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Eco-efficient Masonry Bricks and Blocks - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781782423058, 9781782423188

Eco-efficient Masonry Bricks and Blocks

1st Edition

Design, Properties and Durability

Editors: Fernando Pacheco-Torgal Paulo B. Lourenco Joao Labrincha P Chindaprasirt S Kumar
Hardcover ISBN: 9781782423058
eBook ISBN: 9781782423188
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 27th November 2014
Page Count: 548
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Table of Contents

  • Related titles
  • List of contributors
  • Woodhead Publishing Series in Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Foreword
  • 1. Introduction to eco-efficient masonry bricks and blocks
    • 1.1. Brief historical considerations on masonry bricks and blocks: past, present and future
    • 1.2. Contributions of masonry bricks and blocks for eco-efficient construction
    • 1.3. Outline of the book
  • Part One. Design, properties and thermal performance of large and highly perforated fired-clay masonry bricks
    • 2. The design and mechanical performance of high-performance perforated fired masonry bricks
      • 2.1. Introduction
      • 2.2. Conception of fired clay units
      • 2.3. Raw materials used in the production of perforated fired bricks
      • 2.4. Mechanical characteristics of perforated fired bricks
      • 2.5. Masonry assemblages with fired perforated brick masonry
      • 2.6. Conclusions
      • 2.7. Future trends
    • 3. Influence of large and highly perforated fired-clay bricks in the improvement of the equivalent thermal transmittance of single-leaf masonry walls
      • 3.1. Introduction
      • 3.2. Materials and methods
      • 3.3. Results
      • 3.4. Comparative analysis
      • 3.5. Conclusions and future trends
    • 4. Traditional fired-clay bricks versus large and highly perforated fired-clay bricks masonry: influence on buildings thermal performance
      • 4.1. Introduction
      • 4.2. Simulation tools for the assessment of energy performance of buildings
      • 4.3. Reference building
      • 4.4. Computational results and discussion
      • 4.5. Future trends
  • Part Two. The design, properties and durability of fired-clay masonry bricks containing industrial wastes
    • 5. The properties and durability of clay fly ash-based fired masonry bricks
      • 5.1. Introduction
      • 5.2. Fly ash characterization
      • 5.3. Fly ash-based fired clay masonry brick processing
      • 5.4. Effects of fly ash on the technological properties
      • 5.5. Durability
      • 5.6. Future trends
    • 6. Types of waste, properties, and durability of pore-forming waste-based fired masonry bricks
      • 6.1. Introduction
      • 6.2. Industrial waste pore former and the properties of bricks
      • 6.3. Agricultural waste pore formers and properties of bricks
      • 6.4. Other waste pore formers
      • 6.5. Future trends
      • 6.6. Sources of further information and advice
    • 7. Types of waste, properties and durability of toxic waste-based fired masonry bricks
      • 7.1. Introduction
      • 7.2. Industrial waste classification used in fired masonry bricks
      • 7.3. Comparison between clay minerals and the alternative raw materials
      • 7.4. Firing conditions used in the manufacture of waste-based fired bricks
      • 7.5. Characteristics of waste-based fired bricks
      • 7.6. Current framework
      • 7.7. Conclusions and future trends
  • Part Three. The design, properties and durability of Portland cement concrete masonry blocks
    • 8. The properties and durability of high-pozzolanic industrial by-products content concrete masonry blocks
      • 8.1. Introduction
      • 8.2. Mix composition and fresh and hardened properties of masonry concrete
      • 8.3. High-pozzolanic industrial by-product content concrete masonry blocks
      • 8.4. Future trends
      • 8.5. Sources of further information and advice
    • 9. The properties and durability of autoclaved aerated concrete masonry blocks
      • 9.1. Introduction
      • 9.2. Types of lightweight concrete
      • 9.3. Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) history and utilization as masonry blocks
      • 9.4. Manufacturing and mechanism of autoclaved aerated concrete
      • 9.5. Physical properties of autoclaved aerated concrete
      • 9.6. Mechanical properties of autoclaved aerated concrete
      • 9.7. Microstructure of autoclaved aerated concrete
      • 9.8. Characterizations of autoclaved aerated concrete
      • 9.9. Thermal conductivity of bottom ash cement autoclaved aerated concrete
      • 9.10. Durability of autoclaved aerated concrete
      • 9.11. Conclusions and future trends
      • 9.12. Sources of further information and advice
    • 10. The design, properties, and performance of concrete masonry blocks with phase change materials
      • 10.1. Introduction
      • 10.2. Phase change material (PCM) candidates for buildings
      • 10.3. Masonry brick designs for PCM
      • 10.4. Analysis methods
    • 11. The design, properties and performance of shape optimized masonry blocks
      • 11.1. Introduction
      • 11.2. Searching for the optimal masonry block
      • 11.3. Enhanced performance of masonry blocks using optimization techniques
