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Earthquake Hazard, Risk and Disasters - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123948489, 9780123964724

Earthquake Hazard, Risk and Disasters

1st Edition

Editor in Chief: John Shroder
Editor: Max Wyss
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123948489
eBook ISBN: 9780123964724
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 10th July 2014
Page Count: 606
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Earthquake Hazard, Risk, and Disasters presents the latest scientific developments and reviews of research addressing seismic hazard and seismic risk, including causality rates, impacts on society, preparedness, insurance and mitigation. The current controversies in seismic hazard assessment and earthquake prediction are addressed from different points of view. Basic tools for understanding the seismic risk and to reduce it, like paleoseismology, remote sensing, and engineering are discussed.

Key Features

  • Contains contributions from expert seismologists, geologists, engineers and geophysicists selected by a world-renowned editorial board
  • Presents the latest research on seismic hazard and risk assessment, economic impacts, fatality rates, and earthquake preparedness and mitigation
  • Includes numerous illustrations, maps, diagrams and tables addressing earthquake risk reduction
  • Features new insights and reviews of earthquake prediction, forecasting and early warning, as well as basic tools to deal with earthquake risk

Table of Contents

    <li>Preface</li> <li>Acknowledgments</li> <li>Introduction to Earthquake Hazard, Risk, and Disasters: Why a Book on Earthquake Problems Now?</li> <li>Chapter 1. Remote Sensing for Disaster Response: A Rapid, Image-Based Perspective<ul><li>1.1. Introduction</li><li>1.2. Remote Sensing and Disaster Response</li><li>1.3. Limitations, Uncertainties, and Best Practice</li><li>1.4. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 2. The Capabilities of Earth Observation to Contribute along the Risk Cycle<ul><li>2.1. Introduction</li><li>2.2. Capabilities of Remote Sensing for Assessing and Mapping Earthquake Risk and Damage</li><li>2.3. Conclusion and Inferring Suggestions for&#xA0;EO on Earthquake Analysis</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 3. Disaster-Risk Reduction through the Training of Masons and Public Information Campaigns: Experience of SDC&#x2019;s &#x201C;Competence Centre for Reconstruction&#x201D; in Haiti<ul><li>3.1. Introduction</li><li>3.2. Context</li><li>3.3. Identification of the Most Appropriate Construction Technique</li><li>3.4. Identification of Partners for the Training of Masons</li><li>3.5. Development of Training Content and&#xA0;Training Setup</li><li>3.6. Adaptation of the Training to Varying Situations</li><li>3.7. A Public Information Campaign to&#xA0;Accompany the Training</li><li>3.8. Conclusion and Lessons to be Learned</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 4. The Most Useful Countermeasure Against Giant Earthquakes and Tsunamis&#x2014;What We Learned From Interviews of 164 Tsunami Survivors<ul><li>4.1. Introduction</li><li>4.2. Locations of the Interview Cities and Characteristics of the Interviewees</li><li>4.3. Evacuation Behaviors</li><li>4.4. The Effect of the Current Technology for Disaster Prevention</li><li>4.5. Construction of Sea Embankments or&#xA0;Breakwaters in the Bay</li><li>4.6. Discussions on the Effect of the Breakwaters</li><li>4.7. Role of Elementary Schools in Disaster Prevention</li><li>4.8. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 5. Aggravated Earthquake Risk in South Asia: Engineering versus Human Nature<ul><li>5.1. Introduction: Hazard, Risk, and&#xA0;Aggravated&#xA0;Risk</li><li>5.2. Statistics of Earthquake Fatalities</li><li>5.3. Problems Associated with Assessments of&#xA0;Seismic Hazards</li><li>5.4. A Summary of Earthquake Hazards in and Surrounding the Indian Plate</li><li>5.5. Conservatism and Denial as Aggravated Risk</li><li>5.6. Earthquake Knowledge and Its Application</li><li>5.7. Discussion&#x2014;Who Gains, Who Loses</li><li>5.8. