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Ecosystem Services - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124199644, 9780124199804

Ecosystem Services

1st Edition

Global Issues, Local Practices

Editors: Sander Jacobs Nicolas Dendoncker Hans Keune
eBook ISBN: 9780124199804
Paperback ISBN: 9780124199644
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 11th October 2013
Page Count: 456
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Ecosystem Services: Global Issues, Local Practices covers scientific input, socioeconomic considerations, and governance issues on ecosystem services. This book provides hands-on transdisciplinary reflections by administrators and sector representatives involved in the ecosystem service community. Ecosystem Services develops shared approaches and scientific methods to achieve knowledge-based sustainable planning and management of ecosystem services. Professionals engaged in ecosystem service implementation have two options: de-emphasize the ecological and socioeconomic complexity and advance in the theoretical, abstract field, or try to develop research that is policy relevant and inclusive in an uncertain environment. This book provides a wide overview of issues at stake, of interest for any professional wishing to develop a broader view on ecosystem service science and practice.

Key Features

  • Examines a broad scope of relevant issues to create common understanding in the ecosystem services community
  • Includes contributions from several backgrounds, providing a broad, multidisciplinary view
  • Offers recommendations to develop a thorough understanding and management of ecosystem services based on tools and research in larger territories as well as on local scales


Academicians conducting interdisciplinary ecosystem service research, practitioners and policy makers aiming to incorporate ecosystem services into their work, and students from natural and social sciences

Table of Contents



Editorial. Editorial for Ecosystem Services—Global Issues, Local Practices

1 Limits

2 Fairness

3 Complexity

4 Reality Check

A Practical Guide to the Outer Comfort Zone



A Short History: Emergence of the Bees Community of Practice

Readers’ Guide

Part I: Ecosystem Service Basics

Chapter 1. Inclusive Ecosystem Services Valuation


1 Introduction: On Value and Valuation

2 Why Do We Value?

3 Valuation for Sustainable Development—A Three-Pillar Valuation Framework

4 Is Valuation of ES Enough for Proper Environmental Decision Making?


Chapter 2. Ecosystem Services and Their Monetary Value


1 Why Should We Monetize ES?

2 What Is Monetary Valuation?

3 What Are We Valuing?

4 The Economist Toolbox

5 Monetary Valuation of ES in Belgium

6 Conclusion


Chapter 3. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services


1 Introduction

2 Biodiversity

3 Biodiversity within the Framework of Ecosystem Services

4 Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning


Chapter 4. Ecosystem Service Indicators: Are We Measuring What We Want to Manage?


1 Introduction

2 A Systems Approach for the Development, Interpretation, and Assessment of Indicators

3 Case Study: Ecosystem Service Indicators in Flanders

4 Conclusions and Recommendations

List of Abbreviations


Chapter 5. Inquiring into the Governance of Ecosystem Services: An Introduction


1 Introduction

2 What Is Governance?

3 The Practice of Governance

4 Knowledge: Diversity, Ethics, and Power


Part II: Ecosystem Services: Conceptual Reflections

Chapter 6. Monetary Valuation of Ecosystem Services: Unresolvable Problems with the Standard Economic Model

Discounting the Future

The Sources of Utility are Commensurable

Humans Are Narrowly Rational and Self-Regarding


Chapter 7. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Opposed Visions, Opposed Paradigms


Chapter 8. Earth System Services—A Global Science Perspective on Ecosystem Services


Chapter 9. Ecosystem Services in a Societal Context

A New and Useful Concept

A Closer Look at the Cascade

From Ecosystems to Value: A Long Cascade

What Is a Service? No Final Consumption, No Free Gift of Nature

ES in a Policy Context

ES in a Growth Context

ESS in a Sustainability Context


Chapter 10. The Value of the Ecosystem Services Concept in Economic and Biodiversity Policy


Ecosystem Services

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity



Part III: Ecosystem Service Debates

Chapter 11. Valuation of ES: Challenges and Policy Use


1 Introduction

2 Uncertainty and Complexity in Quantification and Valuation

3 Challenges in Using Monetary Values for Policy Appraisal

4 Conclusion


Chapter 12. Ecosystem Services in Belgian Environmental Policy Making: Expectations and Challenges Linked to the Conceptualization and Valuation of Ecosystem Services



1 Introduction

2 The Adoption of Ecosystem Services in Belgian Environmental Policy Making

3 Challenges of ES-based Policy Making: A Discussion of Monetary Valuation

4 Perspectives: Governance of ES and Governance with ES


Chapter 13. Ecosystem Services Governance: Managing Complexity?