      • 11.4. Conclusions and future trends
  • Part Four. The design, properties and durability of geopolymeric masonry blocks
    • 12. The properties and durability of fly ash-based geopolymeric masonry bricks
      • 12.1. Introduction
      • 12.2. Mix design parameters
      • 12.3. Mix details of fly ash-based geopolymeric masonry bricks
      • 12.4. Mixing and curing processes
      • 12.5. Physical and mechanical properties
      • 12.6. Microstructure properties
      • 12.7. Future research trends
    • 13. The properties and durability of mine tailings-based geopolymeric masonry blocks
      • 13.1. Introduction
      • 13.2. Mine tailings (MT)-based geopolymer
      • 13.3. Synthesis and physical and mechanical properties of MT-based geopolymer masonry blocks
      • 13.4. Durability of MT-based geopolymer masonry blocks
      • 13.5. Environmental performance of MT-based geopolymer masonry blocks
      • 13.6. Conclusions and future trends
    • 14. The properties and performance of red mud-based geopolymeric masonry blocks
      • 14.1. Introduction
      • 14.2. Characterization of red mud
      • 14.3. Suitability of red mud for geopolymeric masonry block
      • 14.4. Synergy of red mud with other waste
      • 14.5. Production of masonry blocks
      • 14.6. Summary and conclusions
    • 15. Design and properties of fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume and metakaolin geopolymeric based masonry blocks
      • 15.1. Introduction
      • 15.2. Characteristics of geopolymer mortar
      • 15.3. Static compaction device
      • 15.4. Strength development with degree of saturation
      • 15.5. Thermal cured geopolymer blocks
      • 15.6. Ambient cured geopolymer blocks
      • 15.7. Conclusions and future trends
  • Part Five. The properties and durability of earth-based masonry blocks
    • 16. The properties and durability of adobe earth-based masonry blocks
      • 16.1. Introduction
      • 16.2. Adobe technique and materials
      • 16.3. Adobe blocks properties
      • 16.4. Durability of adobe blocks
      • 16.5. Future trends for eco-efficient constructions
      • 16.6. Sources of further information and advice
    • 17. The properties of compressed earth-based (CEB) masonry blocks
      • 17.1. Introduction
      • 17.2. Properties of compressed earth-based masonry blocks
      • 17.3. Integration of agricultural waste materials
      • 17.4. Future trends
    • 18. The durability of compressed earth-based masonry blocks
      • 18.1. Introduction
      • 18.2. Factors influencing durability of earth-based masonry
      • 18.3. Use of industrial and agricultural wastes and by-products
      • 18.4. Tests and indicators of durability
      • 18.5. Future trends
  • Part Six. Topology optimization and environmental performance
    • 19. Topology optimization for the development of eco-efficient masonry units
      • 19.1. Introduction
      • 19.2. The steady-state heat conduction problem
      • 19.3. Optimal design for thermal insulation: problem formulation
      • 19.4. Numerical investigations
      • 19.5. Conclusion and future trends
    • 20. Environmental performance and energy assessment of fired-clay brick masonry
      • 20.1. Introduction
      • 20.2. Life cycle assessments of ceramic masonry units
      • 20.3. Environmental and energy assessments in ceramic manufacturing plants
      • 20.4. Conclusions
    • 21. Assessment of the energy and carbon embodied in straw and clay masonry blocks
      • 21.1. Introduction
      • 21.2. Current materials and building efficiency in the region
      • 21.3. Farming walls
      • 21.4. Straw and clay blocks
      • 21.5. Conclusions and future trends
    • 22. Earth-block versus sandcrete-block houses: embodied energy and CO2 assessment
      • 22.1. Background
      • 22.2. Embodied energy and CO2: an overview
      • 22.3. Embodied energy and CO2-related studies
      • 22.4. Assessment methodology
      • 22.5. The description of the object of the assessment and system boundary
      • 22.6. The methods of assessment
      • 22.7. Data collection methods
      • 22.8. Inventory sources
      • 22.9. Mathematical models underpinning the process analysis approach
      • 22.10. Calculations and the use of tools
      • 22.11. Data aggregation
      • 22.12. Assessments of embodied energy and CO2: case studies' applications
      • 22.13. Validation of results using building information modeling (BIM) software
      • 22.14. Discussion and analysis
      • 22.15. Conclusions
  • Index


Masonry walls constitute the interface between the building’s interior and the outdoor environment. Masonry walls are traditionally composed of fired-clay bricks (solid or perforated) or blocks (concrete or earth-based), but in the past (and even in the present) they were often associated as needing an extra special thermal and acoustical insulation layer. However, over more recent years investigations on thermal and acoustical features has led to the development of new improved bricks and blocks that no longer need these insulation layers. Traditional masonry units (fired-clay bricks, concrete or earth-based blocks) that don’t offer improved performance in terms of thermal and acoustical insulation are a symbol of a low-technology past, that are far removed from the demands of sustainable construction.

