientist Award from the AOCS (2000), a Canada Research Chair (2001, renewed in 2006), two Distinguished Researcher Awards from the Ontario Innovation Trust (2002), a Career Award from the Canadian Foundation for Innovation (2002), an E.W.R. Steacie Memorial Fellowship (2002)—given to the top six Canadian scientists from all disciplines—and the T.L. Mounts Award from AOCS in 2004. Dr. Marangoni is a past chair of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada’s Plant Biology and Food Science Grant Selection Committee, member of NSERC’s E.W.R. Steacie Memorial Fellowship selection committee, Editor-in-Chief of Food Research International (Elsevier), an Associate Editor of the JAOCS (Springer), and an editorial board member of Food and Function (RSC), Food Digestion (Springer) and CyTA—The Journal of Food (Taylor and Francis). Dr. Marangoni has co-founded three high-technology companies and is the co-recipient of the 2008 Guelph Partners of Innovation “Innovator of the Year” award for his discovery of a platform technology for the manufacture of structured oil-in-water emulsions. Dr. Marangoni has recently been appointed a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair in Food, Health, and Aging.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Canada Research Chair, Food and Soft Materials Science, University of Guelph, ON, Canada

Nissim Garti


Nissim Garti obtained his B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He has been a full professor since 1990 and holds the Ratner Chair of Chemistry in the Department of Chemistry and Applied Chemistry. He also serves as a Board Member Elect and Director of the Hebrew University Governors Executive Board since January 2011. Nissim is the recipient of numerous prestigious awards including the Rockefeller Award, the Israel President Award for one of the most innovative inventions in 60 years of the existence of the country, Life-Time Achievement Award of the Food Society, the Chang Award of the AOCS, the Corporate Research Achievement Award of the AOCS for 2011, and many others. His achievements include publishing over 380 original (research) refereed papers in peer reviewed journals; writing over 60 review chapters in scientific books; granted over 80 patents; edited 7 books and additional 4 in preparation; invited to over 180 conferences as keynote, session, and invited speaker; and educated and tutored 38 Ph.D. students and 84 M.Sc. students. Nissim is a member of the board of directors of several academic institutions in Israel and consults for several Israeli and global industries. Nissim’s expertise, competence, and active research is in colloid chemistry, emulsion technology, dispersed systems, delivery new vehicles, microemulsions and lyotropic liquid crystals, crystallization phenomena, interfacial reactions and reactivity, amphiphilic proteins, hydrocolloids, dendrimers, nutraceuticals, and food science.


Nissim Garti is Professor of Chemistry at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. One of the founders of Adumim Chemicals Ltd., NutraLease Ltd.—a company focused on a nano-encapsulation technology for nutraceuticals, and LDS (Lyotropic Delivery Systems). He received B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, in 1969, 1971 and 1974 respectively. Garti was awarded: Life Time Achievement of the Israeli Association for Food Research and Technology, Tel-Aviv, 2009; The Chung Scientific Award of the AOCS for Outstanding Scientific and Technology Achievements, Orlando, 2009; The Most Innovative Israeli Nanotechnology Award Winner of the CMNC Society, “Food Goes Nano- Liquid Nano Vehicles for Nutraceuticals solubilization and delivery,” Chicago, USA, 2005; The Japanese Award for the Promotion of Senior Foreign Scientists, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan, 2003; The Best Invention and Innovation of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem 1997; The Most Innovative Food Ingredient Award in Europe (FIE), London, 1997; and The Japan Oil Chemical Society Forum Award for Outstanding Achievement, “Polymorphism in Fats,” Nara, Japan, 1997. Professor Garti is the author of more than 400 publications and holds over 70 patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Ratner Chair of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Applied Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel

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