1 Framing Ecosystem Governance

2 Ecosystem Governance Approaches: Some Examples

3 Hybridization

4 Conclusion


Chapter 14. Ecosystem Service Assessments: Science or Pragmatism?


1 Introduction

2 Methods

3 Ten Drivers of Uncertainty

4 Three Parallel Strategies

5 Science and Pragmatism


Chapter 15. Negotiated Complexity in Ecosystem Services Science and Policy Making


1 Introduction

2 Complexity

3 Analytical Deliberative Multicriteria Decision Support

4 Relevance for Belgium

5 Conclusion


Chapter 16. The Natural Relation between Biodiversity and Public Health: An Ecosystem Services Perspective


1 Introduction

2 Public Health-related Ecosystem Services and Disservices

3 The Emerging Community of Practice on Biodiversity and Public Health in Belgium


Chapter 17. Global Trade Impacts on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services



1 Introduction

2 Global Trade and Its Impacts on Ecosystems

3 Case Studies of Economic Activities Having Major Impacts on Ecosystems

4 Conclusions and Recommendations


Part IV: Ecosystem Services: Tools & Practices

Chapter 18. CICES Going Local: Ecosystem Services Classification Adapted for a Highly Populated Country


1 Why We Need a Common Classification System for Ecosystem Services in Belgium?

2 CICES-Be: Goal and Consultation Approach

3 ES Definitions and ES Cascade

4 An ES Classification System for Belgium: CICES-Be

5 Conclusion


Chapter 19. The Ecosystem Services Valuation Tool and its Future Developments


1 Introduction

2 User Requirements

3 Methodology

4 Using the Information

5 Conclusion


Chapter 20. EBI—An Index for Delivery of Ecosystem Service Bundles


1 Introduction

2 Development of the Index

3 Model Application

4 Discussion


Chapter 21. ES Thinking and Some of Its Implications: A Critical Note from a Rural Development Perspective


1 Influence of ES Thinking on Development and Land-use Policy

2 Example of the PES Approach and Motivations Related to Land-use Management

3 Ecosystem Services and Socioecological Systems


Chapter 22. Enhancing Ecosystem Services in Belgian Agriculture through Agroecology: A Vision for a Farming with a Future



1 Introduction

2 Agroecology, Integrated Farming, and Ecosystem Services

3 Agroecological Researches

4 Strengths and Weaknesses of Agroecology

5 Discussion and Recommendations

6 The Way Ahead

7 Links with EU Policy Instruments

8 Conclusion


Annex: Method for the Design, Development, and Dissemination of Prototypes of farms

Part V: Ecosystem Service Reflections from Practice

Chapter 23. Ecosystem Service Practices


1 Introduction

2 Usefulness of the Ecosystem Services Concept

3 How is the Ecosystem Services Concept Used in Practice?

4 Risks of the Use of the Ecosystem Services Concept

5 Challenges Regarding the Use of the Ecosystem Services Concept

6 The Importance of a Local Ecosystem Service Community of Practice

7 Conclusions

Chapter 24. Reflections from Policy Practice

Chapter 25. (how) Can Financial Institutions Contribute to Sustainable Use of Ecosystem Services?

Chapter 26. Making Natural Capital and Ecosystem Services Operational in Europe through Biodiversity Offsetting and Habitat Banking

Chapter 27. SKB, SNOWMAN, and Ecosystem Services


ES Perspective

ES Networking

What Next?


Chapter 28. Contribution of DG Environment of Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment

The Marine Environment

Chapter 29. Relevance of an Ecosystem Services Approach in Southern Belgium

Chapter 30. A Participatory Approach to Wildlife Management in Walloon Farmlands

An ES Approach to Wildlife Management?

From Science to Practice

The Valuation of ES—Opportunity or Threat?