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 6. Ten Years of Real-time Earthquake Loss Alerts<ul><li>6.1. Introduction</li><li>6.2. Brief Review of the Methods</li><li>6.3. Brief Review of the Data Sets</li><li>6.4. Brief Review of the Services Provided</li><li>6.5. Error Sources</li><li>6.6. City Models</li><li>6.7. Basic Concepts</li><li>6.8. The Future of Real-time Estimates of Losses Due to Earthquakes</li><li>6.9. Discussion and Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 7. Forecasting Seismic Risk as an Earthquake Sequence Happens<ul><li>7.1. Introduction</li><li>7.2. Seismic Risk</li><li>7.3. Forecasting Seismic Risk during the&#xA0;L'Aquila&#xA0;Sequence</li><li>7.4. Forecasting Seismic Risk for the SEISMO-12 Scenario Sequence</li><li>7.5. Discussion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 8. How to Render Schools Safe in Developing Countries?<ul><li>8.1. Introduction</li><li>8.2. Earthquake Risk of Nepal</li><li>8.3. Seismic Vulnerability of Schools in Nepal</li><li>8.4. Reasons for High Seismic Vulnerability of&#xA0;Schools</li><li>8.5. Making Schools Safe Against Earthquakes</li><li>8.6. Implementation of an SESP</li><li>8.7. Lessons Learned</li><li>8.8. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 9. The Socioeconomic Impact of Earthquake Disasters<ul><li>9.1. Introduction</li><li>9.2. Development of a Database to Assess Socioeconomic Impacts of Earthquakes</li><li>9.3. Social Losses from Earthquakes from 1900 to&#xA0;2012</li><li>9.4. Economic Losses from Earthquakes from 1900&#xA0;to 2012</li><li>9.5. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 10. The Contribution of Paleoseismology to Earthquake Hazard Evaluations<ul><li>10.1. Introduction</li><li>10.2. Modern Techniques for Paleoearthquake Studies</li><li>10.3. Paleoseismology and Seismic Source Characterization</li><li>10.4. Case Studies with Longest Earthquake Records</li><li>10.5. Paleoearthquake Studies and Their Integration in SHA</li><li>10.6. Discussion&#x2014;Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 11. The Role of Microzonation in Estimating Earthquake Risk<ul><li>11.1. Introduction</li><li>11.2. Ground Motion Estimate at the Regional Scale</li><li>11.3. Local Site Response and Microzonation</li><li>11.4. Liquefaction</li><li>11.5. Case Histories of Some Indian Megacities</li><li>11.6. Influence of Microzonation Data on Risk Assessment</li><li>11.7. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 12. Why are the Standard Probabilistic Methods of Estimating Seismic Hazard and Risks Too Often Wrong<ul><li>12.1. Introduction</li><li>12.2. Theoretical Limits of PSHA</li><li>12.3. Practical Limits of PSHA</li><li>12.4. Possible Alternatives to PSHA: The&#xA0;Neo-deterministic Approach (NDSHA)</li><li>12.5. Performances of PSHA: The Validation Problem</li><li>12.6. Performance of NDSHA</li><li>12.7. Estimates of Seismic Risks</li><li>12.8. Summary and Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 13. The Continued Utility of Probabilistic Seismic-Hazard Assessment<ul><li>13.1. Introduction</li><li>13.2. The Logic of PSHA</li><li>13.3. Nature of Recent Criticisms of PSHA</li><li>13.4. Advances in PSH Inputs</li><li>13.5. Future Needs</li><li>13.6. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 14. Precarious Rocks: Providing Upper Limits on Past Ground Shaking from Earthquakes<ul><li>14.1. Introduction</li><li>14.2. PBRs are Physical Objects That Put Long-Term Bounds on Past Ground Motions</li><li>14.3. Distribution of PBRs</li><li>14.4. Applications</li><li>14.5. Summary</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 15. Quantifying Improvements in Earthquake-Rupture Forecasts through Testable Models<ul><li>15.1. Introduction</li><li>15.2. Some Remarks about Earthquake Prediction</li><li>15.3. Forecast Models</li><li>15.4. Gridded Rate-Based Forecasts</li><li>15.5. Alarm-Based and Regional Forecasts</li><li>15.6. