Ecological Model Types

Ecological Model Types

1st Edition - October 28, 2016

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  • Editor: Sven Erik Jørgensen
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444636263
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444636232

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Ecological Model Types brings an understanding on how to quantitatively analyze complex and dynamic ecosystems with the tools available today. Ecosystem studies widely use the notions of order, complexity, randomness, and organization, and are used interchangeably in literature, which causes much confusion. Better models synthesize our knowledge on ecosystems and their environmental problems, in contrast to statistical analysis, which only reveal the relationships between the data. This book brings together experts on ecological models to create a definitive work on how to understand our complex Earth.

Key Features

  • Bridges the gap between statistical analysis and synthesis of data, enhancing our understanding about ecosystems and their environmental problems
  • Helps readers understand complex ecosystems by walking through the best modeling options to analyze and predict environmental effects
  • Provides a detailed review of 14 model types, covering the breadth of options available for analysis at this time


Environmental scientists and engineers, ecologists, environmental modellers and scientists studying climate change

Table of Contents

    • List of Contributors
    • Acknowledgements
    • Chapter 1. Introduction: An Overview
      • 1.1. Application of Ecological Modeling
      • 1.2. Model Classification and Model Types
      • 1.3. Application of the 14 Model Types
      • 1.4. The Ecosystem as an Object for Modeling
    • Chapter 2. Biogeochemical Models
      • 2.1. Advantages and Properties of Biogeochemical Models
      • 2.2. Modeling Elements
      • 2.3. The Modeling Procedure
      • 2.4. Ecological and Environmental Biogeochemical Models
    • Chapter 3. Dynamic Population Models
      • 3.1. A Definition of a Population Model
      • 3.2. The First Law (Model) of Population Dynamics: Malthus Law
      • 3.3. The Second Law of Population Dynamics: Verhulst Law
      • 3.4. A Logistic Population in Periodic Environment
      • 3.5. A Logistic Population in a Random Environment
      • 3.6. Prey–Predator Models
      • 3.7. Models of Competition
      • 3.8. Models of Cooperation
      • 3.9. Food Chains
      • 3.10. Cycling of Matter
      • 3.11. Conclusions
      • 3.12. A Brief History of Population Modeling
    • Chapter 4. Steady State Models
      • 4.1. Steady State Model: Ecopath as an Example
      • 4.2. Ecopath Model for a Large Chinese Lake: A Case Study
      • 4.3. Conclusions
    • Chapter 5. Earth's Surface Modeling
      • 5.1. Introduction
      • 5.2. Equivalent Indexes
      • 5.3. High Accuracy Surface Modeling
      • 5.4. The Fundamental Theorem of Earth's Surface Modeling and Its Corollaries
      • 5.5. Conclusions
    • Chapter 6. Application of Structurally Dynamic Models (SDMs)
      • 6.1. Introduction
      • 6.2. Ecosystem Properties
      • 6.3. Development of Structurally Dynamic Models
      • 6.4. Overview of Structurally Dynamic Models Using Work Energy as Goal Function
      • 6.5. Development of Structurally Dynamic Model for Darwin's Finches
      • 6.6. Application of Structurally Dynamic Model for the Assessment of Ecological Changes Due to Climate Changes
      • 6.7. Conclusions
    • Chapter 7. Artificial Neural Networks: Multilayer Perceptron for Ecological Modeling
      • 7.1. Introduction
      • 7.2. Multilayer Perceptron
      • 7.3. MLPs in Ecological Modeling
      • 7.4. Advantages and Disadvantages of MLPs
      • 7.5. Example of MLP Usage in Ecological Modeling
    • Chapter 8. Ecotoxicological Models
      • 8.1. Application of Ecotoxicological Models
      • 8.2. Characteristics of Ecotoxicological Models
      • 8.3. An Overview: The Application of Models in Ecotoxicology
      • 8.4. Estimation of Ecotoxicological Parameters
      • 8.5. Ecotoxicological Case Study I: Contamination of Agricultural Products by Cadmium and Lead
      • 8.6. Illustrations of Ecotoxicological Models Used as Experimental Tools
    • Chapter 9. Fugacity Models
      • 9.1. Fugacity Models: Development and Applications
      • 9.2. Fugacity Model for PAHs in Lake Small Baiyangdian, Northern China: A Case Study
      • 9.3. Conclusions
    • Chapter 10. Fuzzy Adaptive Management of Coupled Natural and Human Systems
      • 10.1. Introduction
      • 10.2. Methods
      • 10.3. Discussion
      • 10.4. Conclusions
    • Chapter 11. Coastal Ecosystem Modeling in the Context of Climate Change: An Overview With Case Studies
      • 11.1. Models as Tools for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change on Coastal Ecosystems
      • 11.2. Case Studies
      • 11.3. Challenges in Predicting the Effects of Climate Change on Coastal Ecosystems
      • 11.4. Conclusions
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 278
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2016
  • Published: October 28, 2016
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444636263
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444636232

About the Series Volume Editor

Sven Erik Jørgensen

Sven Erik Jørgensen
Sven Erik Jørgensen was the professor emeritus in environmental chemistry at the University of Copenhagen. He received a master of science in chemical engineering from the Danish Technical University (1958), a doctor of environmental engineering (Karlsruhe University) and a doctor of science in ecological modelling (Copenhagen University). He was the honourable doctor at Coimbra University, Portugal and at Dar es Salaam University (Tanzania). In 1975 he founded the journal Ecological Modelling and in 1978 the ISEM (International Society of Ecological Modelling). He has received several awards, the Ruder Boskovic Medal, the Prigogine Prize, the Pascal Medal, the Einstein professorship at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Santa Chiara Prize for multidisciplinary teaching and the very prestigious Stockholm Water Prize. He has published 366 papers of which 275 were published in peer-reviewed international journals and he has edited or authored 76 books, of which several have been translated to other languages (Chinese, Russian, Spanish and Portuguese). He has authored a successful textbook in ecological modelling “Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling”, which was published as a fourth edition together with Brian Fath in 2011. It has been translated into Chinese and Russian (third edition). He authored a well received textbook in system ecology entitled “Introduction to Systems Ecology”. It was published as an English edition in 2012 and as a Chinese edition in 2013. He was editor in chief of the Encyclopedia of Ecology, published in 2008, and of the Encyclopedia of Environmental Management, published in December 2012. He has taught courses in ecological modelling in 32 different countries. He is the editorial board member of 18 international journals in the fields of ecology and environmental management. He was the president of ISEM and he also was elected member of the European Academy of Sciences, for which he was the chairman of the Section for Environmental Sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, Copenhagen University, Denmark

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