Economic Microbiology: Primary Products of Metabolism - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125965521, 9780323148399

Economic Microbiology: Primary Products of Metabolism

1st Edition

Editors: A.H. Rose
eBook ISBN: 9780323148399
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1978
Page Count: 488
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Economic Microbiology, Volume 2: Primary Products of Metabolism is part of a multi-volume series that aims to provide authoritative accounts of the many facets of exploitation and control of microbial activity. It discusses the production of industrially important chemicals by microbiological processes, specifically the production of primary products of metabolism.
This volume includes accounts of the production of organic acids, nucleotides, and amino acids which form large and stable sectors of the microbiological industries. It also provides information on polysaccharide fermentations, which are currently undergoing extensive development. Further, there are discussions of the production of lipids and polyhydroxy alcohols, which have yet to be introduced on a commercial scale but could well become economically viable in the near future. Finally, there is also an account of the production of acetone and butanol by bacteria. This fermentation process featured significantly in the career of Chaim Weizmann, the first President of the State of Israel, and it is still operated in some countries.

Table of Contents


Preface to the Series

Preface to Volume 2

1. Production and Industrial Importance of Primary Products of Microbial Metabolism

I. Nature of Primary Products of Microbial Metabolism

A. Growth Phases in Batch Culture

B. Primary and Secondary Products of Metabolism

II. Microbial Metabolism and its Regulation

A. Principles of Microbial Metabolism

B. Primary Metabolic Pathways

C. Regulation of Microbial Metabolism

III. Biochemical Basis for Industrial Production of Primary Products of Metabolism

A. Manipulation in Microbial Metabolism

B. Application of Metabolic Manipulations in Industrial Fermentations

C. Strain Selection

IV. Industrial Importance of Primary Products of Microbial Metabolism

A. Fermentation Products

B. Metabolic Intermediates

C. Cell Components


2. Acetone-Butyl Alcohol Fermentation

I. History

II. Microbiology

III. Development of a Manufacturing Process

IV. Economic Aspects


3. Organic Acids

I. Introduction

II. Citric Acid

A. Historical Introduction

B. Trace-Metal Requirements

C. Biosynthetic Route

D. Submerged Culture

E. Fermentations on Molasses

F. Strain Improvement

G. Sporulation

H. Organisms Other than Aspergilli

I. Hydrocarbon Fermentations .

J. Manufacturers

K. Uses

III. Itaconic Acid

A. Surface Culture

B. Submerged Culture

C. Biosynthesis

D. Manufacturers

E. Uses

IV. Fumaric Acid

A. Production from Carbohydrates

B. Biosynthesis

C. Production from Hydrocarbons

D. Market

V. L-Malic Acid

VI. Other Tricarboxy lie-Acid Cycle Acids

VII. Epoxysuccinic Acid

VIII. Kojic Acid

IX. Lactic Acid

X. Gluconic Acid

XI. Oxogluconic Acids

XII. Erythorbic Acid

XIII. Tartaric Acid


4. Acetic Acid: Vinegar

I. Introduction

A. General

B. Uses

C. Malt Vinegar

D. Comment

II. Definition

III. Material Requirements

A. The Organisms

B. Treatment of Raw Materials

C. Alcoholic Fermentation

D. Acetification or Acetation

E. Production and Trading of Vinegar

F. Biochemistry

G. Analysis of Vinegar and its Characteristics of Composition

IV. Summary

V. Acknowledgements


5. Production of Nucleotides by Micro-Organisms

I. Introduction

II. Biosynthesis of Purine 5'-Ribonucleotides

III. Regulation of Biosynthesis of Nucleotides

IV. Purine Ribonucleoside Overproduction by Bacillus subtilis

V. Purine Nucleotide Overproduction by Corynebacterium glutamicum

VI.· Salvage Synthesis of Purine Nucleotides


6. Amino Acids

I. Introduction

II. L-Glutamic Acid and L-Glutamine