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis and&#xA0;Hybrid Models</li><li>15.7. Some Common Assumptions and Questions Posed by Earthquake Forecast Models</li><li>15.8. The Role of Testing Earthquake Occurrence Models</li><li>15.9. Developing Tests of Earthquake Forecast&#xA0;Models</li><li>15.10. Testing Methods</li><li>15.11. Gridded Rate-Based Testing</li><li>15.12. Alarm-Based Testing</li><li>15.13. Fault-Based Testing</li><li>15.14. Structured Testing</li><li>15.15. Testing Centers: Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability</li><li>15.16. Problems and Solutions</li><li>15.17. Outlook and Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 16. Duties of Earthquake Forecast: Cases and Lessons in China<ul><li>16.1. Introduction: (Mis)understanding Earthquake Forecast/Prediction in China</li><li>16.2. Earthquake Forecast/Prediction for Different Time Scales: Examples of Scientific Products and the Mechanism of Their Generation and Quality Control</li><li>16.3. Within the Limit of the Capability of&#xA0;Earthquake Forecast/Prediction: Roles of&#xA0;Time-dependent Seismic-Hazard Assessment in&#xA0;Seismic Risk Management</li><li>16.4. Decision-Making Issues of Earthquake Forecast/Prediction</li><li>16.5. Concluding Remarks and Discussion: Earthquake Forecast/Prediction as a Branch of &#x201C;Modern&#x201D; Science and Technology</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 17. The Experience of Real-Time Earthquake Predictions on Kamchatka<ul><li>17.1. Introduction</li><li>17.2. Seismicity and System of Observations</li><li>17.3. Real-Time Predictions for 1998&#x2013;2012</li><li>17.4. Discussion</li><li>17.5. Precursors and Prediction of the 1997 Kronotsky Earthquake</li><li>17.6. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 18. Times of Increased Probabilities for Occurrence of Catastrophic Earthquakes: 25 Years of Hypothesis Testing in Real Time<ul><li>18.1. Introduction</li><li>18.2. Definition and Classification of Earthquake Predictions</li><li>18.3. Earthquake Prediction Algorithms M8 and&#xA0;MSc</li><li>18.4. Real-Time Predictions by the M8-MSc Algorithms</li><li>18.5. Global Test of the M8-MSc Predictions</li><li>18.6. Other M8 Algorithm Applications</li><li>18.7. Discussion and Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 19. Review of the Nationwide Earthquake Early Warning in Japan during Its First Five Years<ul><li>19.1. Introduction</li><li>19.2. Operation of JMA EEW</li><li>19.3. Performance of JMA EEW</li><li>19.4. Feedback about EEW from the General Public</li><li>19.5. Summary and Remarks</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 20. To What Extent Can Engineering Reduce Seismic Risk?<ul><li>20.1. Introduction</li><li>20.2. Basic Definitions</li><li>20.3. Why Cannot Seismic Risk Be Eliminated Entirely?</li><li>20.4. Acceptable Seismic Risk</li><li>20.5. How Can Engineering Reduce Seismic Risk?</li><li>20.6. Who Should Apply Seismic Risk Mitigation Measures?</li><li>20.7. Earthquake Prediction</li><li>20.8. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 21. Decision Making under Uncertainty: Insuring and Reinsuring Earthquake Risk<ul><li>21.1. Introduction: Are Earthquakes Insurable?</li><li>21.2. Insurance Risk Management</li><li>21.3. Insurance and Reinsurance, Two Sides of the Same Coin?</li><li>21.4. Managing the Unknown, Insurance Risk Modeling</li><li>21.5. Earthquake Insurance, Has It Been Successful?</li><li>21.6. Government Earthquake Pools</li><li>21.7. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Index</li>


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© Academic Press 2016
10th July 2014
Academic Press
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About the Editor in Chief

John Shroder

Jack Shroder is an Editor-in-Chief at Elsevier, and has extensive experience with publishing peer-reviewed journal articles and books on numerous topics related to geomorphology and Afghanistan, among many other specialties. He is the author of over 200 scientific papers and books on geoscientific topics characteristic of high mountain environments, especially landslides, glaciers, and floods.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Research Scholar, Center for Afghanistan Studies, Emeritus Professor of Geography and Geology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, USA

About the Editor

Max Wyss

Affiliations and Expertise

International Centre for Earth Simulation (ICES) Geneva, Switzerland

Ratings and Reviews