Economic Approaches to Environmental Problems - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444417169, 9781483257044

Economic Approaches to Environmental Problems

1st Edition

Techniques and Results of Empirical Analysis

Authors: D. E. James H.M.A. Jansen J.B. Opschoor
Editors: R.J. Wakeman
eBook ISBN: 9781483257044
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1978
Page Count: 246
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Description

Fundamental Aspects of Pollution Control and Environmental Science, 3: Economic Approaches to Environmental Problems: Techniques and Results of Empirical Analysis focuses on the application of economic approaches in the management and control of environmental problems.
The book first offers information on the relationship of economics and the environment and environmental pollution and external effects. Discussions focus on concepts of the environment, environmental services, need for assessment methods, health effects of air pollution, and annoyance and other health effects due to aircraft noise. The text also examines the homogeneous pollution approach and monetary damage functions.
The publication takes a look at project evaluation and environmental deterioration and general-equilibrium assessment models. Topics include linear programming models, aggregation of flows of costs and benefits through time, projects, effects, and aggregation, and illustrations of cost benefit.
The selection is a dependable reference for readers interested in the economic approaches to environmental problems.

Table of Contents


Preface

Chapter 1. Economics and the Environment

The Scope of Economic Analysis

Neoclassical Welfare Theory

Concepts of the Environment

Environmental Services

Environmental Decisionmaking

The Need for Assessment Methods

Some Alternative Views

References Chapter 1

Chapter 2. Environmental Pollution and External Effects

Introduction

External Effects Defined

Relevant External Effects

Pollution as External Effect

Physical Damage Functions

Some Health Effects of Air Pollution

Annoyance and Other Health Effects Due to Aircraft Noise

Some Conclusions

Literature Chapter

Chapter 3. Costs and Benefits of Pollution Control — The Homogeneous Pollution Approach

Introduction

a Model of Optimal Pollution

Ecologic and Economic Optima

Environmental Quality

Evaluation Problems

Final Remarks

Literature Chapter

Chapter 4. Monetary Damage Functions

Introduction

Neoclassical Value Judgments

Individual Monetary Damage Functions

Problems of Individual Welfare

Societal Damage Functions

Methods of Measuring Monetary Damage

Conclusions and Final Remarks

Appendix 4A. Pollution and House Prices

Appendix 4B. Welfare Effects of Noise

Appendix 4C. Estimates of Pollution Damage on Nationwide Scale

Literature Chapter 4

Chapter 5. Project Evaluation and Environmental Deterioration

Projects, Effects, Aggregation

Cost-Benefit Analysis As Applied Welfare Economics

The Basis For Evaluation

Distributional Problems

Aggregation of Flows of Costs and Benefits Through Time

Some Illustrations of Cost Benefit Analysis

Other Types of Single-Criteria Analysis

Multi-Criteria Analysis

Some Conclusions

Literature Chapter 5

Chapter 6. General-Equilibrium Assessment Models

Introduction

Basic Features of Input-Output Models

The Input-Output Approach

Flow Matrices

The Direct Requirements Matrix

The Total Requirements Matrix

Factor Incomes

Employment

Price Equations

Horizontal Coefficients

Dynamic Models

Linear Programming Models

Optimization Problems

Simple Example

The General Programming Problem

Duality

Integer Programming

Nonlinear Programming

References Chapter 6

Chapter 7. Materials Balance and the Prediction of Residuals Flow

Introduction

Materials Balance Models

The Ayres-Kneese Model

Victor's Model

Operational Models of Materials Flows

Empirical Models

Environmental Inputs

Residual Discharges, Direct Coefficients

Cumulated Coefficients

Environmental Damage and Materials Flows

Diffusion Models

Appendix 7A. Residuals by Source and Type

Appendix 7B. Input-Output Forecasts of Pollution Levels

Appendix 7C. Indirect Pollution Effects: A Comparison of Three Air Pollution Studies

References Chapter 7

Chapter 8. Input-Output Modeling of Pollution Abatement Policies

Introduction

Structural Abatement

Technical Abatement

The Direct Financial Expenditure Approach

Input Substitution

The Dummy Industry Approach

Other Methods of Technical Abatement

Effects of Pollution Abatement on International Trade

Empirical Results

Costs of Pollution Abatement

Price Effects

Output and Employment Effects

Appendix 8A. Structural Abatement: A Dutch Case Study

References Chapter 8

Chapter 9. Mathematical Programming Models of Air Pollution Control

Introduction

Control of a Single Pollutant

Technical Abatement Models

Structural Abatement Models

Combination of Structural and Technical Abatement

General Remarks

Appendix 9A. Air-Pollution Abatement Technologies: Characteristics and Cost-effectiveness

References Chapter 9

Chapter 10. Modeling the Interaction of Economic and Ecological Systems

Introduction

Characteristics of Natural Ecosystems

Food Chains

Bioenergetics

Biogeochemical Cycles

Ecological Succession

Ecological Impacts of Economic Activity

Economic-Ecologic Models

Objectives of Economic-Ecologic Modeling

Daly's Model

Isard's Model

Energy Flow Matrices

Further Input-Output Ecological Models

Constraints on Ecosystem Performance

A Synthesis Economic-Ecologic Model

Final Reflections Oo10

Chapter 11. Instruments of Environmental Policy

Introduction

Taxing Pollution

Other Economic Instruments

Pollution Rights

Subsidies

Compensation

Direct Regulations

Economic Side-Effects of Environmental Policy

Simultaneous Application Measures

References Chapter 11


Details

No. of pages:
246
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 1978
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9781483257044

About the Author

D. E. James

H.M.A. Jansen

J.B. Opschoor

About the Editor

R.J. Wakeman