Ecology of Root Pathogens

Ecology of Root Pathogens

1st Edition - January 1, 1979

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  • Editor: S.V. Krupa
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444601674

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Ecology of Root Pathogens discusses the significance of fungi infecting the roots, and emphasizes the significant diseases of roots and their symptoms. This book also names the genera and species of fungi that cause diseases of roots, and classifies and characterizes the root and pathogen interaction in soil. The book describes the behavior of plant pathogenic bacteria, such as Agrobacterium, Corynebacterium, Xanthomonas, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Streptomyces. It also explores how plants and plant-produced stimuli affect the associated population of plant parasitic nematodes and how these plant parasitic nematodes affect higher plants in certain ways. In addition, this book discusses the morphology, classification, nomenclature, multiplication and translocation of viruses infecting the plants. It also describes the symptoms of the virus infection in roots. The book includes a discussion on the fundamentals of biological control, which include the pathosystem concept, the behavior of the soil microflora in the soil, the reservoirs for infection, the processes of pathogen decline, and the integrated effects on the decline of the pathogen. This discussion on biological control also presents the natural and artificially induced biological control. This book will be of great value to soil microbiologists and plant pathologists.

Table of Contents

  • List of contributors


    Chapter 1. Fungi: Pathogen or Host Dominance in Disease

    1. Introduction

    1.1. Root disease symptoms

    1.2. Taxonomic groups

    1.3. Host and type of parasitism

    1.4. Ecological relations

    1.5. Pathogen—host dominance system

    2. Pathogen-dominant diseases; transitory relationship

    2.1. Macerative pathogens

    2.2. Toxicogenic pathogens

    3. Host-dominant diseases; prolonged relationship

    3.1. Tissue-nonspecific pathogens

    3.2. Tissue-specific pathogens

    4. Control principles based on pathogen- and host-dominant diseases

    5. Summary

    6. References

    Chapter 2. Behavior of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria in Rhizosphere and Non-rhizosphere Soils