A. Glutamic Acid Production from Carbohydrate

B. Glutamic Acid Production from Non-Carbohydrate Materials

C. Metabolic Pathways Involved in the Biosynthesis of Glutamic Acid from Glucose

D. Alteration of Permeability and Glutamic Acid Production

E. L-Glutamine and N-Acetyl-L-Glutamine

III. L-Lysine

A. L-Lysine Production by Fermentation

B. L-Lysine Production from DL-α-Aminocaprolactam

IV. L-Threonine, L-Homoserine and L-Serine

A. L-Threonine

B. L-Homoserine

C. L-Serine 229

V. L-Isoleucine, L-Leucine and L-Valine

A. L-Isoleucine

B. L-Leucine

C. L-Valine

VI. L-Tryptophan and Other Aromatic Amino Acids

A. L-Tryptophan

B. L-Phenylalanine

C. L-Tyrosine and L-DOPA

VII. L-Arginine, L-Ornithine and L-Citrulline

A. L-Arginine

B. L-Ornithine

C. L-Citrulline

D. Regulation of Arginine Biosynthesis and Mechanism of Over-production of Arginine, Ornithine and Citrulline

VIII. L-Histidine

A. L-Histidine Production

B. Mechanism of L-Histidine Production

IX. Other Amino Acids

A. Alanine

B. L-Aspartic Acid

C. L-Proline


7. Lipids and Fatty Acids

I. Introduction and Historical Note

II. Economics of World Trade in Oils and Fats

III. Choice of Organism

IV. Choice of Process

A. Course of Lipid Formation

B. Fermentation Systems

V. Nature of Lipid Produced

A. Analysis of Total Lipid

B. Fatty Acids of Fat-Accumulating Micro-Organisms

C. Changes in Fatty-Acid Composition

VI. Production of Other Lipids

VII. Economics of a Process for Microbial Production of Fats


8. Vitamins

I. Introduction

II. Microbial Process for Vitamin B12 Production

A. Historical Evolution

B. Current Processes

C. Recovery of Vitamin B12 from Fermentation Media

D. Biosynthetic Studies

III. Microbial Processes for Riboflavin Production

A. Historical Evolution

B. Current Processes

C. Recovery of Riboflavin from Fermentation Media

D. Biosynthetic Studies

IV. Microbial Processes for β-Carotene Production

A. Historical Evolution

B. The Blakeslea trispora Process

C. Biosynthetic Studies


9. Polysaccharides

I. Introduction

II. Commercial Importance of Polysaccharides

A. Market for Water-Soluble Gums

B. Problems Associated with the Production of Plant Polysaccharides

C. Production of Polysaccharides of Commercial Significance via Chemical Modification

III. Biopolymers, Polysaccharides from Micro-Organisms

A. Definition

B. Technical Advantages and Disadvantages of Industrial Polysaccharide Production by Fermentation

C. Commercial Potential of Polysaccharides from Micro-Organisms

D. Dextran

E. 'XanthanGum'

F. Pullulan

G. Microbial Alginate

H. Scleroglucan

I. Curdlan

J. Erwinia Polysaccharide

IV. Development of New Microbial Polysaccharides

A. Sources and Isolation

B. Carbohydrate-Rich Environments

C. Identification

D. Selection and Further Testing

V. The Products

A. Chemical and Physicochemical Properties

B. Biological Criteria

C. Modification of Products

VI. Potential for Strain Improvement by Mutagenesis

A. Increased Polysaccharide Production

B. Modification of the Polysaccharide

C. Alteration of Surface Properties

D. Elimination of Polysaccharases

E. Inter-Strain Transfer of Genetic Material

VII. General Conclusions on Micro-Organisms Producing Biopolymers


10. Production of Polyhydroxy Alcohols by Osmotolerant Yeasts

I. Introduction

II. Historical

A. Organisms

B. Process Development

III. The Process

A. Composition of the Medium

B. Aeration

C. Temperature

D. Product Recovery

IV. Physiology and Biochemistry of Polyhydroxy Alcohol Formation

A. General

B. Enzymic Processes and Regulatory Mechanisms in Polyhydroxy Alcohol Formation

C. Metabolic Pathways in Biosynthesis of Polyhydroxy Alcohols

V. Summary


Author Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1978
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

A.H. Rose

Affiliations and Expertise

School of Biological Sciences, Bath University

Ratings and Reviews