Earthquake-Resistant Structures - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781856175012, 9780080949444

Earthquake-Resistant Structures

1st Edition

Design, Build, and Retrofit

Authors: Mohiuddin Khan
eBook ISBN: 9780080949444
Hardcover ISBN: 9781856175012
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 18th March 2013
Page Count: 448
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Earthquake engineering is the ultimate challenge for structural engineers. Even if natural phenomena involve great uncertainties, structural engineers need to design buildings, bridges, and dams capable of resisting the destructive forces produced by them. These disasters have created a new awareness about the disaster preparedness and mitigation. Before a building, utility system, or transportation structure is built, engineers spend a great deal of time analyzing those structures to make sure they will perform reliably under seismic and other loads. The purpose of this book is to provide structural engineers with tools and information to improve current building and bridge design and construction practices and enhance their sustainability during and after seismic events. In this book, Khan explains the latest theory, design applications and Code Provisions. Earthquake-Resistant Structures features seismic design and retrofitting techniques for low and high raise buildings, single and multi-span bridges, dams and nuclear facilities. The author also compares and contrasts various seismic resistant techniques in USA, Russia, Japan, Turkey, India, China, New Zealand, and Pakistan.

Key Features

  • Written by a world renowned author and educator
  • Seismic design and retrofitting techniques for all structures
  • Tools improve current building and bridge designs
  • Latest methods for building earthquake-resistant structures
  • Combines physical and geophysical science with structural engineering


Structural Design/Construction, Earthquake Engineers, Structural Engineers, Geotechnical Engineers. Architects, Geologists and Academics

Table of Contents



Part One: Introduction to Seismology and Seismic Engineering

Chapter One. Modern Earthquake Engineering: An Overview

1.1 Introduction and Review of Literature

1.2 The Basics of Earthquakes

1.3 The Most Destructive Earthquakes on Record

1.4 Is Seismic Activity Increasing?

1.5 Some Seismological History

1.6 Measurement of Earthquake Intensity and Magnitude

1.7 Seismic Instrumentation

1.8 Comprehensive Seismic Study

1.9 Applications of Seismic Design Codes

1.10 The Role of the U.S. Geological Survey

1.11 Conclusions on the State of Art

Selected Bibliography


Bibliographical Entries By Category

Chapter Two. Seismology and Earthquake Effects for Engineers

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Basic Seismology

2.3 Induced Seismicity

2.4 Wave Generation and Composition

2.5 Earthquake Prediction and Forecasting

2.6 Earthquake-Triggered Tsunamis

2.7 Seismology-Related Hazards

2.8 Seismology Software

2.9 Conclusions on Seismology and Earthquake Effects

Selected Bibliography


Chapter Three. Seismic Response of Structures to Liquefaction

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Characteristics of Soils and Site Effects

3.3 Soil Type and the Process of Liquefaction

3.4 Liquefaction and Structural Integrity

3.5 Foundation Design Codes Applicable to Liquefaction

3.6 Computer Software for Liquefaction Assessment and Mitigation

3.7 Conclusions for Seismic Response of Structures to Soil Type and Liquefaction

Selected Bibliography


Bibliographic Entries By Category

Part Two: Earthquake Disasters: Pre- and Post-Earthquake Engineering

Chapter Four. Major Earthquakes as the Basis for Code Development

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Earthquakes in the United States

4.3 Earthquakes Worldwide

4.4 Analysis of Observed Damage

4.5 Conclusions to Earthquake Damages and Measures Being Taken

Selected Bibliography


Bibliographic Entries By Category

Chapter Five. Risk Assessment, Mitigation, and Remediation

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Earthquake Prediction for Risk Assessment and Mitigation

5.3 Recent Developments in Seismic Science and Technology

5.4 Recent Innovative Solutions

5.5 Simulations as Analysis and Design Tools

5.6 Investing in Research for Effective Seismic Resistance

5.7 Education in Risk Assessment, Mitigation, and Remediation

5.8 Conclusions

Selected Bibliography


Bibliographic Entries By Category

Chapter Six. Tsunamis, Earthquakes, and Nuclear Power

6.1 Introduction

6.2 The Tohoku Tsunami

6.3 A Primer on Nuclear Power—Advantages and Disadvantages

6.4 Nuclear Reactors and Tsunamis in the United States

6.5 The Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Response to Fukushima Daiichi

6.6 California’s Seismicity and Nuclear Power

6.7 Early-Warning Systems

6.8 U.S. Nuclear Sites: Preparing for the Unlikely

6.9 What can we Learn from Japan’s Misfortune?

6.10 Conclusions on Tsunamis, Earthquakes and Nuclear Power

Selected Bibliography


Bibliographic Entries By Category

Chapter Seven. Post-Disaster Engineering: The Pakistan Earthquake of 2005

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Case Study: 2005 Pakistan Earthquake