Chapter 31. Ecosystem Services for Wallonia

Chapter 32. Relevance of the Concept of Ecosystem Services in the Practice of Brussels Environment (BE)

Chapter 33. Contribution of the Agency for Nature and Forests

Sense and Sensibility

Ecosystem Services in Present Daily Operations

Dark Clouds on the Horizon

BElgian Ecosystem Services Community

Chapter 34. Integrating Ecosystem Services in Rural Development Projects in Flanders

Ecosystem Services versus Other Environmental Aims of VLM

Overview of Ecosystem Services in VLM Projects and Processes

Ecosystem Services-Oriented Approach in New Development Projects

Main Challenges for an Ecosystem Services Approach in Development Projects


Chapter 35. Reflection on the Relevance and Use of Ecosystem Services to the LNE Department

A useful concept

With a Lot of Work Ahead

Supported by the BElgian Ecosystem Services community


Chapter 36. Obstacles to Use an Ecosystem Services Concept in Agriculture

References 36

Chapter 37. The Concept of Ecosystem Services

The Role of Ecosystem services

Bottlenecks and Challenges

The BEES Society

Chapter 38. Ecosystem Services in Natuurpunt

Ecosystem Services in Practice at Natuurpunt

Every Medal Has Two Sides: Intrinsic and Money Values

Chapter 39. Ecosystem Services in Nature Education in the Province of West Flanders

Chapter 40. Integrating the Concept of Ecosystem Services in the Province of Antwerp: The Inland Dunes Project


The Inland Dunes Project and its Inspiration

Green Infrastructure For Tomorrow-Together!

The Inland Dunes and Its Challenges

Expectations Regarding an Ecosystem Services-Based Approach and the BElgium Ecosystem Services (BEES) Community

Chapter 41. Bosland: Application of the Ecosystem Services Concept in a New Style of Forest Management


A New Way of Forest Management

Application of the Ecosystem Services Concept in Bosland






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© Elsevier 2013
11th October 2013
eBook ISBN:
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About the Editors

Sander Jacobs

Sander Jacobs has a PhD in Biology. Since 2005, he has been active researcher working at the University of Antwerp. He studied the interface of fundamental ecology, nature restoration and anthropogenic impacts. Since 2009, he has coordinated a 7 people research team on ecosystem services. The team has coordinated and partnered several scientific and applied projects on regional, national and international scale. Through this work, an active interdisciplinary research community has been established. Although the research team specializes in the biophysical basis of ecosystem service delivery, a widened overview and interaction with other related disciplines has been developed.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Belgium

Nicolas Dendoncker

Prof. Nicolas Dendoncker is a geographer working at the University of Namur, Belgium.

With Sander Jacobs, Dr. Dendoncker coordinates a team of 7 researchers involved in the study of Ecosystem Services. He coordinates the Namur Research Group on Sustainable Development (NaGRIDD). His team develops participatory agent based models (ABM) of land use and environmental change in several Belgian and European projects with case studies in Belgium, The Philippines, Congo and Senegal. Participatory approaches are implemented and the impacts of landscape changes on Ecosystem Services are assessed and sustainable development pathways are proposed. In several projects, ecosystem services are explicitly valued and quantified.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Geography, University of Namur, Belgium

Hans Keune

Hans Keune (PhD) is a Political Scientist working at The Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) and the Belgian Biodiversity Platform. He is also affiliated to naXys (Namur Center for Complex Systems), and to the Health and Environment Network and Faculty of Applied Economics, University of Antwerp. He works on critical complexity, inter- and transdisciplinary, action research, decision support methods; environment & health, ecosystem services, biodiversity & public health; experience both in Belgian projects and EU-projects. Currently he is working on ecosystem services, and involved in several Belgian and EU projects on ecosystem services.

Affiliations and Expertise

Belgian Biodiversity Platform, Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Belgium


"Environmental and earth scientists explore ecosystem services from the perspectives of basics, conceptual reflections, debates, tools and practices, and reflections from practice. Among specific topics are ecosystem services and their monetary value, ecosystem services in Belgian environmental policy making, an ecosystem services perspective on the natural relation between biodiversity and public health,…", February 2014

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