This book provides an up-to-date state-of-the-art review on the eco-efficiency of masonry units, particular emphasis is placed on the design, properties, performance, durability and LCA of these materials. Since masonry units are also an excellent way to reuse bulk industrial waste the book will be important in the context of the Revised Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC which states that the minimum reuse and recycling targets for construction and demolition waste (CDW) should be at least 70% by 2020. On the 9th of March 2011 the European Union approved the Regulation (EU) 305/2011, known as the Construction Products Regulation (CPR) and it will be enforced after the 1st of July 2013. The future commercialization of construction materials in Europe makes their environmental assessment mandatory meaning that more information related to the environmental performance of building materials is much needed.

Key Features

  • Provides an authoritative guide to the eco-efficiency of masonry units
  • Examines the reuse of waste materials
  • Covers a range of materials including, clay, cement, earth and pumice


Civil engineers, contractors working in construction and materials scientists working both in industry and universities


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2014
27th November 2014
Woodhead Publishing
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:


"This book fulfils an important gap in building knowledge and provides the designers, architects and engineers with important up-to-date information to re-establish masonry as a suitable system for eco-efficient buildings." --Professor Vahan Agopyan, Vice-President of the University of S.Paulo (From the foreword)

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editors

Fernando Pacheco-Torgal

Fernando Pacheco-Torgal

F.Pacheco Torgal is a Principal Investigator at C-TAC Research Centre, University of Minho. He holds the Counsellor title of the Portuguese Engineers Association. Authored almost 350 publications some that were cited by Highly Cited authors (SCI h-index>60) and in high impact factor journals like Nature Reviews Mat. (IF=52), Nature Energy (IF=47), Progress in Mater. Science (I.F=24), Physics Reports (IF=20) and Nature Climate Change (I.F=19). Citations received in ISI WoS journals-2819 (h-index=29), citations received in Scopus journals- 3580 (h-index=31). Citations prediction for the year 2029 (around 5.500 citations on WoS, 7.500 on Scopus (already has 7000 MR, h=45) and 16.000 citations on scholar google). Member of the editorial board of 9 international journals, 4 referenced on the Web of Science and three referenced on Scopus. Grant assessor for several scientific institutions in 14 countries, UK, US, Netherlands, China, France, Australia, Croatia, Kazakhstan, Belgium, Spain, Czech Republic, Saudi Arabia, UA.Emirates, Poland and also the EU Commission. Invited reviewer for 133 international journals for which he reviewed so far almost 900 papers. Lead Editor of 19 international books (9 being on the Master Book List of Web of Science).

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal Investigator, C-TAC Research Centre, University of Minho, Portugal

Paulo B. Lourenco

Paulo B. Lourenço is Full Professor of Structural Engineering, Co-head of the Institute for Sustainability and Innovation in Structural Engineering and head of the Masonry and Historical Constructions Division at the University of Minho. He is also the coordinator of the International Master’s on Structural Analysis of Historical Construction (SAHC). He is the editor of the International Journal of Architectural heritage, associate editor of several international journals, and author of more than 230 ISI peer-reviewed technical papers. He also serves on several international codes and standards committees (e.g. RILEM TC 250-CSM).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Structural Engineering, Co-head of the Institute for Sustainability and Innovation in Structural Engineering and head of the Masonry and Historical Constructions Division, University of Minho

Joao Labrincha

João Labrincha is Associate Professor in the Materials and Ceramics Engineering Department of the University of Aveiro, Portugal, and member of the CICECO research unit. He has registered 22 patent applications, and has published over 170 papers.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Aveiro, Portugal

P Chindaprasirt

Professor Prinya Chindaprasirt is the Director of the Sustainable Infrastructure Research and Development Center (SIRDC), a research unit in Khon Kaen University. He is now also the head of Advanced Functional Materials research cluster of Khon Kaen University. He was appointed a full professor in 2007. In 2009 he was the first person in civil engineering who was appointed the highest rank professor in Thailand. He has set up the Thai Geopolymer Network in 2005 to promote the research and collaboration among Thai researchers in this field.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Sustainable Infrastructure Research and Development Center (SIRDC), Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand

S Kumar

Affiliations and Expertise

Petroleum Engineering Department, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1 21 1, U.S.A.