7.3 Pakistan Disaster Response

7.4 Post-Disaster Investigation

7.5 Recommendations

7.6 Broad Recommendations

7.7 Remedial Work by ERRA

7.8 Conclusions from Pakistan Earthquake Study

Selected Bibliography


Additional Sources

Bibliographic Entries by Category

Part Three: Structural Design and Retrofit

Chapter Eight. Seismic Bridge Design

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Physical Effects of Seismic Activity

8.3 FHWA Seismic Design and Retrofit

8.4 Development of Seismic Bridge Design Codes

8.5 Recent Developments in Bridge Seismic Design

8.6 Simplified Steps in Seismic Design of Bridges

8.7 Seismic Planning and Detailed Design

8.8 Important Design Developments

8.9 Comparison of Highway and Railway Bridges

8.10 Alternate Methods of Seismic Analysis

8.11 Conclusions for Seismic Bridge Design

Selected Bibliography


Chapter Nine. Bridge Seismic Retrofit Methods for Seismic Events

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Retrofit Prioritization

9.3 Improving Seismic-Resistant Systems (17), (18)

9.4 Preparing Seismic Retrofit Feasibility Reports

9.5 Applicable Retrofit Design for Existing Bridges

9.6 Retrofit of Simple Multi-Span Bridges

9.7 Substructure Detailing and Retrofit

9.8 Uncommon Retrofit Concepts

9.9 Computer Software

9.10 Conclusions on Seismic Analysis, Prioritization and Retrofit

Selected Bibliography

Bibliographical Entries By Category

Chapter Ten. Seismic Design for Buildings

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Development of U.S. Seismic Building Codes

10.3 Seismic Effects On Foundations And Superstructure

10.4 Site Conditions And Geotechnical Report

10.5 Structural Response

10.6 Estimating Lateral Forces

10.7 Structural Components

10.8 Performance Levels

10.9 Conclusions on Seismic Design of Buildings

Selected Bibliography


Chapter Eleven. Performance-Based Design and Retrofit Methods for Buildings

11.1 Introduction

11.2 A Diagnostic Approach to Retrofit

11.3 Seismic Evaluation of Individual Buildings

11.4 Model Buildings and Model Retrofit

11.5 Measures to Reduce Vibrations

11.6 FEMA Rehabilitation Procedures

11.7 Categories of Rehabilitation

11.8 Earthquake Simulations in Analysis and Design

11.9 Retrofit Prioritizing

11.10 New Developments in Seismic Retrofitting

11.11 Nonstructural Components

11.12 Repair and Retrofit of Nonengineered Buildings

11.13 Seismic Retrofit of Historic Buildings

11.14 Conclusions on Performance Based Design and Retrofit Methods for Buildings

Selected Bibliography


Bibliographic Entries By Category

Part Four: Solved Examples for Seismic Analysis and Design Addressed in the Text Book Chapters

Appendix A. Example of Seismic Design of Buildings with QA/QC Check List

A.1 The Cost Factor for Seismic Design

Appendix B. Computer Software for Seismic Analysis and Design of Superstructure and Substructure

B.1 Approved Software for Superstructure

B.2 Approved Software for Substructure

Appendix C. Red Cross and Recommended Survival Kits

C.1 Emergency Supplies

C.2 Personal Premium Disaster Survival Kit

C.3 Other Emergency Items

C.4 Unstable Furniture and Other Items

Appendix D. Sample Problem: LRFD Method to Solve Reinforced Concrete Bridge Beam Seismic Problems

D.1 Flexural and Shear Resistance for Concrete Members

D.2 Flexural Resistance

D.3 Crack Control

D.4 Factored Concrete Shear Resistance

D.5 Skrinkage and Temperature

Appendix E. Sample Calculations: To Compute Equivalent Static Lateral Forces and to Determine Vertical Force Distribution

E.1 Compute Equivalent Static Lateral Forces

E.2 Vertical Force Distribution

Appendix F. STAAD-Pro Space Frequencies of Vibration of a Skewed Bridge

Appendix G. Seismic Analysis Problems

G.1 Introduction

G.2 Static Finite Element Analysis of Building Frame with Shear Walls Data File Only for Dead Load and Wind Analysis

G.3 Plane Response Spectrum Analysis for Frames (STAAD Data File)

G.4 STAAD Plane FRAME Data File Example for Time-History Analysis

G.5 STAAD Space Example for Harmonic-Loading Generator

G.6 STAAD Space Example for UBC Accidental Load Data File Only




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About the Author

Mohiuddin Khan

Dr. Khan has more than 35 years of experience as a structural and bridge engineer, project and design manager for transportation and industrial clients. Ali has supervised numerous design projects on behalf of the New Jersey Department of Transportation, New Jersey Turnpike Authority, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Maryland State Highway Administration and Washington Metropolitan Area Transportation Authority

Affiliations and Expertise

Adjunct Faculty Member, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA


"There is a broad range of material presented, including observations drawn from a number of case studies,...These are used to illustrate topics of importance both in design and post-earthquake reconstruction." --The Structural Engineer, July 2014