    1. Introduction

    2. Agrobacterium

    2.1. Selective media for isolating Agrobacterium spp

    2.2. Survival of A. rhizogenes

    2.3. Survival of A. tumefaciens

    2.4. infection

    2.5. Control

    3. Corynebacterium

    3.1. Identification

    3.2. Isolation

    3.3. Survival in soil

    3.4. Infection

    4. Xanthomonas

    4.1. Identification

    4.2. Isolation

    4.3. Survival of xanthomonads in soil

    4.4. Survival in plant materials

    4.5. Survival on roots of host plants

    4.6. Survival on roots of non-host plants

    5. Pseudomonas

    5.1. Isolations

    5.2. Identification

    5.3. Survival in relation to seeds and propagative material

    5.4. Survival in relation to plant residues

    5.5. Survival in relation to roots

    5.6. Root infections

    6. Erwinia

    6.1. Isolation

    6.2. Survival in soil

    6.3. Infection

    7. Streptomyces

    7.1. Infection symptoms

    7.2. Isolation, identification and pathogenicity tests

    7.3. Influence of environmental factors

    7.4. Occurrence in virgin soil

    7.5. Influence of cropping practices on disease severity and the development of scab suppressive soil

    7.6. Influence of green manure on potato scab and the role of antagonists

    7.7. Control

    8. Discussion

    9. References

    Chapter 3. Some Interactions of Plant Parasitic Nematodes and Higher Plants

    1. Introduction

    2. The effects of plant-produced stimuli on plant parasitic nematodes

    2.1. Hatching

    2.2. Molting

    2.3. Attraction

    2.4. Initiation of the feeding process

    2.5. Initiation of partial or full penetration

    2.6. Emergence from roots

    3. The effect of the host plant on the size and composition of the associated population of plant parasitic nematodes

    3.1. Techniques

    3.2. Moderate stress

    3.3. Sex reversal and similar phenomena

    3.4. Mineral nutrition of the host

    4. Some ways in which nematodes affect higher plants

    4.1. Introduction

    4.2. Stimulation of growth

    4.3. Alterations in chemical composition

    4.4. Criticisms

    4.5. Mechanisms of accumulation or alteration

    5. References

    Chapter 4. Viruses

    1. Introduction

    2. Morphology, classification, nomenclature, multiplication and translocation of viruses infecting plants

    2.1. Morphology of viruses infecting plants

    2.2. Classification and nomenclature of viruses

    2.3. Infection of plants

    2.4. Multiplication and translocation of viruses infecting plants

    3. Symptoms of infection in roots

    3.1. Location of virus in root tissue

    3.2. Yield loss due to root infection

    4. Release and survival of viruses in soil

    4.1. Crop debris

    4.2. Release of viruses into soil by living roots and the possibility of active uptake by roots

    5. "Soil-borne viruses" and their biological vectors

    5.1. Nematodes

    5.2. Fungi

    6. Interactions between virus-infected roots and other soil microorganisms

    7. Control

    7.1. Reducing and eliminating sources of viral inoculum

    7.2. Limiting spread by vectors

    7.3. Minimizing losses due to virus diseases

    8. Discussion

    9. References

    10. Addendum

    Chapter 5. Fundamentals of Biological Control

    1. Introduction

    2. The pathosystem concept

    2.1. Energy flux

    2.2. Quality of nutrients

    2.3. Abiotic environmental factors

    3. Behavior of the soil microflora in the soil

    3.1. Behavior of saprophytic microflora

    3.2. Behavior of pathogens in the soil

    4. Reservoirs for infection

    4.1. Plant residues

    4.2. Conservation structures

    5. Processes of pathogen decline

    5.1. Fungistasis

    5.2. The mechanisms of fungistasis

    5.3. Antibiosis

    5.4. Lysis

    5.5. Hyperparasitism

    5.6. Predation

    6. Integrated effects on the decline of the pathogen

    6.1. Consequences of fungistasis

    6.2. Competition for infection sites

    7. Natural biological control: suppressive soils

    7.1. Biological origin of suppressiveness

    7.2. The influence of the soil

    7.3. Effect of crops

    7.4. Mechanism of suppressivity

    8. Artificially induced biological control

    8.1. Modification of the biological balance in the soil

    8.2. Biological control by introduced antagonists

    9. Conclusion

    10. References

    Subject index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 292
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 1979
  • Published: January 1, 1979
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444601674

About the Editor

S.V. Krupa

Sagar V. Krupa received his Fil-Dr. (hab.) from the University of Uppsala, Sweden in 1972. He joined the University of Minnesota, St. Paul in 1973 and is a Professor in the Department of Plant Pathology. During the last 25 years, he has conducted interdisciplinary research on atmospheric processes and their impacts on crops and forests. His recent studies emphasise the characterisation of atmospheric chemistry and modelling air pollution-vegetation effects relationships. He has published more than 120 technical journal articles and book chapters and in addition, 10 books, most recently on Elevated Ultraviolet (UV)-B Radiation and Agriculture. His textbook, Air Pollution, People and Plants: An Introduction (1997), for beginning college students, has recently been translated into Spanish. He is a Fellow of the International Air & Waste Management Association (only the second plant scientist to be so honoured) and is the first agricultural scientist to be awarded a Distinguished International Visiting Professorship by the Academy of Sciences, Mexico. He has served as the Science Co-ordinator for the $5.3 million Alberta Government-Industry Acidic Deposition Research Program in Canada, and as a technical consultant to the Committee on Protecting the Earth's Atmosphere of the German Parliament and to the UN-Food & Agricultural Organisation (FAO). He has also been involved with international research and teaching programs in Canada, Finland, Germany, Mexico, Poland, Spain and Taiwan. In addition, he has been a reviewer for a number of research programs and governmental agencies in Canada, the US and the UK. He is an Associate Editor of the journal, Environmental Pollution.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, USA. Email:

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